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Cyprus Removal. Cyprus Service. Cyprus Serviced Offices. Cyprus Telecommunications. Cyprus Temps. Cyprus Ticketing. Cyprus Tickets. Cyprus Translations. Try a selection of meze or a slice of cheese pie at Paei Kairos, Pasikratous. Take a walk towards the north of the city and you will get to the green line, which has politically divided the southern republic of Cyprus from the Turkish-occupied north since The only crossing for cars and pedestrians is at Ledra Palace, which now forms an integral part of thought-provoking city sightseeing tours.
The Cyprus Museum at 1 Mouseiou houses the best collection of archaeological finds from the island. If you fancy more culture, visit Faneromeni Church, the largest church within the city walls with a marble mausoleum, or the ornate Omeriye Mosque, which has a tall minaret that dominates the skyline. If you prefer a spot of retail therapy, the main shopping areas are along Lidras in the old city and Arhiepisk-opou Makariou III in the new city.
The government-sponsored Cyprus Handicraft Centre at Athalassa Avenue is a good place to pick up souvenