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Betting patinggi ali sarawak e-recruitment

The Sharif assured him that he would supply gunpowders for those who rebels against the government of Sarawak. This stockade was attacked by Mr. Watson and Bakir in Watson, Bakir, and Abang Aing. This famous gun can be seen today at Fort Lily, Betong, Saribas. They openly joined the latter in his defence at Mukah and Igan until his defeat in This gun is today exhibited in the Sarawak Museum in Kuching.

The force went up the Layar River to Nanga Tiga. From there, it went up the Tiput, crossed the Spak and went on to the foot of Sadok Mountain. While assembling there, the Tuan Besar and the Tuan Muda informed all the Iban chiefs of the lower Saribas and Skrang that the government had no intention of continuing its quarrel with OKP Nanang and Luyoh, provided that they agreed to surrender themselves as soon as possible. This proclamation pleased the divided Saribas Iban.

They agreed to send the most trustworthy messengers to OKP Nanang and his brothers on the mountain to urge them to surrender to the government. These chiefs went as arranged. If they did not cause any trouble within the next three years, their deposit would be refunded to them at the expiration of the agreement. OKP Nanang and Luyoh fully agreed with the imposition of the fine and therefore, on their behalf, their loyal old warrior, Uyu apai Ikum of the Ulu Julau, paid the fine in the presence of all the important persons taking part in the expedition on 25th September, Allan Lee at Skrang several years before.

As soon as the preparations had been completed, an exchange of fire began. After several shots, the stockade was completely destroyed and his gunner Rajau was killed. Seeing him looking for the Tuan Muda with such a weapon, those who stood nearby warned the Tuan Muda to be careful, in case Manang Usay should attempt to strike him with the sword.

As he was lying on the ground, the Tuan Muda struck him with his knife, but missed. Then the Tuan Muda drew his sword pedang saliri and pierced Manang Usay through the stomach, killing him instantly. Early in , the Tuan Muda, who was posted at Skrang, visited Betong fort. On his arrival, he directed the Assistant Resident, Mr. When they came the Tuan Muda directed them to build warboats for a punitive expedition against the Kayans and Kejamans of the upper Rajang.

Fox and Steele at the Kanowit fort. Sibu was to be their point of assembly and the date for all to arrive at Sibu was fixed during this meeting. These two chiefs had migrated recently to the Awik and the upper Krian from the Rimbas. The Tuan Muda assembled the chiefs together. During the assembly he informed them that the purpose of the expedition was to punish the Kayans and Kejamans for hiding the murderers of Fox and Steele, and for making raids against the Iban of the upper tributaries of the Rajang River.

The force left Sibu on the next morning and went up the Rajang as far as the Kanowit fort where they stayed one night. Early on the second day, the force left Kanowit and went up as far as the mouth of the Katibas River, where they spent another night. At this time no Iban had migrated up the Rajang above the Katibas tributary. In the presence of the Tuan Muda, Balang vowed that he and his warriors would not retreat until they had killed many of the enemy to revenge all those of his people who had been killed by the Kayans.

From the mouth of the Katibas River the force went up the Rajang and spent the third night between the Kapit stream and the Baleh tributary. This force was the greatest that had ever joined in one expedition. The force broke camp early on the fourth day, but due to difficulty in getting across the Pelagus rapids they only reached Pasir Nai by late afternoon. The door of the fort was closed, so Luing used a wooden shaft to ram the door open.

As the door opened, Luing was speared and killed by a Kayan defender inside the fort. His body was promptly carried back to the boat by his friends. In the evening the Tuan Muda called a council of war, for upriver from this point lay the Kejaman and Kayan settlements. In the conference, he directed a number of trusted warriors to stand guard against a surprise attack on the government forces.

This arrangement was made because only they could understand the Kejaman and Kayan dialects, if the enemy should came to attack the force. During the night, the enemy vacated the stockade. In the morning some of the Ibans and Malays said that they had heard the- enemy call the Rajang and the Kanowit peoples in their own dialect which the Iban and the Malay could not understand.

Early that morning when the force surrounded the stockade, they found that it had indeed been vacated. Consequently, many native leaders suspected that the enemy had been allowed to escape because they had made a secret arrangement with the Kanowit and the Rajang peoples.

From Pasir Nai, the force proceeded up the Rajang. On their return from the expedition, their boats could hardly carry the enemy heads and the captives. The latter also killed a considerable number of enemies, but were not so fortunate as the Katibas group. Because of their ignorance of the country, the forces of the Saribas and Skrang were not so successful as those of Katibas. Besides killing and capturing the enemy, many Ibans took as loot valuable Kayan jars, knives and mats.

Among those still remembered, Linggir of the Paku looted one sergiu jar now kept by his great-grand daughter at Tanjong, Paku. After the expedition was over a number of Kayan chiefs went down to Kanowit to submit themselves to the Tuan Muda. The Tuan Muda said that their submission could not be accepted unless the criminals Sawing, Skalai and Tani were surrendered to the government.

The Kayan chiefs assured the Tuan Muda that they would hand over those criminals as requested, for the sake of peace in the region. Later the Kayans handed over Sawing to the Government and he was executed at Sibu. Skalai and Tani who had escaped were killed by the Kayans in the upper Rajang. Trade with chupak, gantang and pasu measures and use daching weights and ela measurement. Observe only three months of mourning ulit. These latter measures where intended to limit the period of mourning and so reduced the hardships that mourning observances imposed on the survivors.

Soon after this historic conference was over, Fort James was moved to a better and hillier place at Simanggang, about seven miles below the Skrang junction. After the arrival of Ranee Margaret in Sarawak in , this fort was officially named Alice after one of her names, and the fort at Betong, which was built in , was given another of her names, Lily.

But the Temenggong refused as he was reluctant to leave behind his guardian spirit who lived at Bukit Kaong. Here they were raided by lower Batang Ai Iban from Kumpang. Due to this trouble Naga led his followers to the headwaters of the Katibas on the Sarawak side of the border. These enemies came from the Kanyau and Ketunggau tributaries of the Kapuas River. To escape this danger they moved to Batu Gong, and then settled at Tekalit. While Naga was still living in the Katibas he transferred his chieftainship to his sons Unggat and Gerinang.

In when Mr. When the Resident asked them of the general affairs of the Katibas, Unggat replied that all was tranquil with the exception of a senior warrior chief named Balang who had returned victoriously from the warpath against a tribe called the Lusum. Unggat told Mr. Craickshank that Balang and Ringgau had come to him and his brother Gerinang twice to invite them to join them to murder the Resident. He told Mr. Craickshank that Balang was to hold a feast next day in honour of his recent victory over the Lusum.

Early next day Mr. When he reached the longhouse landing place, he called for Balang to come down to fetch him up to the house. Balang was surprised by the arrival of the Resident whom he had not invited to the feast, but he reluctantly agreed to fetch him to his house. When Balang greeted him at his boat, Mr. Cruickshank ordered that he should be arrested, chained and brought down immediately to Sibu for detention.

Later in the month it was said that Balang had been executed at Pulau Selalau near Sibu because of his reported plot to murder the Resident. Hearing this, Unggat said that the reason why Balang was executed was because he had raided the Lusum in the upper Rajang. They replied to Unggat that Balang would not have been sentenced to death for this, for the Lusum were enemies of the Katibas, and had not submitted to Brooke rule.

Besides this, they said that the government should not sentence Balang to death without a trial. He said that to fight against the government was dangerous and required very careful consideration. Later Unggat and Gerinang told Enjop and his relatives that they could not reinforce them since, as they put it, they could not seek victory against the warleaders of the Saribas and Skrang Iban who were their relatives, and were now siding with the government.

This trouble continued until and involved three successive punitive expeditions. Ridun and his followers settled temporarily at the mouth of the Selidong stream near the mouth of the Baleh. There they met with a lot of trouble. They were attacked by the Logats and Ukit tribes. To avoid this Ridun moved to Resa in the Yong stream, where he died of old age. Around the same time Naga died in the Katibas. Due to the revolt of the Katibas Iban, the upper Batang Ai Iban under chief Ngumbang, while reinforcing their relatives, were attacked by the Rajah in These troubles were the first signs of what became continuing unrest in the headwaters of the Batang Ai and the Batang Rajang which was to last until Labar succeeded Ridun as leader in the Yong.

From Yong, Labar led a migration to the Baleh and lived at the mouth of Kemali stream just above Lepong Kain, While Labar and his people were settled there, they were frequently attacked by the Lugats, who lived along the Gaat tributary. Labar died at the Nanga Kemali settlement, and the Baleh Iban no longer had an influential leader, as Unggat and Gerinang lived far away in the Katibas. From these longhouses they fled once more, escaping further Iban raids, to the Mahakam River in Indonesian Borneo.

In this new country they are said to have settled at a place called Bila Baii. In the Katibas, after Unggat and Gerinang had died, they were succeeded as chiefs by their sons Keling and Mata Hari, who led a great number of Iban to the Sut, Gaat and Mujong tributaries of the Baleh. The people of these Rivers still regard the descendants of Naga and Sumping as being of their original line of chiefs, for their ancestors led the migrations from the Batang Ai to the Kanyau, Katibas and finally to the Baleh River where these Iban live today.

From this settlement, he and his people migrated into the Katibas in Sarawak territory via Sungai Ayat in order to settle at the Bangkit stream. From the Bangkit, Jubang and his people moved down the main Katibas River to the Rajang and then up that river to settle in the Sut, a tributary of the Baleh. After he had attacked the Piengs, Gerinang led another war against the Lusum Dayaks at Keluan and defeated them.

As a result of this the Lusum Dayak fled to settle in the Baram. In their place at Keluan, the Badang Dayak have lived there to the present day. Gerinang was imprisoned by the Rajah for this attack on the Lusum, but later he was appointed Penghulu, succeeding his deceased grandfather Penghulu Keling.

When he arrived in the Baleh he was permitted by the chiefs of that river to live with his followers in the Merirai tributary. He was appointed the first Penghulu of that river in but died shortly after his appointment. It was at this settlement that he married Garong, the daughter of chief Ba, and their child was Temenggong Koh, the well known Iban chieftain of modern Sarawak, who died in At the mouth of the Sut they waited at night for the enemy to come down to trade at a small trading station at the mouth of the Baleh River.

At this time the government station was at Nanga Baleh. During the fighting Lambor killed one of the enemy and captured another, Kandau killed one enemy and the rest were taken captives. All their captives were confiscated by the government. While they were on their way down the Kapuas River, they were repulsed by the Dutch with guns from their naval boats. Because of this attack by the Dutch they returned homeward after they had killed only a few of the enemy. But on the way back they were asked by friendly Malohs to kill a fierce Maloh farmer who lived alone in his farm hut.

His name was Sangun and he was hated by the other Maloh Dayaks. When they surrounded the hut, Sangun threatened them by showing the big blade and long handle of his spear. At this he asked Mula to light a large fire to smoke out Sangun. Seeing this, Sangun equipped himself with his war weapons in order to attack them. Sangun was a very strong man and defended himself vigorously with spear and shield. After a long fight, Sangun ran up the hill to escape into the forest canopy.

Penghulu Garran followed him so that Sangun would not run too far ahead and escape into the forest. Sangun could no longer walk but could only defend himself with his shield. The early Iban pioneers who came to explore and settle the Krian region were originally from what is now the Saribas District. Many of them were at one time or another, Paku settlers. They pushed their routes to the Krian River via the Rimbas.

Some of them took the lower route, starting from Sekundong or Kerangan Pinggai, Paku, transversed the Rimbas region of Debak, Deit, Belasau, Undai and Rapong to the Melupa where they continued their migration by boats sailing down the river.

In Melupa these pioneers settled permanently, while some others pushed, on to the Awik, Sebetan and Sabelak region. Other pioneers such as Radin took the middle route setting out from Samu, Paku. When they reached the Rimbas at Tembawai Surok Lelabi in the Teru, they wound their way up the river and then crossed to the Krian side at Bayor.

On reaching Penajar Mountain the party split up. One party went downriver to explore the Kawang and Batang Rimbas until they came to Gerenjang, a tributary of the Upper Krian. Other parties explored the regions of Babang and Pilai. The pioneers of the Pilai followed the course of that river and finally settled at Nanga Maras, Krian. They ascended this mountain and settled on the other side of it, at the Upper Gerenjang.

Others continued on to the Upper Krian and Awas. The region of the Melupa was perhaps first permanently settled by the immigrants led by Daji and Gila who used the lower route. They penetrated to the Melupa via the virgin jungle covering Sibirong Mountain, the source of Sulau River, a tributary of the Assam River, in the Melupa. Since their penetration was by way of the Sibirong, clearing the jungle to farm the land as they went, the mountain is also known as Sibirong Pesok.

In the course of their migration, they settled at the Sibirong for awhile. He and his followers finally settled at Temudok on the middle Krian region. At first they decided to settle in the Krian, but Gila, veteran of the last tribal war against the Sera at Nanga Diso, would not approve of this.

From there they moved upriver at Lubok Kepayang. Later when Penghulu Minggat came with his followers, he settled at Nanga Mitas, where he built a door longhouse. He wanted to follow Penghulu Minggat and his party. But the latter dissuaded Bir from following him for fear that the Awik would soon become overcrowded. Penghulu Minggat permitted him to proceed upriver only to Nanga Stingam, where Bir made up his mind to find another place to live.

Incidentally, Bir, on a hunting expedition, followed the course of Sungai Manding, a small tributary of the Awik, to its source. At its headwaters, he found another stream flowing in a different direction. He named it Sungai Berangan for there were many berangan trees growing on either bank of the stream. When he returned to his house at Nanga Stingam, he took some of his men to explore more of the region of Sungai Berangan and the main river where it branches out.

Apparently the stream empties into the Sebetan River, whose mouth is below the modern town of Saratok. Afterwards Bir went down the Sebetan to its mouth where he observed bird-omens for seven days. While doing this, he saw a barking deer kijang swimming in the river.

He knew that this omen was bad. But he was determined to have the Sebetan as his new place of settlement. Bir took all his followers from Nanga Stingam, Awik, to occupy the Sebetan. Later they moved on to Tembawai Emperan. Then they moved to Tembawai Panjai, where the main party split into three groups.

Thus Bir became the founder of the Sebetan settlements. When he died he was greatly honoured in that his coffin was not buried but was placed on a platform or lumbong. Due to this many people from the Rimbas migrated to the Krian via the Melupa. Here they settled along the river up to the Babang tributary. Two years after his defeat at Kedang, Penghulu Ngumbang, Penghulu Bantin, together with Imba and Allam, agreed to attend the peace-making ceremony to be held at both the Lubok Antu and Kapit forts.

Despite of the agreement to live in peace sworn at this peace-making, the Iban of Yong and Cheremin in the upper Rajang again grew restless and in openly revolted against the government. The Rajah led an expedition against them in person. On his way home with a rusa-type jar he stayed one night in an Iban longhouse on the lower Batang Ai. Several days after he left the house, a man who lived there found a rusa jar missing. He reported the loss to Mr. Bailey, Resident of the Second Division in Simanggang.

In his wrath against the Ulu Ai rebel chief, Mr. Bailey summoned Penghulu Bantin and accused him of having stolen the lost jar. Penghulu Bantin denied the charge, and therefore a bitter quarrel arose between Penghulu Bantin and the Resident. Bailey demanded that Penghulu Bantin should pay the necessary jar tax. Penghulu Bantin refused to pay, since he had bought the jar with his own money. In this disagreement, Mr. Bailey lost his temper with Penghulu Bantin, who returned to the Ulu Ai and started to collect followers to rebel against the Sarawak Government.

The Rajah, being misinformed by Mr. Bailey about the quarrel, led a punitive expedition against Penghulu Bantin from to which ended with the battle at Entimau hill in the upper Katibas. After these troubles had ended Penghulu Ngumbang and Penghulu Bantin agreed to make peace with the downriver Iban under Munan, and a peace-making ceremony was held at Kapit in In the following year the Baleh Iban led by Penghulu Merom rebelled against the government at Bukit Selong, at the source of the Mujong tributary and in the Gaat tributary.

The Gaat trouble ended in and there followed a peace-making ceremony at Kapit in In the intervening year of , the restless Iban of the Ulu Ai were led by one Tabor, a son of Penghulu Ngelingkong of the Mujan, to attack the Kayan of the upper Rajang. In their arguments they said it was unreasonable for the Iban, who were not traders orang dagang to pay these taxes; they said they owed nothing to the government once they had paid the purchase price.

When the trouble was at its height a lot of unfounded rumours passed up and down the countryside accusing the Resident, District Officers and the Native Officers of having created the trouble which led the Iban to rebel. One of these rumours said that the government had introduced a law that all husbands in the Ulu must pay a tax of fifteen cents per night to sleep with their wives in their family quarters. Ultimately Asun was arrested in From his youth, Kandau was ambitious.

He was anxious to meet spirits and spiritual heroes in his dreams so that he might obtain charms from them which would aid him in becoming a successful warrior. In order to meet spirits he secretly erected a small hut on the top of a dabai tree at Lubok Isu, not far below his longhouse bathing place. At night he often slept there. He never informed anyone of what he met or saw in his dreams. One day two strangers came to his longhouse from the upper Rajang. They journeyed by a large warboat to the Sut via Sibu.

The next morning at 8. On meeting them the latter asked them where they had come from. He asked whether they know Linggir. During this second meeting the Officer-in-Charge gave them permission to attack only one Iban longhouse in the Sut. Having given these orders, the Officer-in-Charge commanded them to depart upriver the next day.

After a short discussion, Kandau was commanded to pole his boat upriver. Unja who had wanted to accompany him was left behind. As they sailed out to meet the enemy, almost all the unprepared enemies threw themselves into the river to escape. After a short skirmish it was discovered that Kandau had killed one and captured two.

His brother Mambang only captured one. The rest killed one enemy each, except Enggu, Kadam and Munji. During the battle Kandau took a captive. Again in the s when Penghulu Minggat of Awik attacked the Kanowit and Entabai rebels, Kandau took another captive. During the fighting, Kandau was severely wounded. Due to the large wound he received, Charles Brooke told him that he had done his best and should prepare to die like a brave man.

Kandau told the Rajah that he would not die by weapons made of iron, as an Antu Grasi, or demon huntsman, had told him so in a dream. This was the first time that Kandau revealed the spiritual guardianship he had received decades earlier. Many years later, while burning logs in his padi field, he fell into the large fire which he himself had lit and was instantly burnt to death.

While serving a prison sentence at Simanggang Jail, Manang Bakak was said to have left his cell and wandered freely at night, returning again in the morning. This occurred when he was imprisoned in the late s for attempted murder and for his attitude towards the government. Luckily his victims were only wounded. Suspicion fell strongly on him and led to his arrest and inprisonment in the Simanggang jail.

While he was in jail, he left his cell and sat outside house at night. The Resident and other government officers were wondering how he was able to break open the strong iron door with his bare hands. In their amazement they considered him insane. After he did this several times, he was transferred to the Kuching jail. Here he also came out of his cell at night to sit outside the building. But because he never ran away, the government pardoned him. At the Kuching jail Bakak was said to have broken the iron bars of the cell in which he was locked.

At one time according to these stories, he was called by the Rajah to the Astana grounds. Bakak came with his escort. Sir Charles Brooke told Bakak that he had heard that he was a strong man, and asked him to lift a huge iron cannon that stood in the grounds. Bakak immediately took hold of the cannon, raised it from the ground and asked the Rajah where he would like him to throw it.

For himself he wanted to throw it into a deep pool in the Sarawak River off the Astana landing place. The Rajah merely asked him to put the cannon back, he was so puzzled to see such extraordinary strength. After he had been released from prison, the mischievous Bakak unlawfully carried a flag of State op the Krian and down the Rimbas River. He informed the Iban of these rivers that the Rajah wanted all warriors to join a government war expedition to fight the Julau Iban.

Of course, this was a false story, so the Resident of the Second Division, Mr. Bailey, ordered that Bakak be arrested. As they knew that Bakak was a strong man, his companions asked Tait to catch him with the aid of a pelemah charm which would weaken him. Again, he behaved in strange ways, and at last he was seen eating his owe feces, But this action was of course not real; he did it by a conjuring trick. Later due to his escape from the prison house, he was released and declared an outlaw by the government.

This meant that if anyone disturbed Bakak the government would not be responsible for the mischief done. Once, while troops were staying at Simanggang while on their way to the Delok Cholera expedition in , Bakak did an extraordinary thing which was witnessed by many in the Simanggang bazaar. He told a certain Chinese trader that all the iron bars he sold in his shop were soft and could not be used for making knives.

Hearing this, the Chinese shopkeeper told Bakak he could take all the iron bars in his shop, if he could break them to pieces with his hands. Bakak took the iron bars one by one, and broke them by cutting them with two fingers. This action amazed all who witnessed it. The trader, who had promised to give all the iron bars to him if he could break them, fulfilled his promise. So Bakak took them and distributed them to those who had gathered to watch.

At one time about 80 Iban were stranded in Kuching, on their way home from tapping wild rubber in various places throughout the country. They had run short of money for paying their fares. Bakak, who was staying in Kuching, played various tricks in order to raise money to help them.

He bought about twenty fathoms of white calico cloth which he hung across Carpenter Street. In between these curtains he demonstrated various kinds of magical tricks, such as turning a pingan leaf into a mouse-deer, a brass areca-nut box into a tortoise, and many other things into centipedes and snakes.

Everyone who was attracted by these tricks had to pay two cents for a short glance into the enclosure where Bakak was performing his magic. From boyhood he had been interested in the secrets of the medicine men. Wherever he travelled in his bachelor days, he studied all branches of magic from famous manang or dukun wherever he could find them.

Being learned in all these things, he was able to turn sireh leaves into dollar notes and white, red and black calico towels into white, red and black snakes. When he was serving a sentence in the Baram prison for his involvement in the Asun affair, he went to cure a patient in an Iban longhouse at Nakat.

Next morning his friend Kakat sent him back to the Baram bazaar by canoe in order that he might go back to the prison house. On the way, Kakat told Bakak that he had no money to buy food in the bazaar. Bakak told him not to worry for money came whenever anyone was in need of it. As they neared the town, Bakak asked Kakat to lend him the black towel which he wore around his waist. Kakat handed his towel to Bakak, who pronounced a spell puchau over it and threw it into the river. When they reached the landing stage at Marudi, they found that a great number of people were in panic.

Bakak asked the reason. Hearing this Bakak went to a shop to take some refreshments with Kakat. When he met him, he begged Bakak to see his son who was unconscious due to the snake bite. Bakak told him that he could not help him as he had never cured anyone of snake bite before.

After this the boy became conscious and was well again shortly afterwards. He gave this money to Kakat who needed it. In his young days when he led a party of Iban rubber tappers to work at Mukah, he and his followers were invited to attend a tamat pencha festival, — a feast at which the penikar, or teacher, chooses the first, second and third class martial arts dancers.

Bakak agreed and asked his friends to enter the competition. After all the men had danced, the penikar suggested that Bakak should dance in opposition to him. Bakak agreed and he started to attack his opponent more roughly then the dance allowed. Due to the roughness of the battle dance they soon fell into open quarrelling. When the time came for Bakak to accept the blows of his opponent, he prevented his approach with a gayong dalam spell, which spiritually struck the liver of his opponent.

Due to this, the quarrel became very bad and this caused a lot of trouble. In his anger, after his friends had left the house, Bakak pulled away the house ladder and threw it to the ground. Having done this, with his great strength he pulled down an areca palm which he placed upside down in place of the ladder.

In fear of him, none of his opponents dared to say anything. There are many other strange things that Bakak is said to have done to confuse people. He could cause a few glasses of wine never to be finished, even if drunk by several hundred people all day. The last time he did this was in at the end of a festival at the Batu Anchau cemetery on the Paku River. During his time Bakak was a famous manang or shaman.

He was especially renowned for the power and courage he showed in performing dangerous pelian in which he summoned demons, some of them in the form of monkeys, crocodiles, river-turtles, or barking deer. The demons, it was believed, caused sickness. When the demons he summoned appeared in a reptile or animal guise, Bakak was brave enough to fight them with a knife. Due to this, they begged for money from Bakak who was singing his pelian prayers while seated on a swing. Bakak asked for sir eh leaves from a man who sat near him, and the latter gave him all the sireh leaves he found in his areca nut box.

Receiving these Bakak rolled them many times between his palms, chanting a spell, which turned the seven leaves the man had given him into dollar notes. With this money the young men bought bottles of wine from the Chinese hawkers. But a week later one of the traders complained that a strange thing had happened to him.

After Bakak was released from the Baram prison in about he returned to live at Pakan in the Julau River. From Julau he visited his relatives in the Paku once every few months till his last visit in Most of his lifetime was spent at Pakan. He died of old age at Matop, Paku in , aged about 81 years. Due to this Mr.

He decided to make peace at Sibu instead. His grandson Gani lived at Bawang Assan till he died in The rest of his followers mingled with other Skrang and Saribas Iban who had migrated to the Julau and Entabai Rivers before and after the Sadok defeat in Gurang was the eldest son of Ramping and Bintang of Samu, Paku.

He married Lulong, the first daughter of Saang and Dindu of Matop. But after his father-in-law Saang died, Gurang and the entire family returned to live at Samu. At the age of seventeen he joined a Paku party of rubber tappers who went by a sailing boat they had made themselves to the Sadong River. For this trip they took provisions of two and a half pasu of rice each. From this place they went up the Melikin for another two days till they reached a landing place pangkalan.

From this landing place they carried their provisions and working equipment overland for two days up and down the hills to their destination. The strongest among them could carry ten gallons of rice, while the weaker ones took only eight gallons, in addition to their other goods. At this time there was plenty of wild rubber, such as the gutta percha, nyatu sabang, nyatu beringin, and nyatu samalam and nyatu puteh.

In addition there was plenty of the rubber gubi, kenk and perapat in the area. At Singapore they boarded a steamer to Klang. From Klang they went by rail to Kuala Lumpur, where Nyaru met the Governor to ask for permission to work rubber in the jungle far away from town. The Governor said that they could tap rubber only after the rebellions in Pekan and Pahang had been put down.

The soldiers on the expeditions only entrusted the Iban with the transport of war materials and food. They did not permit them to fight the enemy. For this work the government paid them only ten dollars each, plus frees food and lodging. After these expeditions, the Government summoned Rambuyan and Janting to inform them that the government had given permission for them to tap wild rubber in the Perak, Trengganu and Pahang forests.

When this latter group arrived at Jambi they found only a few tapable wild gubi rubber trees. So they worked there only a month and earned ten dollars each. At this time Gurang was attacked by measles. His brother-in-law Bandang and three others brought him back to Singapore in order to return as soon as they could to Sarawak. Some years after their marriage Kerandang gave birth to a son named Renggi, who was better known as Jabo.

There they tapped wild rubber and earned one hundred dollars each. When he came home in about , Gurang found that his son Jabo was nearly able to sit up by himself. On this trip his companion Muyu bought two jars, Salau bought one and Pasa bought two with money from Penghulu Kedit and Jamit apai Made. The rest of his friends including himself were disappointed with the scarcity of jars in the area.

Due to this Sujang and Bengali, both from Matop, went directly to Sabah to purchase jars. From Sabah they went on to Mindanao and Palawan and they never returned to Sarawak. Others in the party did not return from Kota Warringin in Kalimantan. Gurang apai Jabo went to Lawas in northern Sarawak, where he collected rattan for sale, while working there, Gurang married a Murut woman, which changed his ideas about looking for jars.

At this time Tinggi was engaged in fighting Mat Salleh and his men. During this visit Gurang gave up the thought of working for money. Instead, he joined Tinggi in order to show his bravery in battle. After he had been successful in killing enemies in Sabah, Gurang returned to Lawas in order to go back to his family in the Paku. On hearing that he planned to go home, Luta of Nanga Maras, Krian gave him things such as money and brassware to deliver to his brother Unchi.

But when Gurang arrived in Lawas he found that much of his brassware left in the hands of his Murut wife had been lost. Due to this, he did not return to his family in the Paku, but instead, he led a large party of Iban who were then working at and around Lawas to Singapore in order to tap wild rubber in Sumatra. They left Labuan by the M. Ranee for Singapore. On meeting the Chief Minister, Gurang asked permission for the Sarawak Iban to tap gutta mayang kapor in the region.

Tengku Ambong told Gurang that he could not grant such permission as at that time the Sultanate of Langkat had just been incorporated into the Dutch Empire, and the Achehs were in rebellion against the Dutch government.

So he advised Gurang and his followers to go to Saruai town on the Tamiang River. Gurang explained to his followers the result of his talks with Tengku Ambong. Hearing this, all agreed to proceed to Temiang by rail. Thus they arrived at Berendan town, and there they stayed the night. From this town they went by boat up the Temiang River for six hours to Saruai town.

When they arrived, they stayed in the Government Rest house. Next morning Gurang went to meet the Controlleur and told him that he had brought a lot of Iban followers from Sarawak to tap wild rubber in the Temiang region. So he had come to ask formally for his approval. In their conversation Gurang told the Controlleur that while at Langkat he had met Tengku Ambong who had advised him to come to Temiang to ask for approval from him to tap wild rubber in his country.

The Controlleur said that he thought it would be better if the Iban were employed as luggage carriers for the Government troops during their expeditions to Acheh country. Gurang could not accept the offer before discussing it with his followers. Gurang said that all the Iban were willing to join the expedition. Hearing this Controlleur asked them to come to his Office again next day to sign the agreement.

It was explained to them that they were only to work as carriers of government luggage, and would not be equipped with guns to fight the enemy. Next day the Government sent them by launch to the town of Simpang. Here they lived in a huge concrete building.

In carrying out their raids, the Government troops used a number of routes. Some battalions went up the Acheh River, some from Tapak town. Gurang and his people joined those who fought the enemy along the Temiang River and its tributary the Kalui.

In the upper Kalui, the Iban saw the Javanese soldiers they accompanied fighting against Gayau rebels who had sided with the Acheh. During the fighting the Iban found opportunity to kill stragglers with their parang knives. After the war had ended, Gurang told the Controlleur that he and his people wanted to work wild gutta mayang kapor. The Controlleur approved the request but said that they should work at Langkat. The chief clerk asked them to wait till he had found a Chinese towkay in Penang willing to buy their rubber.

But a few days later, the chief clerk told them that there was no towkay willing to buy mayang kapor due to the fact that it was no longer saleable on the European market. This was the last time that mayang kapor mbber was required by overseas buyers. It was later replaced by jelutong rubber which still has a market in many parts of the world. A few years after he had rejoined his Murut wife in Lawas, his son Jabo came from the Paku to fetch him home. By this time Jabo was about nineteen years old.

Gurang brought back with him two old jars and a quantity of brassware. Shortly after his arrival in samu, he held an enchaboh arong festival in order to inform his relatives and friends that during his two decades in other countries, in addition to acquiring jars, he had also killed enemies. This entitled him to be known as raja berani in accordance with Iban custom. On his maternal side he was descended from chief Saang and was a great grandson of Malang of Serudit, who was called Pengarah.

When he was a young bachelor, on the way to visit a girl friend at night, Chulo met a huge demon antu gerasi standing in the road in front of him. His teeth were as big as maram palm fruit. Chulo caught the demon suddenly and wrestled with him. As they wrestled, the demon suddenly vanished. In the past, no one has ever dared to wrestle against me.

As you defeated me, from now on you will kill enemies in wars. You will also become rich because of your success in planting padi. You will be able to buy many old jars, which the people of your race value highly. The demon told Chulo that he lived on the summit of Bukit Buloh in the Paku River watershed and looked after the fate of the Paku people. After the young man had spoken these words, Chulo woke up and found it was all a dream. As they began their attack on a Beliun house, before they could kill more than two enemies, Ramping was badly wounded on the thigh.

Seeing this, Chulo and his friends stopped fighting in order to carry Ramping to safety. On their homeward journey, they finished their provisions just as they came to the foot of Tabujang hill. Due to this they grew weak with hunger. So they hid Ramping inside a cave at Tabujang hill, in order that the hostile Seru would not find and slay him while they returned home for more provisions.

They returned in haste to the Rimbas with the Beliun heads in order to inform their friends of their successful raid. When the Rimbas people heard this they sympathised with Ramping. When they reached the cave, they found that Ramping was safe, though his large wound had been eaten by worms.

They later brought him to a safer place to be looked after by his friends. While they were swimming Entemang was caught by a crocodile and disappeared. But the Rimbas people said that they had heard rumours from Sarikei that the body of Entemang had been found.

On the corpse, according to these rumours, was a wound as if he had been killed by a spear. The Rimbas people returned. Both men were reported to be excellent divers. Many people came from the Krian in addition to those from the Rimbas and Paku, to witness the contest. He said that he was the leader who had invited Entemang and other warriors from the Rimbas to attack the Beliun village in the Sarikei River. He swore that as he was a leader of this expedition, he did not kill Entemang as his relatives believed.

If they would withdraw they could do it, but if they lost the contest they would also lose their wager. The Rimbas people said that they would not withdraw their accusation. Encharang bet that the Rimbas people would win the contest.

Shortly before the diving contest was to start, each side asked one of their men to recite prayers to call for the Gods and universal spirits, who reside in the heavens and the water to come and see that justice was done. They prayed for them to cause the innocent to win without difficulty. The diving then started. When his opponent saw this, he and his friends followed Encharang and forced him to surrender the gong, or lose his life.

Knowing that he was wrong, Encharang handed back the gong to his opponent. Likewise when Linggir invaded the Bukitan longhouse at Sugai in the Julau, with his great strength and bravery, Chulo captured eight captives. During the fighting, Chulo killed three enemies.

Only one of the slain was beheaded by him. When he returned to the Skrang, Chulo left the skull with Rabong, as he was satisfied to bring back to the Paku the two jars he had looted. Isut who accompanied him was a slave of Apai Jabang of Getah, Anyut. The latter and his family migrated to the Sabelak and settled at Kedoh. Due to the general unrest in the Krian, the Rajah led a punitive expedition against them. But before they fled, they had sent their women and children of the Julau, to Ulu Awik.

Those who did only did so to please the government. Before the expedition actually took place many people of the lower Krian and the Saribas secretly warned their friends to run away to safety. Therefore during the expedition only the Skrang warriors really fulfilled their pledge. Even then, their approaches to the rebels were always blocked by the Saribas warriors who wanted to protect their friends from attack. But the Balau warriors who went up the main Krian River by boat attacked the hostile people of Nanga Kabo.

In this raid that small longhouse was defeated; its site became a cemetery and is still used as such by the Iban of the area to this day. During the attack, most of the inhabitants were away downriver attending a funeral at a village called Kerangan and therefore escaped. As a result of the raid, the people above Nanga Kabo in the main Krian scattered.

Some fled to join the enemy under Janting and Ranggau of the Julau, while others offered their submission to the government. Seeing that some of these people were still hostile, the Rajah ordered Penghulu Minggat of Awik to raid all those who had fled to the upper Kanowit and Mujok and who had allied themselves with the hostile Katibas Iban gathered at the upper Kamalih and Stulak hill near the headwaters of the Kanowit.

Before the stronghold was completed the Rajah ordered Penghulu Minggat to attack it. Those who continued to rebel followed Ranggau to Bukit Dugan, while those who were sick of such a hard wartime life returned to live safely at the Entabai. From this point he raided enemy longhouses as he moved down the river.

When he arrived at the mouth of Ensiring, he waited for some of his leading warriors who had gone off on their own to attack the enemy living away from the main route. After all the warriors had finally gathered at the place where Penghulu Minggat and the main force were waiting, he counted the head trophies and the captives that his warriors had taken.

The victims totalled 81 heads and 4 captives. From the upper Julau the force went downriver by boat and then up the Kanowit, staying one night at Nanga Mujok. At this point the first council of war was held to decide upon the most suitable route towards Bukit Dugan.

During the discussion, the opinions of the warleaders and their leading warriors were divided. Some proposed to go up the Mujok and others to go up the Ensuing which had recently been attacked by Penghulu Minggat. Finally, following the advice of the Julau guides the route through the Mujok was agreed upon. Early next day, the force went up the Mujok to the mouth of the Sugai stream. When they arrived at the Sugai, the guides led the party on by foot further upstream to see the dangerous and winding rapids which they would encounter next day.

Once there, they discovered many fresh tracks made by the enemy, undoubtedly spying on their advance. That night, the warleaders asked the guides whether the rapids were passable by big boats. They advised that only the smaller boats could negotiate the rapids as they were extremely dangerous. Hearing this, the warleaders asked the distance from the rapids to the last point upriver where boats could still be used.

The guides said that the last station was Nanga Tiga still far away; they would be two nights on the trail. At this advice from the guides, Penghulu Minggat ordered the force to stay one more day at the mouth of the Sugai in order to learn from the guides the exact location of Bukit Dugan. The guides said that Bukit Dugan was a lofty, steep hill situated between the headwaters of the Mujok and Ensiring of the Kanowit, and the sources of the Katibas, Poi and Machan Rivers on the northeast.

Penghulu Minggat told Linggir that the Rajah had only ordered them to raid the hostile people along the Ensiring tributary and the two longhouses in the Mujok stream together with those who had gone up to Bukit Dugan. Considering the difficulty of the rapids, Entering suggested that the party should leave their boats at Nanga Sugai. He thought it would be less strenuous, to walk from that point slowly to Nanga Tiga than to proceed by boat. This suggestion was unanimously accepted by the other warleaders.

Having agreed to go overland to Nanga Tiga, Penghulu Minggat suggested that twelve trusted warriors act as scouts pengeratnbing going ahead of the main force, six on eadii side of the river bank. But he advised him to warn the scouts not to attack the enemy if they saw them. At the conclusion of the meeting, Entering appointed his warrior Tandang and two others to proceed as scouts on behalf of the Julaus.

It was found that all was well with them. When this was done, the twelve scouts marched ahead of the main force. During the march, some new marks made by the enemy were found by the scouts, but none of these showed any sign of an enemy ambush. When they reached a place called Letong Tibak, halfway between the mouth of Sugai and Nanga Tiga, the force stopped for the night. From this place the scouts travelled further up to guard the force from a possible surprise attack. While the scouts were away, the warriors erected temporary huts for a one-night stay.

The scouts told them that they had used four routes three scouts going together along each route but they had not encountered any enemy. That evening after eating, a council of war was held on a huge gravel bed at Nanga Maong. Penghulu Minggat asked Linggir what would be the right time for them to start marching next morning.

Linggir said that it would be good to proceed to Nanga Tiga immediately after they had taken their morning meal. Next morning the force left Nanga Maong. The leading warriors marched ahead of the main force, having been told that they were not to attack the enemy should the latter try to ambush them on the way. Instead of attacking them, these warriors were instructed to retreat to the main force for the sake of safety; but they were permitted to kill unarmed farmers if, by chance, they met them in their rice fields.

This was in order to prevent them from informing the enemy at Bukit Dugan. While the force was marching, they passed several huge felled trees pengerebah which had been felled to obstruct boat passage on the Mujok River in order to hinder any advance upriver, should they have proceeded by boat. It was told later that these obstructions had been made by an enemy named Andum.

That is why the gravel bed where Andum and his friends made the obstructions is called Kerangan Andum to this day. From Kerangan Andum the party marched on to Nanga Tiga, which was also called Nanga Japiyan, where they stayed one night.

As soon as they had arrived at this place a camp was erected, and the other warriors went out into the surrounding jungle to guard against a surprise attack. Those who were building the camp were strictly forbidden to cook lest the smoke be seen by the enemy from their stockade on the nearby hill. Early that night a council-of-war was held. This time Penghulu Minggat arranged that the force be divided into three columns.

Besides these about two dozen warriors were needed to act as scouts marching on the left and right sides of the three columns of warriors. Next morning, the attack on the stockade was to commence. Linggir, Penghulu Minggat and Entering marched behind the leading warriors up the central path with a stronger force bringing up the rear. On their way to the stockade they discovered a lot of fresh marks made by the enemy that very morning.

But when they reached the building, they found only a completely empty stronghold. Eventually after they had inspected every part of the stockade and its compound, they found that it was too late to return back to camp the same day. So they stayed the night on the mountain top with the majority of them sitting without shelter. In the evening, while the warriors were cooking their food both inside and outside the stockade, a storm and heavy rain came, making it very difficult to do the cooking.

The heavy rain poured down till morning. After the rain had ceased, Penghulu Minggat called for a meeting in which he informed the warriors with regret that the expedition had now ended fruitlessly. On a related development, Limbang deputy Resident Selamat Jati Yanjah has been promoted to head the newly-created Northern Regional Development Agency, which falls under the ambit of Recoda.

Headmistress Loh Ming Wen said low enrollment has become a norm for the school following the exodus of rural folk to urban areas. Loh said the low student population at her school affects neither teachers nor students, while adding the school hopes to enroll at least four new pupils next year. State govt alarmed over increasing number of dog bites, intensifies operation to cull strays.

Uggah second left being briefed on rabies cases in the state by Dr Cheong. Deputy Chief Minister Datuk Amar Douglas Uggah Embas said the State Disaster Management Committee met yesterday and decided to launch an operation against stray dogs starting today in response to the rising number of reported dog bites, in a bid to curb the spread of rabies in the state.

Uggah, who is chairman of the committee, said several government agencies and departments will be involved in the operation. The integrated operation here will start at a spot near Siang Siang Food Centre in Matang at 3pm today. Any dogs found roaming around, including pet dogs and those with tags indicating that they have been vaccinated with anti- rabies, would not be spared. The dogs caught would be kept for 48 hours before being put down, and pet owners must claim their dogs within that period.

He called for public cooperation to fight rabies and advised dog owners not to allow their pets to roam outside their compound. Uggah also disclosed that road blocks will be carried out from Sibu southward at the two main roads — Paradom Bridge and Durin Bridge — to check on movement of animals, particularly dogs, while plantations, especially in Julau area, would be closely monitored for dogs.

Meanwhile, Health director Dr Jamillah Hashim said the total number of reported dog bites in Kuching from July 1 last year until Jan 1 is 2, The figure surpasses the total number of dog bites in Serian, which is 2,, over the same period. According to her, the number of rabies victims in the state still stands at six, with the latest victim, who was admitted in August last year, still in critical condition. SK Pulau Seduku was supposed to be ready to open for the new school term.

Pupils studying in newly completed classroom in SK Pulau Seduku. Photos courtesy of Datuk Wan Abdillah Edruce. He said the biggest issue faced by the students now is zero water supply, and for the time being the school is using the old water tank with a capacity of about litres from the old school. The RM8. Awang Tengah second left when officiating the Border Games in Ba Kelalan last year, told both Mutang third left and Henry fourth left to seek for funds and ways to ensure the road upgrading work would materialise, particularly, through the northern highlands development vehicle under the Regional Corridor Development Authority Recoda.

He said the company is an internationally renowned company for its high standard of road construction and has good knowledge of the terrain and challenges from its long logging concession background there. Awang Tengah in officiating the Border Games in Ba Kelalan last year, told both Mutang and Henry to seek for funds and ways to ensure the road upgrading work would materialise, particularly, through the northern highlands development vehicle under the Regional Corridor Development Authority Recoda.

Mutang, who is from Buduk Nur village in Ba Kelalan which is situated near the border, said there are a lot of infrastructure works, including extending of aircraft runway, upgrading of roads and telecommunication there. Currently, there is already a steady flow of traffic of Indonesians heading to Lawas for supplies, and the upgrading of the Long Luping-Ba Kelalan road, including linking it to the Indonesian road network there would be a boost to the physical and economic development in Ba Kelalan where a Customs, Immigration and Quarantine CIQ post project is currently being implemented.

The current road condition has markedly improved with the pre-Christmas push by the contractor, particularly with the potholes-ridden stretched between Long Luping and Long Semadoh, including Long Beluyu stretch by last Christmas. However, the stretch leading to the villages in Ba Kelalan is still pothole-riddled as bad weather affected progress of the improvement efforts of Samling.

The road users and transporters plying the Ba Kelalan road said it was a welcomed Christmas gift for the Lun Bawang community in Long Semadoh and Ba Kelalan after enduring the atrocious condition of this lifeline. The road was initially built by the army under the Jiwa Murni programme and completed in but there has been no maintenance and state Public Works department only took over from the Ministry of Defence Mindef after a meeting by Minister of Infrastructure Development and Transportation Tan Sri Datuk Amar Dr James Jemut Masing government representatives in Putrajaya on Oct 24, last year.

Dr Adrian looking at the dogs captured at Taman Dahlia by council dog catchers. This exercise is to prevent further rabies outbreak in Kuching and Serian divisions and the state as a whole. Despite rabies being under control, the state is all out to ensure that it does not claim more victims. To-date, the number of rabies victims in the state still stands at six, with the latest victim, who was admitted in August last year, still in critical condition.

Switch Editions? Channel: Sarawak — The Borneo Post. Mark channel Not-Safe-For-Work? Are you the publisher? Claim or contact us about this channel. Viewing all articles. First Page Page Page Page Page Page Last Page. Browse latest View live. Tiong said Sibu Airport is able to accommodate Boeing for international connectivity. A fireworks display during the countdown. The deceased was submerged in water, pinned down by his own motorcycle. Jisin Nyud. Ahmad Malie.

Items seized from the reflexology centre. Firefighters help police extricate the driver out of the car. Flames engulf the vehicle parked in between the two affected homes. File photo. Members of the public watch the fireworks display. File Photo. State govt alarmed over increasing number of dog bites, intensifies operation to cull strays Uggah second left being briefed on rabies cases in the state by Dr Cheong.

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These enemies came from the Kanyau and Ketunggau tributaries of the Kapuas River. To escape this danger they moved to Batu Gong, and then settled at Tekalit. While Naga was still living in the Katibas he transferred his chieftainship to his sons Unggat and Gerinang. In when Mr. When the Resident asked them of the general affairs of the Katibas, Unggat replied that all was tranquil with the exception of a senior warrior chief named Balang who had returned victoriously from the warpath against a tribe called the Lusum.

Unggat told Mr. Craickshank that Balang and Ringgau had come to him and his brother Gerinang twice to invite them to join them to murder the Resident. He told Mr. Craickshank that Balang was to hold a feast next day in honour of his recent victory over the Lusum. Early next day Mr. When he reached the longhouse landing place, he called for Balang to come down to fetch him up to the house. Balang was surprised by the arrival of the Resident whom he had not invited to the feast, but he reluctantly agreed to fetch him to his house.

When Balang greeted him at his boat, Mr. Cruickshank ordered that he should be arrested, chained and brought down immediately to Sibu for detention. Later in the month it was said that Balang had been executed at Pulau Selalau near Sibu because of his reported plot to murder the Resident.

Hearing this, Unggat said that the reason why Balang was executed was because he had raided the Lusum in the upper Rajang. They replied to Unggat that Balang would not have been sentenced to death for this, for the Lusum were enemies of the Katibas, and had not submitted to Brooke rule. Besides this, they said that the government should not sentence Balang to death without a trial. He said that to fight against the government was dangerous and required very careful consideration.

Later Unggat and Gerinang told Enjop and his relatives that they could not reinforce them since, as they put it, they could not seek victory against the warleaders of the Saribas and Skrang Iban who were their relatives, and were now siding with the government.

This trouble continued until and involved three successive punitive expeditions. Ridun and his followers settled temporarily at the mouth of the Selidong stream near the mouth of the Baleh. There they met with a lot of trouble. They were attacked by the Logats and Ukit tribes. To avoid this Ridun moved to Resa in the Yong stream, where he died of old age.

Around the same time Naga died in the Katibas. Due to the revolt of the Katibas Iban, the upper Batang Ai Iban under chief Ngumbang, while reinforcing their relatives, were attacked by the Rajah in These troubles were the first signs of what became continuing unrest in the headwaters of the Batang Ai and the Batang Rajang which was to last until Labar succeeded Ridun as leader in the Yong.

From Yong, Labar led a migration to the Baleh and lived at the mouth of Kemali stream just above Lepong Kain, While Labar and his people were settled there, they were frequently attacked by the Lugats, who lived along the Gaat tributary. Labar died at the Nanga Kemali settlement, and the Baleh Iban no longer had an influential leader, as Unggat and Gerinang lived far away in the Katibas.

From these longhouses they fled once more, escaping further Iban raids, to the Mahakam River in Indonesian Borneo. In this new country they are said to have settled at a place called Bila Baii. In the Katibas, after Unggat and Gerinang had died, they were succeeded as chiefs by their sons Keling and Mata Hari, who led a great number of Iban to the Sut, Gaat and Mujong tributaries of the Baleh. The people of these Rivers still regard the descendants of Naga and Sumping as being of their original line of chiefs, for their ancestors led the migrations from the Batang Ai to the Kanyau, Katibas and finally to the Baleh River where these Iban live today.

From this settlement, he and his people migrated into the Katibas in Sarawak territory via Sungai Ayat in order to settle at the Bangkit stream. From the Bangkit, Jubang and his people moved down the main Katibas River to the Rajang and then up that river to settle in the Sut, a tributary of the Baleh. After he had attacked the Piengs, Gerinang led another war against the Lusum Dayaks at Keluan and defeated them. As a result of this the Lusum Dayak fled to settle in the Baram.

In their place at Keluan, the Badang Dayak have lived there to the present day. Gerinang was imprisoned by the Rajah for this attack on the Lusum, but later he was appointed Penghulu, succeeding his deceased grandfather Penghulu Keling.

When he arrived in the Baleh he was permitted by the chiefs of that river to live with his followers in the Merirai tributary. He was appointed the first Penghulu of that river in but died shortly after his appointment. It was at this settlement that he married Garong, the daughter of chief Ba, and their child was Temenggong Koh, the well known Iban chieftain of modern Sarawak, who died in At the mouth of the Sut they waited at night for the enemy to come down to trade at a small trading station at the mouth of the Baleh River.

At this time the government station was at Nanga Baleh. During the fighting Lambor killed one of the enemy and captured another, Kandau killed one enemy and the rest were taken captives. All their captives were confiscated by the government. While they were on their way down the Kapuas River, they were repulsed by the Dutch with guns from their naval boats.

Because of this attack by the Dutch they returned homeward after they had killed only a few of the enemy. But on the way back they were asked by friendly Malohs to kill a fierce Maloh farmer who lived alone in his farm hut. His name was Sangun and he was hated by the other Maloh Dayaks. When they surrounded the hut, Sangun threatened them by showing the big blade and long handle of his spear. At this he asked Mula to light a large fire to smoke out Sangun.

Seeing this, Sangun equipped himself with his war weapons in order to attack them. Sangun was a very strong man and defended himself vigorously with spear and shield. After a long fight, Sangun ran up the hill to escape into the forest canopy.

Penghulu Garran followed him so that Sangun would not run too far ahead and escape into the forest. Sangun could no longer walk but could only defend himself with his shield. The early Iban pioneers who came to explore and settle the Krian region were originally from what is now the Saribas District. Many of them were at one time or another, Paku settlers.

They pushed their routes to the Krian River via the Rimbas. Some of them took the lower route, starting from Sekundong or Kerangan Pinggai, Paku, transversed the Rimbas region of Debak, Deit, Belasau, Undai and Rapong to the Melupa where they continued their migration by boats sailing down the river.

In Melupa these pioneers settled permanently, while some others pushed, on to the Awik, Sebetan and Sabelak region. Other pioneers such as Radin took the middle route setting out from Samu, Paku. When they reached the Rimbas at Tembawai Surok Lelabi in the Teru, they wound their way up the river and then crossed to the Krian side at Bayor.

On reaching Penajar Mountain the party split up. One party went downriver to explore the Kawang and Batang Rimbas until they came to Gerenjang, a tributary of the Upper Krian. Other parties explored the regions of Babang and Pilai. The pioneers of the Pilai followed the course of that river and finally settled at Nanga Maras, Krian. They ascended this mountain and settled on the other side of it, at the Upper Gerenjang.

Others continued on to the Upper Krian and Awas. The region of the Melupa was perhaps first permanently settled by the immigrants led by Daji and Gila who used the lower route. They penetrated to the Melupa via the virgin jungle covering Sibirong Mountain, the source of Sulau River, a tributary of the Assam River, in the Melupa.

Since their penetration was by way of the Sibirong, clearing the jungle to farm the land as they went, the mountain is also known as Sibirong Pesok. In the course of their migration, they settled at the Sibirong for awhile.

He and his followers finally settled at Temudok on the middle Krian region. At first they decided to settle in the Krian, but Gila, veteran of the last tribal war against the Sera at Nanga Diso, would not approve of this. From there they moved upriver at Lubok Kepayang. Later when Penghulu Minggat came with his followers, he settled at Nanga Mitas, where he built a door longhouse.

He wanted to follow Penghulu Minggat and his party. But the latter dissuaded Bir from following him for fear that the Awik would soon become overcrowded. Penghulu Minggat permitted him to proceed upriver only to Nanga Stingam, where Bir made up his mind to find another place to live. Incidentally, Bir, on a hunting expedition, followed the course of Sungai Manding, a small tributary of the Awik, to its source.

At its headwaters, he found another stream flowing in a different direction. He named it Sungai Berangan for there were many berangan trees growing on either bank of the stream. When he returned to his house at Nanga Stingam, he took some of his men to explore more of the region of Sungai Berangan and the main river where it branches out. Apparently the stream empties into the Sebetan River, whose mouth is below the modern town of Saratok.

Afterwards Bir went down the Sebetan to its mouth where he observed bird-omens for seven days. While doing this, he saw a barking deer kijang swimming in the river. He knew that this omen was bad. But he was determined to have the Sebetan as his new place of settlement.

Bir took all his followers from Nanga Stingam, Awik, to occupy the Sebetan. Later they moved on to Tembawai Emperan. Then they moved to Tembawai Panjai, where the main party split into three groups. Thus Bir became the founder of the Sebetan settlements. When he died he was greatly honoured in that his coffin was not buried but was placed on a platform or lumbong.

Due to this many people from the Rimbas migrated to the Krian via the Melupa. Here they settled along the river up to the Babang tributary. Two years after his defeat at Kedang, Penghulu Ngumbang, Penghulu Bantin, together with Imba and Allam, agreed to attend the peace-making ceremony to be held at both the Lubok Antu and Kapit forts. Despite of the agreement to live in peace sworn at this peace-making, the Iban of Yong and Cheremin in the upper Rajang again grew restless and in openly revolted against the government.

The Rajah led an expedition against them in person. On his way home with a rusa-type jar he stayed one night in an Iban longhouse on the lower Batang Ai. Several days after he left the house, a man who lived there found a rusa jar missing. He reported the loss to Mr.

Bailey, Resident of the Second Division in Simanggang. In his wrath against the Ulu Ai rebel chief, Mr. Bailey summoned Penghulu Bantin and accused him of having stolen the lost jar. Penghulu Bantin denied the charge, and therefore a bitter quarrel arose between Penghulu Bantin and the Resident.

Bailey demanded that Penghulu Bantin should pay the necessary jar tax. Penghulu Bantin refused to pay, since he had bought the jar with his own money. In this disagreement, Mr. Bailey lost his temper with Penghulu Bantin, who returned to the Ulu Ai and started to collect followers to rebel against the Sarawak Government. The Rajah, being misinformed by Mr. Bailey about the quarrel, led a punitive expedition against Penghulu Bantin from to which ended with the battle at Entimau hill in the upper Katibas.

After these troubles had ended Penghulu Ngumbang and Penghulu Bantin agreed to make peace with the downriver Iban under Munan, and a peace-making ceremony was held at Kapit in In the following year the Baleh Iban led by Penghulu Merom rebelled against the government at Bukit Selong, at the source of the Mujong tributary and in the Gaat tributary.

The Gaat trouble ended in and there followed a peace-making ceremony at Kapit in In the intervening year of , the restless Iban of the Ulu Ai were led by one Tabor, a son of Penghulu Ngelingkong of the Mujan, to attack the Kayan of the upper Rajang.

In their arguments they said it was unreasonable for the Iban, who were not traders orang dagang to pay these taxes; they said they owed nothing to the government once they had paid the purchase price. When the trouble was at its height a lot of unfounded rumours passed up and down the countryside accusing the Resident, District Officers and the Native Officers of having created the trouble which led the Iban to rebel.

One of these rumours said that the government had introduced a law that all husbands in the Ulu must pay a tax of fifteen cents per night to sleep with their wives in their family quarters. Ultimately Asun was arrested in From his youth, Kandau was ambitious. He was anxious to meet spirits and spiritual heroes in his dreams so that he might obtain charms from them which would aid him in becoming a successful warrior.

In order to meet spirits he secretly erected a small hut on the top of a dabai tree at Lubok Isu, not far below his longhouse bathing place. At night he often slept there. He never informed anyone of what he met or saw in his dreams. One day two strangers came to his longhouse from the upper Rajang. They journeyed by a large warboat to the Sut via Sibu.

The next morning at 8. On meeting them the latter asked them where they had come from. He asked whether they know Linggir. During this second meeting the Officer-in-Charge gave them permission to attack only one Iban longhouse in the Sut. Having given these orders, the Officer-in-Charge commanded them to depart upriver the next day. After a short discussion, Kandau was commanded to pole his boat upriver.

Unja who had wanted to accompany him was left behind. As they sailed out to meet the enemy, almost all the unprepared enemies threw themselves into the river to escape. After a short skirmish it was discovered that Kandau had killed one and captured two. His brother Mambang only captured one.

The rest killed one enemy each, except Enggu, Kadam and Munji. During the battle Kandau took a captive. Again in the s when Penghulu Minggat of Awik attacked the Kanowit and Entabai rebels, Kandau took another captive. During the fighting, Kandau was severely wounded. Due to the large wound he received, Charles Brooke told him that he had done his best and should prepare to die like a brave man.

Kandau told the Rajah that he would not die by weapons made of iron, as an Antu Grasi, or demon huntsman, had told him so in a dream. This was the first time that Kandau revealed the spiritual guardianship he had received decades earlier. Many years later, while burning logs in his padi field, he fell into the large fire which he himself had lit and was instantly burnt to death.

While serving a prison sentence at Simanggang Jail, Manang Bakak was said to have left his cell and wandered freely at night, returning again in the morning. This occurred when he was imprisoned in the late s for attempted murder and for his attitude towards the government.

Luckily his victims were only wounded. Suspicion fell strongly on him and led to his arrest and inprisonment in the Simanggang jail. While he was in jail, he left his cell and sat outside house at night. The Resident and other government officers were wondering how he was able to break open the strong iron door with his bare hands.

In their amazement they considered him insane. After he did this several times, he was transferred to the Kuching jail. Here he also came out of his cell at night to sit outside the building. But because he never ran away, the government pardoned him. At the Kuching jail Bakak was said to have broken the iron bars of the cell in which he was locked. At one time according to these stories, he was called by the Rajah to the Astana grounds.

Bakak came with his escort. Sir Charles Brooke told Bakak that he had heard that he was a strong man, and asked him to lift a huge iron cannon that stood in the grounds. Bakak immediately took hold of the cannon, raised it from the ground and asked the Rajah where he would like him to throw it. For himself he wanted to throw it into a deep pool in the Sarawak River off the Astana landing place. The Rajah merely asked him to put the cannon back, he was so puzzled to see such extraordinary strength.

After he had been released from prison, the mischievous Bakak unlawfully carried a flag of State op the Krian and down the Rimbas River. He informed the Iban of these rivers that the Rajah wanted all warriors to join a government war expedition to fight the Julau Iban. Of course, this was a false story, so the Resident of the Second Division, Mr.

Bailey, ordered that Bakak be arrested. As they knew that Bakak was a strong man, his companions asked Tait to catch him with the aid of a pelemah charm which would weaken him. Again, he behaved in strange ways, and at last he was seen eating his owe feces, But this action was of course not real; he did it by a conjuring trick. Later due to his escape from the prison house, he was released and declared an outlaw by the government.

This meant that if anyone disturbed Bakak the government would not be responsible for the mischief done. Once, while troops were staying at Simanggang while on their way to the Delok Cholera expedition in , Bakak did an extraordinary thing which was witnessed by many in the Simanggang bazaar. He told a certain Chinese trader that all the iron bars he sold in his shop were soft and could not be used for making knives.

Hearing this, the Chinese shopkeeper told Bakak he could take all the iron bars in his shop, if he could break them to pieces with his hands. Bakak took the iron bars one by one, and broke them by cutting them with two fingers. This action amazed all who witnessed it. The trader, who had promised to give all the iron bars to him if he could break them, fulfilled his promise.

So Bakak took them and distributed them to those who had gathered to watch. At one time about 80 Iban were stranded in Kuching, on their way home from tapping wild rubber in various places throughout the country. They had run short of money for paying their fares. Bakak, who was staying in Kuching, played various tricks in order to raise money to help them. He bought about twenty fathoms of white calico cloth which he hung across Carpenter Street.

In between these curtains he demonstrated various kinds of magical tricks, such as turning a pingan leaf into a mouse-deer, a brass areca-nut box into a tortoise, and many other things into centipedes and snakes. Everyone who was attracted by these tricks had to pay two cents for a short glance into the enclosure where Bakak was performing his magic. From boyhood he had been interested in the secrets of the medicine men. Wherever he travelled in his bachelor days, he studied all branches of magic from famous manang or dukun wherever he could find them.

Being learned in all these things, he was able to turn sireh leaves into dollar notes and white, red and black calico towels into white, red and black snakes. When he was serving a sentence in the Baram prison for his involvement in the Asun affair, he went to cure a patient in an Iban longhouse at Nakat.

Next morning his friend Kakat sent him back to the Baram bazaar by canoe in order that he might go back to the prison house. On the way, Kakat told Bakak that he had no money to buy food in the bazaar. Bakak told him not to worry for money came whenever anyone was in need of it. As they neared the town, Bakak asked Kakat to lend him the black towel which he wore around his waist.

Kakat handed his towel to Bakak, who pronounced a spell puchau over it and threw it into the river. When they reached the landing stage at Marudi, they found that a great number of people were in panic. Bakak asked the reason. Hearing this Bakak went to a shop to take some refreshments with Kakat. When he met him, he begged Bakak to see his son who was unconscious due to the snake bite. Bakak told him that he could not help him as he had never cured anyone of snake bite before.

After this the boy became conscious and was well again shortly afterwards. He gave this money to Kakat who needed it. In his young days when he led a party of Iban rubber tappers to work at Mukah, he and his followers were invited to attend a tamat pencha festival, — a feast at which the penikar, or teacher, chooses the first, second and third class martial arts dancers.

Bakak agreed and asked his friends to enter the competition. After all the men had danced, the penikar suggested that Bakak should dance in opposition to him. Bakak agreed and he started to attack his opponent more roughly then the dance allowed. Due to the roughness of the battle dance they soon fell into open quarrelling. When the time came for Bakak to accept the blows of his opponent, he prevented his approach with a gayong dalam spell, which spiritually struck the liver of his opponent.

Due to this, the quarrel became very bad and this caused a lot of trouble. In his anger, after his friends had left the house, Bakak pulled away the house ladder and threw it to the ground. Having done this, with his great strength he pulled down an areca palm which he placed upside down in place of the ladder. In fear of him, none of his opponents dared to say anything.

There are many other strange things that Bakak is said to have done to confuse people. He could cause a few glasses of wine never to be finished, even if drunk by several hundred people all day. The last time he did this was in at the end of a festival at the Batu Anchau cemetery on the Paku River.

During his time Bakak was a famous manang or shaman. He was especially renowned for the power and courage he showed in performing dangerous pelian in which he summoned demons, some of them in the form of monkeys, crocodiles, river-turtles, or barking deer. The demons, it was believed, caused sickness. When the demons he summoned appeared in a reptile or animal guise, Bakak was brave enough to fight them with a knife.

Due to this, they begged for money from Bakak who was singing his pelian prayers while seated on a swing. Bakak asked for sir eh leaves from a man who sat near him, and the latter gave him all the sireh leaves he found in his areca nut box. Receiving these Bakak rolled them many times between his palms, chanting a spell, which turned the seven leaves the man had given him into dollar notes. With this money the young men bought bottles of wine from the Chinese hawkers.

But a week later one of the traders complained that a strange thing had happened to him. After Bakak was released from the Baram prison in about he returned to live at Pakan in the Julau River. From Julau he visited his relatives in the Paku once every few months till his last visit in Most of his lifetime was spent at Pakan. He died of old age at Matop, Paku in , aged about 81 years.

Due to this Mr. He decided to make peace at Sibu instead. His grandson Gani lived at Bawang Assan till he died in The rest of his followers mingled with other Skrang and Saribas Iban who had migrated to the Julau and Entabai Rivers before and after the Sadok defeat in Gurang was the eldest son of Ramping and Bintang of Samu, Paku. He married Lulong, the first daughter of Saang and Dindu of Matop. But after his father-in-law Saang died, Gurang and the entire family returned to live at Samu.

At the age of seventeen he joined a Paku party of rubber tappers who went by a sailing boat they had made themselves to the Sadong River. For this trip they took provisions of two and a half pasu of rice each. From this place they went up the Melikin for another two days till they reached a landing place pangkalan. From this landing place they carried their provisions and working equipment overland for two days up and down the hills to their destination.

The strongest among them could carry ten gallons of rice, while the weaker ones took only eight gallons, in addition to their other goods. At this time there was plenty of wild rubber, such as the gutta percha, nyatu sabang, nyatu beringin, and nyatu samalam and nyatu puteh.

In addition there was plenty of the rubber gubi, kenk and perapat in the area. At Singapore they boarded a steamer to Klang. From Klang they went by rail to Kuala Lumpur, where Nyaru met the Governor to ask for permission to work rubber in the jungle far away from town.

The Governor said that they could tap rubber only after the rebellions in Pekan and Pahang had been put down. The soldiers on the expeditions only entrusted the Iban with the transport of war materials and food. They did not permit them to fight the enemy. For this work the government paid them only ten dollars each, plus frees food and lodging. After these expeditions, the Government summoned Rambuyan and Janting to inform them that the government had given permission for them to tap wild rubber in the Perak, Trengganu and Pahang forests.

When this latter group arrived at Jambi they found only a few tapable wild gubi rubber trees. So they worked there only a month and earned ten dollars each. At this time Gurang was attacked by measles. His brother-in-law Bandang and three others brought him back to Singapore in order to return as soon as they could to Sarawak. Some years after their marriage Kerandang gave birth to a son named Renggi, who was better known as Jabo.

There they tapped wild rubber and earned one hundred dollars each. When he came home in about , Gurang found that his son Jabo was nearly able to sit up by himself. On this trip his companion Muyu bought two jars, Salau bought one and Pasa bought two with money from Penghulu Kedit and Jamit apai Made.

The rest of his friends including himself were disappointed with the scarcity of jars in the area. Due to this Sujang and Bengali, both from Matop, went directly to Sabah to purchase jars. From Sabah they went on to Mindanao and Palawan and they never returned to Sarawak.

Others in the party did not return from Kota Warringin in Kalimantan. Gurang apai Jabo went to Lawas in northern Sarawak, where he collected rattan for sale, while working there, Gurang married a Murut woman, which changed his ideas about looking for jars.

At this time Tinggi was engaged in fighting Mat Salleh and his men. During this visit Gurang gave up the thought of working for money. Instead, he joined Tinggi in order to show his bravery in battle. After he had been successful in killing enemies in Sabah, Gurang returned to Lawas in order to go back to his family in the Paku.

On hearing that he planned to go home, Luta of Nanga Maras, Krian gave him things such as money and brassware to deliver to his brother Unchi. But when Gurang arrived in Lawas he found that much of his brassware left in the hands of his Murut wife had been lost. Due to this, he did not return to his family in the Paku, but instead, he led a large party of Iban who were then working at and around Lawas to Singapore in order to tap wild rubber in Sumatra.

They left Labuan by the M. Ranee for Singapore. On meeting the Chief Minister, Gurang asked permission for the Sarawak Iban to tap gutta mayang kapor in the region. Tengku Ambong told Gurang that he could not grant such permission as at that time the Sultanate of Langkat had just been incorporated into the Dutch Empire, and the Achehs were in rebellion against the Dutch government.

So he advised Gurang and his followers to go to Saruai town on the Tamiang River. Gurang explained to his followers the result of his talks with Tengku Ambong. Hearing this, all agreed to proceed to Temiang by rail. Thus they arrived at Berendan town, and there they stayed the night. From this town they went by boat up the Temiang River for six hours to Saruai town. When they arrived, they stayed in the Government Rest house.

Next morning Gurang went to meet the Controlleur and told him that he had brought a lot of Iban followers from Sarawak to tap wild rubber in the Temiang region. So he had come to ask formally for his approval. In their conversation Gurang told the Controlleur that while at Langkat he had met Tengku Ambong who had advised him to come to Temiang to ask for approval from him to tap wild rubber in his country.

The Controlleur said that he thought it would be better if the Iban were employed as luggage carriers for the Government troops during their expeditions to Acheh country. Gurang could not accept the offer before discussing it with his followers. Gurang said that all the Iban were willing to join the expedition. Hearing this Controlleur asked them to come to his Office again next day to sign the agreement.

It was explained to them that they were only to work as carriers of government luggage, and would not be equipped with guns to fight the enemy. Next day the Government sent them by launch to the town of Simpang. Here they lived in a huge concrete building. In carrying out their raids, the Government troops used a number of routes. Some battalions went up the Acheh River, some from Tapak town. Gurang and his people joined those who fought the enemy along the Temiang River and its tributary the Kalui.

In the upper Kalui, the Iban saw the Javanese soldiers they accompanied fighting against Gayau rebels who had sided with the Acheh. During the fighting the Iban found opportunity to kill stragglers with their parang knives. After the war had ended, Gurang told the Controlleur that he and his people wanted to work wild gutta mayang kapor.

The Controlleur approved the request but said that they should work at Langkat. The chief clerk asked them to wait till he had found a Chinese towkay in Penang willing to buy their rubber. But a few days later, the chief clerk told them that there was no towkay willing to buy mayang kapor due to the fact that it was no longer saleable on the European market. This was the last time that mayang kapor mbber was required by overseas buyers.

It was later replaced by jelutong rubber which still has a market in many parts of the world. A few years after he had rejoined his Murut wife in Lawas, his son Jabo came from the Paku to fetch him home.

By this time Jabo was about nineteen years old. Gurang brought back with him two old jars and a quantity of brassware. Shortly after his arrival in samu, he held an enchaboh arong festival in order to inform his relatives and friends that during his two decades in other countries, in addition to acquiring jars, he had also killed enemies. This entitled him to be known as raja berani in accordance with Iban custom. On his maternal side he was descended from chief Saang and was a great grandson of Malang of Serudit, who was called Pengarah.

When he was a young bachelor, on the way to visit a girl friend at night, Chulo met a huge demon antu gerasi standing in the road in front of him. His teeth were as big as maram palm fruit. Chulo caught the demon suddenly and wrestled with him. As they wrestled, the demon suddenly vanished. In the past, no one has ever dared to wrestle against me. As you defeated me, from now on you will kill enemies in wars.

You will also become rich because of your success in planting padi. You will be able to buy many old jars, which the people of your race value highly. The demon told Chulo that he lived on the summit of Bukit Buloh in the Paku River watershed and looked after the fate of the Paku people.

After the young man had spoken these words, Chulo woke up and found it was all a dream. As they began their attack on a Beliun house, before they could kill more than two enemies, Ramping was badly wounded on the thigh.

Seeing this, Chulo and his friends stopped fighting in order to carry Ramping to safety. On their homeward journey, they finished their provisions just as they came to the foot of Tabujang hill. Due to this they grew weak with hunger. So they hid Ramping inside a cave at Tabujang hill, in order that the hostile Seru would not find and slay him while they returned home for more provisions.

They returned in haste to the Rimbas with the Beliun heads in order to inform their friends of their successful raid. When the Rimbas people heard this they sympathised with Ramping. When they reached the cave, they found that Ramping was safe, though his large wound had been eaten by worms. They later brought him to a safer place to be looked after by his friends. While they were swimming Entemang was caught by a crocodile and disappeared. But the Rimbas people said that they had heard rumours from Sarikei that the body of Entemang had been found.

On the corpse, according to these rumours, was a wound as if he had been killed by a spear. The Rimbas people returned. Both men were reported to be excellent divers. Many people came from the Krian in addition to those from the Rimbas and Paku, to witness the contest. He said that he was the leader who had invited Entemang and other warriors from the Rimbas to attack the Beliun village in the Sarikei River.

He swore that as he was a leader of this expedition, he did not kill Entemang as his relatives believed. If they would withdraw they could do it, but if they lost the contest they would also lose their wager. The Rimbas people said that they would not withdraw their accusation. Encharang bet that the Rimbas people would win the contest.

Shortly before the diving contest was to start, each side asked one of their men to recite prayers to call for the Gods and universal spirits, who reside in the heavens and the water to come and see that justice was done. They prayed for them to cause the innocent to win without difficulty. The diving then started. When his opponent saw this, he and his friends followed Encharang and forced him to surrender the gong, or lose his life. Knowing that he was wrong, Encharang handed back the gong to his opponent.

Likewise when Linggir invaded the Bukitan longhouse at Sugai in the Julau, with his great strength and bravery, Chulo captured eight captives. During the fighting, Chulo killed three enemies. Only one of the slain was beheaded by him. When he returned to the Skrang, Chulo left the skull with Rabong, as he was satisfied to bring back to the Paku the two jars he had looted. Isut who accompanied him was a slave of Apai Jabang of Getah, Anyut.

The latter and his family migrated to the Sabelak and settled at Kedoh. Due to the general unrest in the Krian, the Rajah led a punitive expedition against them. But before they fled, they had sent their women and children of the Julau, to Ulu Awik. Those who did only did so to please the government. Before the expedition actually took place many people of the lower Krian and the Saribas secretly warned their friends to run away to safety. Therefore during the expedition only the Skrang warriors really fulfilled their pledge.

Even then, their approaches to the rebels were always blocked by the Saribas warriors who wanted to protect their friends from attack. But the Balau warriors who went up the main Krian River by boat attacked the hostile people of Nanga Kabo. In this raid that small longhouse was defeated; its site became a cemetery and is still used as such by the Iban of the area to this day.

During the attack, most of the inhabitants were away downriver attending a funeral at a village called Kerangan and therefore escaped. As a result of the raid, the people above Nanga Kabo in the main Krian scattered. Some fled to join the enemy under Janting and Ranggau of the Julau, while others offered their submission to the government.

Seeing that some of these people were still hostile, the Rajah ordered Penghulu Minggat of Awik to raid all those who had fled to the upper Kanowit and Mujok and who had allied themselves with the hostile Katibas Iban gathered at the upper Kamalih and Stulak hill near the headwaters of the Kanowit. Before the stronghold was completed the Rajah ordered Penghulu Minggat to attack it.

Those who continued to rebel followed Ranggau to Bukit Dugan, while those who were sick of such a hard wartime life returned to live safely at the Entabai. From this point he raided enemy longhouses as he moved down the river. When he arrived at the mouth of Ensiring, he waited for some of his leading warriors who had gone off on their own to attack the enemy living away from the main route. After all the warriors had finally gathered at the place where Penghulu Minggat and the main force were waiting, he counted the head trophies and the captives that his warriors had taken.

The victims totalled 81 heads and 4 captives. From the upper Julau the force went downriver by boat and then up the Kanowit, staying one night at Nanga Mujok. At this point the first council of war was held to decide upon the most suitable route towards Bukit Dugan. During the discussion, the opinions of the warleaders and their leading warriors were divided. Some proposed to go up the Mujok and others to go up the Ensuing which had recently been attacked by Penghulu Minggat.

Finally, following the advice of the Julau guides the route through the Mujok was agreed upon. Early next day, the force went up the Mujok to the mouth of the Sugai stream. When they arrived at the Sugai, the guides led the party on by foot further upstream to see the dangerous and winding rapids which they would encounter next day.

Once there, they discovered many fresh tracks made by the enemy, undoubtedly spying on their advance. That night, the warleaders asked the guides whether the rapids were passable by big boats. They advised that only the smaller boats could negotiate the rapids as they were extremely dangerous.

Hearing this, the warleaders asked the distance from the rapids to the last point upriver where boats could still be used. The guides said that the last station was Nanga Tiga still far away; they would be two nights on the trail. At this advice from the guides, Penghulu Minggat ordered the force to stay one more day at the mouth of the Sugai in order to learn from the guides the exact location of Bukit Dugan.

The guides said that Bukit Dugan was a lofty, steep hill situated between the headwaters of the Mujok and Ensiring of the Kanowit, and the sources of the Katibas, Poi and Machan Rivers on the northeast. Penghulu Minggat told Linggir that the Rajah had only ordered them to raid the hostile people along the Ensiring tributary and the two longhouses in the Mujok stream together with those who had gone up to Bukit Dugan. Considering the difficulty of the rapids, Entering suggested that the party should leave their boats at Nanga Sugai.

He thought it would be less strenuous, to walk from that point slowly to Nanga Tiga than to proceed by boat. This suggestion was unanimously accepted by the other warleaders. Having agreed to go overland to Nanga Tiga, Penghulu Minggat suggested that twelve trusted warriors act as scouts pengeratnbing going ahead of the main force, six on eadii side of the river bank. But he advised him to warn the scouts not to attack the enemy if they saw them.

At the conclusion of the meeting, Entering appointed his warrior Tandang and two others to proceed as scouts on behalf of the Julaus. It was found that all was well with them. When this was done, the twelve scouts marched ahead of the main force. During the march, some new marks made by the enemy were found by the scouts, but none of these showed any sign of an enemy ambush. When they reached a place called Letong Tibak, halfway between the mouth of Sugai and Nanga Tiga, the force stopped for the night.

From this place the scouts travelled further up to guard the force from a possible surprise attack. While the scouts were away, the warriors erected temporary huts for a one-night stay. The scouts told them that they had used four routes three scouts going together along each route but they had not encountered any enemy. That evening after eating, a council of war was held on a huge gravel bed at Nanga Maong.

Penghulu Minggat asked Linggir what would be the right time for them to start marching next morning. Linggir said that it would be good to proceed to Nanga Tiga immediately after they had taken their morning meal. Next morning the force left Nanga Maong.

The leading warriors marched ahead of the main force, having been told that they were not to attack the enemy should the latter try to ambush them on the way. Instead of attacking them, these warriors were instructed to retreat to the main force for the sake of safety; but they were permitted to kill unarmed farmers if, by chance, they met them in their rice fields.

This was in order to prevent them from informing the enemy at Bukit Dugan. While the force was marching, they passed several huge felled trees pengerebah which had been felled to obstruct boat passage on the Mujok River in order to hinder any advance upriver, should they have proceeded by boat. It was told later that these obstructions had been made by an enemy named Andum.

That is why the gravel bed where Andum and his friends made the obstructions is called Kerangan Andum to this day. From Kerangan Andum the party marched on to Nanga Tiga, which was also called Nanga Japiyan, where they stayed one night. As soon as they had arrived at this place a camp was erected, and the other warriors went out into the surrounding jungle to guard against a surprise attack. Those who were building the camp were strictly forbidden to cook lest the smoke be seen by the enemy from their stockade on the nearby hill.

Early that night a council-of-war was held. This time Penghulu Minggat arranged that the force be divided into three columns. Besides these about two dozen warriors were needed to act as scouts marching on the left and right sides of the three columns of warriors. Next morning, the attack on the stockade was to commence. Linggir, Penghulu Minggat and Entering marched behind the leading warriors up the central path with a stronger force bringing up the rear.

On their way to the stockade they discovered a lot of fresh marks made by the enemy that very morning. But when they reached the building, they found only a completely empty stronghold. Eventually after they had inspected every part of the stockade and its compound, they found that it was too late to return back to camp the same day.

So they stayed the night on the mountain top with the majority of them sitting without shelter. In the evening, while the warriors were cooking their food both inside and outside the stockade, a storm and heavy rain came, making it very difficult to do the cooking. The heavy rain poured down till morning. After the rain had ceased, Penghulu Minggat called for a meeting in which he informed the warriors with regret that the expedition had now ended fruitlessly.

So the force returned following the same route along which they had advanced. A great number of Iban came to purchase padi from him year after year. They bought padi with jarlets kebok , brass trays tabak , ivory armlets simpai rangki , oval beads pelaga , corsets rawai , large and small bells gerunong and geri , gongs of various sizes such as the setawak, bendai, and engkerumong. At this time very few people had money. To three of his daughters, Dungkong, Insin and Gulang, he gave one sergiu and one menaga jar and one bedil cannon each.

To Tujoh the youngest child he gave only one menaga jar. It was due to his early contact with European Anglican missionaries that he became the first man in Second Division to build a large house with huge belian posts. These posts are to this day still used by his family at Kumpai. Of these, Janting was one of the leading enemy warriors.

Shortly after they came to the foot of the mountain they were attacked by the enemy. The former received a wound in his stomach while the latter on his arm. Only Unggit killed an enemy during the lightning fight. In order to stop the enemy from advancing the fortmen shot at them with guns and killed some of them. After Penghulu Minggat died in Sumatra in , Mr. Bailey, the Resident of the Second Division, installed a man named Ampan as penghulu to succeed the deceased chief.

But Penghulu Ampan was a man of strange character. The setting aside of such pulau was the way in which chiefs of the country sought to reserve large trees for canoes and rattan to tie the beams of new longhouses when they were built. They could not approve of such a thing, since according to tradition each river occupied by the Iban must have a reserved forest in which trees and rattan can grow.

Bailey who was at that time visiting the government headquarters at Kabong in the lower Kalaka. Without further investigation Mr. Bailey became violent. He summoned Munan to come at once and meet him at Kabong. When Munan arrived home, he found a summon awaiting him from the Resident to an urgent meeting at Kabong fort. While he was preparing for this, the rumour reached him that he was sure to be arrested due to his disagreement with Ampan, the new chief of the area.

This rumour upset Munan very much. So he and his followers went to Kabong in a big warboat to meet the Resident. Bailey came down the plankwalk with two pistols in his hands and called for Munan to come out of his boat without delay.

Hearing this, Munan suddenly took up his sword and went out to meet the Resident. He was closely followed by a man named Jungan, later the Penghulu of Sabelak. Bailey, urged that neither Bailey nor Munan try to harm the other physically. At the same time the Pengiran suggested that their quarrel should be settled by the Rajah personally, and he offered to escort Munan to Kuching with an explanatory letter from the Resident.

This suggestion was promptly agreed to by Mr. After some time in the prison, one night Munan dreamt a strange dream. In it he thought that he met the Ranee, the wife of Rajah Charles Brooke, who told him that he Munan would not meet with any trouble and that early the next day he would be released from detention. So it was that the next morning at about 9. Munan was joyful, but his hatred of Mr.

Bailey was growing stronger and stronger. It should be explained that Munan had married Subang, an adopted daughter of Layang and Tambong. Due to their hostile activities, the Rajah ordered Munan to attack them, and he did so in During the expedition he and his warriors killed 18 people from Lubang Baya, and went down the Batang Ai as far as Nanga Kaong. Besides killing these enemies he also took some captives. After the raids were over, he returned down the Batang Lupar past the Simanggang fort to Sibu.

The news of his victory over the enemy spread round about, surprising everyone including his arch rival Mr. Bailey at Fort Alice, Simanggang. Later in , due to his meritorious service and bravery in assisting the government in various punitive expeditions, the Rajah ordered Munan to move from the Julau to Pulau Kertau near Sibu.

Shortly after he had settled down at Kertau, the Rajah conferred on Munan the title of Penghulu Dalam, carrying a monthly salary which he enjoyed till his death in Furthermore, due to his wisdom and influence over the Rajang Iban, the Rajah appointed him a full member of the Council Negeri in , a post which he held till his death.

In the course of the war, the forces from Saribas and Skrang were badly beaten by the enemy. Thirteen of their warriors were killed. But in spite of this defeat, Insol took a firm vow to fight the enemy till all his warriors had safely returned to their own ground. He passed the headwaters of the Katibas and went on to the headwaters of the Engkari, where he found the traces of an encounter only a few days old which had taken place between the Skrang and Saribas forces and the enemy.

From the number of dead found, it was evident that there had been severe hand-to-hand encounters. It was feared that the Skrang and the Saribas had lost twenty or more men. Seeing this, Munan realised that the Skrang and Saribas under Banta and Insol must have gone ahead of him several days earlier.

He was unable to join them due to the distance and because he was not certain of the route they had taken. In this way the war plan was complicated, and the Saribas and Skrang forces suffered because of it. Munan ordered his force to stop not far from a big house under a headman named Jimbau. It was said that this house contained many Ulu Ai people who had come to reinforce Jimbau, when the Saribas and Skrang were known to be approaching.

Here Munan called a council of war to select three of his most trusted warriors to spy on the house that coming night and a dozen others to guard the main force by watching for the enemy in case they came to attack them by surprise. After these warriors had gone out on duty, Munan called three of his leading warriors, Ajah of Binatang, Ajah of Entaih and Ajah of Melangan.

He suggested that if any of the three failed to kill an enemy, he should never again be called Ajah. She told him that in her sleep early that night, she had a very bad dream. Hearing this, Kana asked who this enemy could be, since the Saribas and Skrang forces had been defeated and the survivors had all gone back to their places.

Hearing these words the leading spy took his companions to rash back to inform Munan about what they had heard and seen during their spying. After Munan had been told that the enemy was celebrating an enchaboh arong festival in honour of the head trophies they had taken a few days earlier, he commanded the force to march and attack the house before dawn the next morning.

Natural Resources With a land area of more than , square kilometres, Sarawak is the largest state in Malaysia and is also the richest in terms of natural resources and biodiversity. The environment is dominated by rain-forest and, as a result, timber is by far its main economic driver. Sarawak remains among the world's leading exporters of tropical-sourced timber. Although years of logging has depleted rain forests in many areas, the Sarawak Government has implemented a number of programmes, including the Log Export Restriction Policy, that places a premium on value-added processing to manage the industry.

In , Sarawak established the National Resources and Environment Board to protect and manage the envi-. Logging is only part of Sarawak's multitude of businesses derived from natural resources. The state has thriving crude palm oil and natural gas industries. The government is implementing a number of conservation initiatives in order to protect endangered species. Kaolinitic coal, clay and silica sand, aluminium and gold deposits are testament to Sarawak's mineral diversity. Agro-based food processing, petrochemicals and gas and ship-building are among the other major industries in Sarawak, while the government is promoting the development of biotechnology and electronics and other viable sectors to boost the economy and create jobs.

Sarawak boasts some of the most diverse and numerous flora and fauna in the world. The Heart 2 Heart campaign seeks to protect. The Reef Ball project is designed to revive marine ecosystems by sinking artificial reefs into the sea. Sarawak's lush and striking environment needs to be seen to be believed and that is why tourism also plays a key role in the local economy. In , more than 3.

The administrative and commercial capital of Sarawak is Kuching, which has a population of close to , Other major cities include Miri population , and Sibu population , Indigenous Ibans form the biggest ethnic group in Sarawak at 34 per cent of the population while the Chinese, who first arrived at these shores in the sixth century, make up 26 per cent.

In addition, there are more than 30 tribes native to Sarawak that thrive throughout the state. Kuching is the centre of government for Sarawak, its financial hub and the fourth-most populous city in Malaysia. Diverse Cultures Miri is in northern Sarawak and is the home of the country's petroleum industry. The first oil drill in Malaysia was built in Miri, in , by Shell. Ibans, Chinese and Malays dominate the ethnic landscape in Miri, which is also home to dozens of other races and tribes.

Sibu, in eastern part of Sarawak, is an inland city and well-known tourist destination, especially for the many visitors wanting to see the famous longhouses of the Iban and Orang Ulu people along the Upper Rajang River. The city has a rich Chinese culture and is one of the few places in Malaysia where Chinese writing is displayed on street and traffic signs. Political stability crucial to state's economic growth Sarawak has been ruled for decades by the Barisan Nasional party, which recently won a fresh mandate during state elections.

The government believes political stability is an important factor in ensuring continued prosperity. Political stability allows the Kuching government to pursue economic and social policies that not only benefits domestic interests but also lures foreign investors to make the most of Sarawak's rich natural resources and skilled local talent. The victory by ruling party Barisan Nasional at the recent state elections has galvanised the regional government, which has been bolstered by the people's mandate to forge ahead with ambitious economic plans.

Sarawak Chief Minister, Pehin Sri Haji Abdul Taib Mahmud, in a recent speech, acknowledged the importance of maintaining political stability in order to foster greater economic and social prosperity. BN's triumph is of significant in-. The coalition has been governing Sarawak since Prior to that year, it was known as Perikatan, which is the former incarnation of a smaller ruling alliance of parties.

The current government comprises 13 parties the represent the entire racial, cultural, geographical and religious spectrum of Malaysian society and includes four Sawarakbased organisations. Sarawak has a vibrant workforce who are bursting to unleash their talents, both managerial and manual, and are keen for big businesses to come into the state with their mega.

Barisan Nasional's victory could well be the green light for overseas corporations to start making their mark in northwest Borneo. He assumed the post in and in the past 30 years he has overseen steady and progressive developments in the state's political and economic landscape. Having endured years of success and inevitable challenges to his leadership and reputation, Pehin Sri Taib played an influential part in BN's victory in the state elections. At 75 years old, he is also the second longest serving parliamentarian in the national government, though he said recently that he would hand over the Sarawak reigns to a younger leader in the next few years.

Hard-core poverty has been eased and almost the entire population of Sarawak now has access to fresh water, compared to 32 per cent 30 years ago. In its quest to achieve high-income status by , Pehin Sri Taib is upgrading the education system to ensure Sarawak continues to produce talented and skilled personnel.

Sarawak has indeed come a long way politically and, with continued stability at government level, the state is ready to meet and overcome all economic and social challenges. James Brooke was the first of these foreign sultans when he started his reign in The era is part of a colourful, eventful and turbulent period for Sarawak before they joined the Malaysian Federation in , and included Japanese occupation and nearly two decades of British crown rule.

Sultan Brooke The Sultan appointed Brooke as Rajah of Sarawak on August 18, in a move that would change forever the fortunes and culture of a people that had never previously been subjected to Western leadership.

Charles' son, Charles Vyner Brooke, succeeded his late father in and began to rule Sarawak in consultation with his brother Bertram Brooke. A feature of the Brookes' White Rajah reign was their commitment to protecting the culture and environment of the indeginous tribes of Sarawak from exploitation. They also expanded the territories that would come under the Sarawak jurisdiction, at the expense of the. WWII and the rebel Rajah As the last ruling Brooke was about to embark on changing Sarawak's constitution in to provide for a more democratic foundation, Japanese forces invaded Miri and Kuching in December that year.

To say that Sarawak has a tribal culture is an understatment. There are more than 30 indigenous tribes in the area, making Sarawak one of the most ethnically diverse regions in Asia One year later, Charles Vyner Brooke, somewhat reluctanty but with great personal reward, ceded Sarawak to the British Crown, which ruled the territories of Malaya as a colony until independence in As a side story to the end of the Brooke era, Bertram's son, Anthony Brooke, was appointed Rajah Muda heir to the leadership in After twice losing the title, he opposed giving up Sarawak to British colonial rule and continued to claim leadership of the region.

He was also under investigation. Anthony Brooke eventually gave up his claims to being the Rajah of Sarawak in He had previously been banned from Sarawak for a total of 17 years and was only allowed to return after the state became part of Malaysia in He died in March, Cultural change The White Rajah era changed the landscape of regional politics forever, the legacy of which can still be seen in culture and society today.

During the Brookes' rule, the Muslim Malays emerged as a powerful political force and were heavily involved in governing the territory. The indigenous Ibans and other tribes, meanwhile, were called upon to serve as militia outfits. There are more than 30 indigenous tribes in the area, making Sarawak one of the most ethnically diverse regions in Asia.

An already colourful mix of races and tribes became even more spectacular during the Brookes' regime with the influx of tens of thousands of ethnic Chinese to Sarawak, causing a dramatic demographic and cultural shift in population. Known as a resourceful and entrepeneurial group of people, the Brookes encouraged their immigration and now the Chinese make up more than a quarter of its 2. With such diverse ethnic groups and cultures, the best way to ensure political and social stablity was through the democratic process, which came about in its true form in after Sarawak joined the Malaysian Federation.

With the implementation of long-term programmes, the government is predicting per cent growth over the next 20 years. In , the state beat expectations with economic growth of 5. The Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy SCORE programme is one of the main drivers of growth as the state seeks to diversify its economy from agro-based to one that encompasses heavy industries, food security, technology and other services.

Instead, we are increasing value-added activities of timber and agriculture products such as transport and communications. The expected growth is in keeping with the increase in global demand for goods Sarawak specialise in, particularly LNG and wood-based products. Construction for the Tenth Malaysia Plan was expected to expand this sector by 6 per cent in The mining and quarrying sector forecast was 3.

The production of natural gas grew by The sector was expected to grow at 3. Despite the global downturn, Sarawak has maintained steady growth over the past few years helping the state to beat predictions and post strong figures. A key promise of the economic blueprint was to modernise the agricultural industry. And the sector obliged by growing 5. This performance was considerably higher than the growth in Malaysian agriculture as a whole, which expanded by 3.

The production of crude palm oil grew by 7. In , the agriculture sector was anticipated to grow at a reduced pace at 4. The first quarter of saw , cubic metres of plywood shipped out of Sarawak. The second biggest commodity in terms of exports is log and there were 1. Palm oil is also a major export product for Sarawak and the state expected 15 per cent output growth to 2. Exports of manufactured goods recorded double-digit growth in the first half of at The construction sector growth was predicted at 6.

In , Malaysian Palm Oil Board data showed that both Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah's crude palm oil output fell by six per cent and three per cent to 9. Sarawak's production, however, went up by 9 per cent to 2. Higher growth The services sector was predicted to grow by 7. For the first half of , cargo-related activities at ports in Sarawak increased by The air transport segment grew as passenger volumes for all principal airports state-wide rose by an average of 9.

Expected growth for this sector in was 6. In , the State received RM The State produced 1,, The state government is working on increasing the per capita income of the people of Sarawak from RM23, in to RM50, to enable the state to achieve a developed status by Because of this activity, more than one million jobs will be created, rising from , in to 2.

SCORE is one of the five regional development corridors throughout Malaysia and will transform Sarawak into a developed state by the year It aims to accelerate the state's economic growth, as well as improve the quality of life for the people of Sarawak. The Samalaju Industrial Park, dedicated to heavy and energy-intensive industries, has attracted manufacturers in aluminium, polycrystalline silicon, and minerals-based industries while the Tanjung Manis Halal Hub has already received RM2 billion worth of investment from Sea Party International as it promotes aquaculture, agriculture and food security.

Finance and tourism While Sarawak remains a resourcebased economy, the state's finance sector is growing. Major commercial and merchant banks, finance companies, insurance firms and consultancies have established a strong presence in the state as Sarawakians with. Islamic finance, which shuns interest-based transactions, is also claiming a strong share of the market, attracting Muslim and non-Muslim investors who see greater returns in the sector than from conventional banking instruments.

The number of tourist arrivals to Sarawak has been increasing over the past few years with domestic tourism making up a major portion of visitors. Of the nearly 3. Brunei was the biggest tourism contributor outside Malaysia with close to 1. Tourism, both domestic and international, was up 30 per cent in and, with more budget flights available from peninsula Malaysia and other Asian countries, the number of visitors is expected to increase steadily.

In terms of infrastructure, the state has started a programme of improvements designed to increase road, electricity and water supply coverage to rural areas. The National Key Result Area for rural basic infrastructure will increase the length of roads to 21, Reforms spur rapid economic growth as Sarawak offers incentives for foreign investors Since the middle of the previous decade, Sarawak has experienced a period of sustained economic growth, riding out the global credit crisis and charting a course that it hopes will result in high-income status by Its Gross Domestic Product reportedly increased by 5.

Public investment rose Growth remained steady from through at between 5. The impressive growth record in recent years is credited to the comprehensive economic reform policies enacted by the government in , which factored in the launch of SCORE Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy. Income benefits In addition to its key economic development plans, the economy is set to grow further in the coming years as foreign investors eye potentially lucrative projects in heavy industries, energy, halal food and services and traditional Sarawak sectors such as timber, palm oil, natural gas and agriculture.

Improvements to infrastructure, road network, upgrades to major ports, and greater penetration of internet and tech-. And because of its vast reserves of natural resources, Sarawak offers strong potential for investment in petroleum, petrochemicals, agro, bio-technology and forestry. Non-resource- based clusters focus on shipbuilding while policy-driven clusters revolve around electronics and biotechnology.

Malaysia and Sarawak offer foreign investors some of the most attractive incentive packages in the region, with various inducements based on the sectors involved. Investment incentives The Sarawak government offers extra incentives, including competitive pricing and generous rebate on the price of industrial land.

For companies eligible for the Investment Tax Allowance, the rate of allowance will be increased to a. Manufacturing Manufacturing projects in Sarawak catering to the domestic market are also entitled to full import duty exemption on any raw material, components or parts which are not available in Sarawak as well as eligibility for double deduction on freight charges incurred in the export of rattan and wood-based products except plywood, sawn timber and veneer. Several sectors are targeted for development but the main thrust is to boost heavy and energy intensive industries, resource-based industries, halal products and ecotourism.

Being one of the five regional economic corridors in Malaysia, SCORE stretches across more than kilometres of land between Similajau and Tanjung Manis and into the interior of the central region of Sarawak with key industrial zones located at strategic areas along its path. The Sarawak government hopes that SCORE can encourage local and foreign companies to invest in an array of sectors and steer the state away from the oil and gas sector and agro-dominated economy and embrace technology, bioscience, and financial services, among others.

It is hoped that SCORE will help to make it easier for companies to do business in Sarawak and expand opportunities for SMEs to feed off the activities of bigger foreign and domestic players. Tenth Malaysian Plan The programme, which adheres to the principles of the Tenth Malaysia Plan for economic development, is also designed to raise the capacity for knowledge and innovation and provide fresh job opportunities for skilled talent. A primary mission is to enrich the lives of people living in remote parts of Sarawak and accelerate growth in these areas.

Also significant is the newly completed Bakun. Dam hydroelectric power station on the Balui River, which will generate 2, megawatts of electricity once fully commission and is the main source of energy for the industries in SIP and other areas. Other hydro-based power stations are also planned in Sarawak to provide power for more industries coming into SCORE area.

Fed by power from the Bakun Dam, several major heavy industry players have already committed to the Park. The second plant, costing RM3. Aluminium production will have a strong in SIP. Malaysian company Press Metal Bintulu. There has been plenty of investmentrelated activity at TMHH, a 77,hectare are of land ripe for development as Sarawak vies to lead the way in food and water security for the region.

Upstream and downstream activities are being encouraged with a modern road system recently built connecting the hub to Sibu. Halal products Given its halal theme, TMHH is attracting strong interest from Middle East investors, who have signed three Memorandums of Understanding MoUs with the hub that would attract billions of ringgit in investments. More hotels and resorts are to be built while infrastructure will be improved to meet the needs of the tens of thousands of addition tourists who are expected to travel to Sarawak over the coming years.

SCORE is a major initiative undertaken to accelerate growth of Sarawak's central region and transform the region into a developed state by The Corridor is one of five in Malaysia and has progressed at a breathtaking pace under the helm of Datuk Amar Wilson, given the fact that it was only established in and is in its early development stage. It is attractive and we need investors to come to believe that this is the place to invest.

He said the development currently taking place would effectively transform Mukah into the administrative and operational capital of SCORE. Human capital development will play an integral role and will be an important aspect of the success of the Corridor in the long term.

Research and development will. On 1 January , he was appointed State Secretary, his final government post until his retirement from the civil service on 2 August It was no surprise when Datuk Amar Wilson won the State Civil Service Personality Award, after which he thanked the state leadership for the confidence they have in him. Datuk Amar Wilson, who is of the Bidayuh tribe, has a clear passion for serving his homeland and has tirelessly worked to give back to the community, hence it was only natural he took up the post as CEO of SCORE as he feels the spin-offs from the large scale investments will serve to benefit the people of Sarawak.

The objectives of the SPU are manifold with an over-riding theme of planning for a future in which Sarawak and its people can benefit socially and economically from an array of development programmes. A key condition is that growth is spread equitably across all regions and cultures of Sarawak. The SPU is also responsible for planning for the state transformation from a. It is also entrusted to plan for the development of human capital, in tandem with its k-economy ambitions, while also ensuring that socio-economic development complements the policies and practices of sustainable resource and environmental management.

A key role is to enhance social harmony and cohesion within a diverse socio-cultural environment involving more. This also includes the latest bilateral economic cooperation between Sarawak and Brunei. SCORE offers made-to-measure investment solutions for Middle East companies The Sarawak State Planning Unit is responsible for planning socio-economic development programmes that are of benefit to the state.

He said the State Government is undertaking a manpower planning process to ensure local talents are qualified to take up a variety of roles among the thousands of jobs expected to be created from SCORE projects. And we have also been talking to universities, technical colleges and polytechnics. This is a continuous programme in order to meet the requirements of the industries here.

And in the three years since its launch, Datu Haji Ismawi said the rapid progress made by SCORE and the overwhelming response from the investors have already marked out the project as a significant achievement for the State.

Datu Haji Ismawi outlined six objectives of SCORE; Create new sources of wealth, to move the State economy up the value chain, achieve higher per capita income, enhance quality of life, achieve balanced development between regions in the State and to eradicate poverty. This is important because it sets out the macro-economic direction and growth, so if Malaysia, as a country, wants to achieve six per cent GDP growth per annum, likewise the state needs to growth at the same pace.

The Tanjung Manis Halal Hub, located near the westernmost part of the SCORE area, is primed to become one of the biggest halal centres in the world and lead the way in agro and food processing using biotechnological process.

It has a clean environment, plenty of water, a lot of land and with good accessibility. We encourage Middle East investors to come and have a look for themselves. We have a good quality of life and the cost of living in Sarawak is not that high. Put this all together and you have many plus factors for industries to invest in Sarawak. Since the launch of SCORE in , both zones have pushed ahead with their respective development agendas, bolstered by investments and pledges from some of the biggest players in their sectors.

The two regions cater to vastly different businesses. SIP is dedicated to heavy and energy intensive industries while TMHH focus on food security, agriculture and halal products. However, both are working in unison to help Sarawak achieve its goal of becoming a developed state by SIP is a 7,hectare area on the coast of Bintulu dedicated to energyintensive heavy industry and under the jurisdiction of the Bintulu Development Authority.

The Park will house companies engaged in aluminium smelters, steel, oil refineries, silica-based industries, marine engineering and other industrial and commercial activities. A dedicated port will be developed inside the SIP to transport raw materials and produce.

In addition, Bintulu Port, which is being upgraded to meet the expected demands of industries in the area, will provide another sea route in and out of the Park with massive cargo capability. The production of aluminium, for which global demand is expected to rise four per cent, will have a strong presence at SIP with three separate projects eventually producing about 1.

However, both are working in unison to help Sarawak achieve its goal of becoming a developed state by " Two manganese smelters will also be established in Samalaju. TMHH will cover close to 80, hectares of fertile agricultural land.

It is hoped that the Hub will develop to be one of the most scientifically and environmentally advanced halal centres in the world via the use of advanced technologies, renewable energy and sustainable practices. The first phase involved spending RM million for aquaculture activities such as tilapia breeding, chlorella cultivation and production of Halal collagen and gelatine. The second phase moves into the production of gelatine from tilapia scales, bones and skin, organic prawn farming and vendor development programmes.

The group has already started construction of its RM30 million research centre in Tanjung Manis. Bahrain-based BioMe has also visited the site with a view to invest in sustainable and profitable biotech industries in TMHH. The Hub is spread across 77, hectares of land located on the western-most area of the SCORE landscape, which stretches kilometres east. TMHH is aiming to be the top halal hub in the world, promoting aquaculture, agriculture, food processing, biotechnology, horticulture as well as Islamic financial services.

Access to the zone has been made easier with improvements to road networks and the construction of world-class port facilities and a nearby airport. The Halal Hub is intended to address the food security issue affecting the world right now, which is witnessing a food shortage due to natural disasters and the shifting from agriculture to other developments, such as those seen in Thailand and Vietnam.

We are at the. Being an advanced Halal Hub, Tanjung Manis has the advantage of downstream and upstream value chains, where the availability of raw materials for food production via agriculture and aquaculture is our key advantage. Others are merely focusing on mid value chain activities such as food processing when we have the end to end solutions in an integrated development. Also by being a Special Economic Zone SEZ as proposed, there will be many financial and tax incentives planned for people working there.

The Sarawak government has invested up to RM1. To support TMHH objectives, the Universiti Teknologi Mara Sarawak is introducing fresh programmes in herbal and halal food production leading to diplomas and degrees, including aquaculture and microbiology. The backbone of SCORE is the power being produced to drive the energyintensive industries, especially the big manufacturers who have set up plants in Samalaju. Upgraded ports, expanded road networks and a new cross-SCORE rail link will improve logistics and accessibility.

The Sarawak government has identified 10 main industries that are ripe for investment from overseas interests, including potential Middle East investors. These are: aluminium, glass, oilbased industries, steel, tourism, marine engineering, timber-based industries, livestock, fishing and aquaculture, and palm oil.

Aluminium is proving to be a popular. The investments in aluminium are valued at RM Five projects worth RM1. More than 1, jobs will result from these investments. Tourism is one of the high-profile industries the government is promoting in terms of investment opportunities.

More hotels and resorts are sprouting across the state as Sarawak tries to leverage on its pristine rainforest , natural beauty and exotic wildlife to encourage eco-tourism. Of the RM All projects are expected to generate more than 10, jobs. Its founder talks about the values that have made the company successful.

Dato' Paul P. Growing in tandem with the company is the integrity and trust borne out of the family values that made the company successful in the first place. And that is the message Press Metal would like to send to potential investors from the Middle East. When people look at Press Metal, they see a company they can trust so that there is a basis for further discussion, whether it is about business or investment.

Whatever we promise, we deliver. Increased production Press Metal, which now has a presence in the United States, Europe and East Asia, is one of two companies in Southeast Asia to operate an aluminium smelter. The company owns another smelter in China that produces 90, tonnes of aluminium a year. As a public listed company, Press Metal is open to investment either through the equity market or through.

Malaysia is currently a net importer of aluminium. But as the country gradually catches up to developed nations in terms of consumption, Press Metal expects its higher production capacity would enable the company to fulfil all domestic demand for the metal without the need to import. There are plenty of resources that other countries would like to make use of" Sumitomo invested in Press Metal's Sarawak operations on the prospect of eventual Malaysian self-sufficiency in aluminium, and Dato' Paul says potential investors from the Middle East are welcome.

There has to be trust. But we speak the same language in Indonesia and share similar business cultures so we have the advantage. There are a lot of spin-off opportunities. There are plenty of resources that other countries would like to invest in. Regional knowledge Dato' Paul said that Press Metal has encountered overseas companies wanting to do business in places such as Indonesia but they are unsure of the business environment. Press Metal started as a downstream aluminium player but since they started production in the last decade, the company has focused on upstream activities.

However, Dato' Paul said the company is eager to expand into more downstream businesses to support its production capabilities. I believe it is very timely. Whoever is going to be investing they will be in a good position because industry in Sarawak is really coming up. What the government is doing is absolutely correct. We have high hopes for our Sarawak plants and we are happy to be in Malaysia. Middle East Capacity The Middle East is seen as a potentially lucrative market for solar energy as oil reserves gradually dwindle.

The United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia are already considering attractive tariff policies to promote solar energy in their countries, even though it will be some years yet before Gulf nations can start to wean themselves off oil. Mr Sanuki said once Tokuyama Malaysia starts to reach their production capacity of 20,plus tonnes in , the company could produce. Construction of the second plant, costing RM3. Tokuyama currently enjoys a per cent world market share in polycrystalline silicon for solar cells and is hoping its Malaysian production will help to raise its standing against tough competition from South Korea and China.

The company also has a 20 per cent market share in polycrystalline silicon for semi-conductors. Tokuyama Malaysia is expected to employ up to staff from Sarawak to work on its plants as well as acquire property and take part in infrastructural projects related to its core business.

Social Responsibility Apart from investing a lot of money into the Sarawak economy, Tokuyama will also bring plenty of industrial expertise and know-how to the region. Mr Sanuki said the company hopes to launch a long-term education programme to enhance local talent in their specific industry, which may include internships in Japan.

Tokuyama Malaysia is one of the key companies who have placed their trust in Sarawak and is confident of benefiting in terms of profit margin and good will over the long run. For us, talking about development, it is also location, location, location.

We are between two emerging giants — India and China. This is something that is very important. It is something that is not guaranteed in the Middle East these days so they should come here and invest. The Chamber promotes commerce and industry opportunities for its members and also offers an information duct to the state government. It also has close links with the national organisation, the Malaysian International Chamber of Commerce and Industries MICCI , and has the important role of looking after some of the smaller businesses that may want a share of the benefits driven by heavy industry developments in the state.

You cannot run away from it. The Middle East has oil and gas but not much else. There are a lot of opportunities for them in Sarawak. While the big companies are well looked after, the SCCI is determined to ensure small businesses also benefit. We have a website, as an information bank, so these investors can go there and try to find what they want.

They can get in touch with these people directly. We are only the introducer. It is up to them whether the partnership lasts or not. He was one of the pioneer scholars of the Central Bank, which he joined as an assistant economist in Kuala Lumpur in the early 70s. Practically retired now, Datuk Abang holds various positions in business organisations and companies in addition to his duties as SCCI Chairman.

No so much for the money but as a way of providing a service to the community. Oil, natural gas, coal and hydro-electric power are the major natural power sources for the state, which needs to serve a population of more than 2. More recently, the government has been promoting the use of biofuels as a viable and sustainable energy source.

The Ministry of Public Utilities Sarawak is the state government body responsible for regulating the power industry in the region and its policy. However, the actual physical supply of power is performed by private-public companies tasked with delivering electricity to the different sectors of society. When the Dam is fully functional, it is expected to generate 2,MW of power, providing cheap and plentiful energy for the Samalaju manufacturers.

Its customer base is growing at an average of 8 per cent per annum as Sarawak attempts to meet its goal of 95 per cent consumer power penetration by The organisation has 36 power stations with a total capacity of 1,MW fuelled mainly by coal-fired thermal plants, gas turbines, combined cycle stations, hydro turbines and a small percentage of diesel turbines, which are located mostly in. Sarawak has planned at least 12 hydro-electricity dam projects under SCORE in order to serve the needs of heavy industries, tourism and consumers.

The hydro projects are expected to generate at least 7,MW of energy in total. Coal is another energy resource available in bulk in Sarawak with the government planning to include 1. SEB, through its subsidiaries, operates several coal-fired power plants. Other power stations exist using combined cycle, oil and gas. Such alternative fuel sources are expected to provide MW of power by Biomass At the Copenhagen meeting of the Conference of Parties on climate change, Malaysian Prime Minister Dato Seri Najib Tun Razak said the country was committed to reducing greenhouse gas emission intensity by 40 per cent by , and biomass is one way of achieving this target.

Sarawak has plenty of biomass resources such as wood and palm oil residues. Ta Ann Holdings Berhad, a timber company that has built a RM26 million biomass power plant at its plywood complex at Sungai Bidut, is already producing this type of energy. And Sarawak has obliged with several hydro-electric power stations planned around the state, including the 2,MW Bakun Dam, which has already begun operations.

Forest protection Sarawak has millions of square kilometres of forests to utilise and protect. The Ministry formulated the Natural Resource and Environment Ordinance that provides a list of Prescribed Activities to ensure all development meets environmental standards. SEB, in which the state government has a majority stake, is undertaking a series of projects that would virtually cover the energy-intensive electricity requirements throughout the state, including the hot zones of the Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy SCORE.

They have recently agreed a Power Purchase Agreement with Sarawak Hidro Sdn Bhd, operators of the Bakun Dam hydro power, which will produce MW of electricity at its peak and is the largest hydro-electric power station in Southeast Asia. The deal will allow SEB to take up the entire energy output of the dam. The company is also halfway through the Murum hydro power project that is expected to generate MW of power while plans are afoot for five more hydro-electric stations and two coal plants to be completed before Delivering the goods Driving these projects is Norwegian Torstein Dale Sjotveit, who was appointed CEO in November when he was given a clear directive as to what the company expects.

None of this would be possible without the previous 70 years of prudent management. Our predecessors have really done a great job of managing SEB to the point that these things are possible. The name Sarawak Energy Berhad was adopted on 2 April They are also exploring the possibility of selling power to Brunei and Sabah. Sjotveit is excited about the future and he draws on his diverse experience to steer SEB through the obstacles and challenges they face. For 27 years before that, he was with Norsk Hydro, gaining experience in the oil and gas, polymers and petrochemicals, aluminium and international business development sectors, including a six-year stint in West Africa.

Meeting the challenges Before he left Norsk Hydro, he was President of Aluminium Metal, leading operations across 13 countries and 5, employees. There aren't many jobs in the power industry that offer this kind of challenge and opportunity. Particularly in a growing organisation like SEB in a culture with huge automatic respect for authority, humility is essential to provide people with the space they need to find their voice and give their best.

POWER jects to allow young people in these communities to record their history and culture and project it to the rest of the world. Who has more to give? How far can they go with the right support? What do they need to get there? Creativity in this environment is therefore about finding. This is easy to say but it requires discipline to pause and really listen to what people are saying.

He said management has put up more than papers to the Board since December , and every submission is carefully considered. The Board comprises Chairman. Given the speed and complexity of our agenda, it is a real credit to the Directors that so many of our decision have been timely and correct. It takes a lot of effort to be clear and precise and we have come a long way in this regard, not only in front of the Board, but in the decisions that we take in the Executive Management Committee.

The company behind the dam, Sarawak Hidro, is confident the giant structure can fulfil its commitments. Tan Sri Izzudin Bin Dali, Chairman of Sarawak Hidro, said the huge Bakun Dam project will generate 2, megawatts of power, offering the region a fresh lifeline in terms of power and energy requirements. The Dam was originally planned to provide energy for the West Malaysian states, Sarawak and Sabah, but it was decided later to restrict power delivery to only Sarawak.

Expanding Energy Tan Sri Izzudin said once Sarawak expands its energy capacity with up to 30 dams in the next few years, the government can look into the possibility of extending its power suppy to neighbouring Sabah as well. However, the priority is to ensure Sarawakians, even in remote areas, have easy access to power.

Concrete Giant Bakun Dam is the second tallest concrete-faced rockfill dam in the world and rises metres above sea level. The crest is metres long and its entire system, including the swathe of land that had to be flooded, is almost the size of Singapore. This includes the Samalaju Industrial Park, which is being powered by the Dam some kilometres away.

The entire dam project will eventually involve eight giant turbines generating power. The first turbine started producing power on the 6th of August Since then, a new turbine is cranked into operation every two-three months until all eight are function smoothly to generate maximum power. The chairman has been closely in-. Personal Project Although talk of a possible dam in Sarawak started two decades ago, it was only nine years ago that the first serious steps were taken to ensure such a project become a reality.

And then they asked me to be chairman of Sarawak Hidro. I am very fortunate. There is a hotel based on the concept of longhouses. In the evenings you can go on a boat ride and see the sun setting. Sarawak Cable has existed since and has steadily built up a solid reputation in the manufacturing and trading of power cables and wires as well as installing transmission lines.

The company is also looking to bid for potential projects worth more than RM1 billion while expanding into overseas markets such as Brunei, Kalimantan and the Philippines. The company is procuring more machinery from funds set aside after their recent IPO. The inverters switch to a diesel generator once the solar power in the batteries is used up. The tie-up with KEC and Sinohydro is significant. Media reports indicate KEC is one of the largest integrated power transmission EPC companies in the world, having successfully completed transmission-related projects in more than 40 countries.

Crucial MoU It is also the second-largest maker of transmission towers in the world, with a capacity of , tonnes. It is ranked No. Sinohydro has also been focusing on energy-related projects, successfully installing 20, megawatts of power plants, including the Yangtze Three Gorges, Jingping Hydropower station, Sudan Merowe Hydropower project and the 2,MW Bakun Hydroelectric dam dam in Sarawak.

They have proposed to acquire a 65 per cent share in Trenergy Infrastructure Sdn Bhd, which is involved in the trading of cables, wires, conductors, steel towers and poles. It also wants to acquire the remaining 25 per cent it does not already own in Sarwaja Timur Sdn Bhd, which makes steel towers.

However, the government is placing greater importance on technology in its quest to achieve developed status by With Sarawak driving towards developed and high income status by , technology has become an integral part of its overall economic surge. The government is keen to build on technological advances already achieved in various fields while pursuing fresh initiatives across a range of sectors.

The Early Years Although the importance of technology has only recently been emphasised, a number of early birds have already made a mark in Sarawak, setting up a solid base for future growth. It is responsible for building the IT and technology infrastructure in the state so that private operators, domestic and foreign, can provide internet, phone and data services to the population.

The company has towers scattered across 70 per cent of Sarawak with plans for more, at a cost of RM million. The programme allows major service providers such as Telekom, Celcom, Maxis and Digi to reach pockets of potential users in the remote areas. Sacofa has already started the process of fiberizing the towers. Though Sacofa has emerged as the key driver of telecommunications development in Sarawak, they were not the first company to take up the challenge of building an IT infrastructure in the state Sacofa is also responsible for establishing the first physical communications link between peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia with its submarine fibre-optic cable running from Mersing in Johor to Sarawak.

Global Player With the latest 4G and LTE technologies in the pipeline, Sacofa is keen to go beyond state and national borders and play a role in connecting Southeast Asia, Hong Kong, China and Japan in line with the objectives of Axiata, the Malaysian-inspired company responsible for international communications services. The ultimate aim is to make data, mobile and internet use more affordable for people as well as setting up an environment conducive to foreign investors, including those from the Middle East.

Though Sacofa has emerged as the key driver of telecommunications development in Sarawak, they were not the first company to take up the challenge of building an IT infrastructure in the state. Among the technology-related pioneers to make their presence felt in Sarawak was Comserv, which was formed in by Malaysian and Australian concerns to provide network infrastructure, software and development work, training and e-business solutions to organisations.

In early , Comserv undertook what was then the biggest IT project in Sarawak. It was launched by Chief Minister Taib in August, IT Boost With the Rimbunan Hijau Group now on board as partners, Comserv is in a strong position to pursue their objectives of enhancing computer technology in Sarawak and boost the number of IT professionals in the state, supported by their 26 years of experience in the industry.

Sains' reputation quickly spread beyond Sarawak and they are now well known among regional governments for their low-cost and professional delivery of IT solutions. The company has a close business alliance with the Sarawak government, providing a range of solutions for internet portals for various departments.

It is also involved in healthcare, libraries, ecommerce and e-content, for which it is among the top companies in the world. The Sarawak government is also using IT to improve the way it operates. The Sarawak Civil Service Innovative Ideas portal scs-ii calls on employees to submit their ideas online as to how the civil service can be improved. Apart from the corporate sector and government, learning institutions are playing an important role in enhancing technology development in Sarawak.

In fact, Unimas is leading the way in providing research end expertise for many Sarawak technology development projects. Unimas is also helping the governments of Sarawak and Sabah solve electricity supply problems to rural areas through research and development support in a project worth about RM, While the Sarawak economy continues to thrive on agro and forest-based industries, technology is no longer at the background providing behind-thescenes support.

As far as MOSTI is concerned, we are prepared to help in terms of advice and consultation and whatever assistance required by the state. MIDCom Minister eager to pave Sarawak with top-class road network Sarawak has a massive land area with a relatively small population, which means being judicious in spending money when it comes to building roads.

Jawong is determined to improve connectivity in the state. Dato Sri Michael Manyin Ak. Jawong Ministry of Infrastructure Development and Communications. We are a big state but we have only about 2. Density is very small so it is difficult and expensive to build roads. Another project is a RM million, kilometre dual carriageway road to be built from Bintulu Town to the Samalaju Industrial Park, which is. He said his ministry engineers have completed the designs and construction can start once funding is secured.

I have seen the place and there are already people working now who need this road. Dato Sri said only one kilometre of this road features a dual carriageway, prompting appeals from the public for more overtaking lanes. However, a recent request for funding to construct more overtaking lanes was turned down by the federal government. That would really solve the problem. We are not asking for RM16 billion to build a highway.

We just want overtaking lanes. Busy portfolio MIDCom, according to Dato Sri Michael, is one of the largest ministries in Sarawak because of its diverse portfolio of responsibilities. In , the name changed to Ministry of Works and Special Functions but only one year later became the Ministry of Infrastructure Development. To reflect its roles more accurately, the organisation changed its name to the Ministry of Infrastructure Development and Communications in Dato Sri Michael has been its Minister since 1 December However, the Port management recently made a major breakthrough when it successfully secured federal government funding to conduct a detailed study on upgrading the Port in order to cater for large ships.

We are delighted to have secured federal funding, which is not easy to get, to conduct a study into how we can make the port deeper. Mr Shebli said the results of the study are likely to be known around June Should the study find that the proposed upgrades are viable, Miri Port would then search for investors to fund the venture, with Middle Eastern interests welcome to participate. In the first six months of , the Port handled more than , tonnes of cargo and is poised to surpass its record of more than , tonnes.

It shows you how hard we work. Dato Ir. Dato lr. Its primary objectives are to build and expand the provision of telecommunication network infrastructures throughout Sarawak and connect it with the outside world. Dato Abang Jemat said the time was ripe for investment in Sarawak from the Middle East with the federal and state governments implementing policies to enhance the investment environment.

Among the aims is to ensure per cent broadband penetration nationwide by We can attract investors from the Middle East as we are well located geographically, there are no dangers from natural disasters, we have a stable political environment and good energy provisions. Sacofa also owns towers in strategic locations covering 70 per cent of the state. The GLC, which celebrates 10 years in , also enjoys fibre network connectivity with Brunei and an underwater cable system to Mersing, Johor on the west coast of peninsula Malaysia.

With this, we can provide speeds not seen in this part of the world. All the people, even in the longhouses, will have access to the internet. The phase involves the fiberisation of all communication towers throughout Sarawak. Phase five provides for setting up an Alternative Regional Communication Hub while phase six calls on Sacofa to investigate the creation of a data centre and cloud computing possibilities.

The towers and fibre-optic networks ensure that bandwidth for internet use is affordable and readily available to all service providers on a sharing basis. He is now venturing into politics. These three positions are enough to place him among the high-profile business leaders in the state. However, the political blue-blood pedigree is circumstantial as far as he is concerned. He often has to defend himself against accusations of favouritism. But he does so with aplomb, having plenty of ammunition from his experience and achievements in the corporate world.

He studied in the United States and Canada and is a leading advocate for maintaining Sarawak as a cost-effective place to do business and an attractive destination for foreign investment.

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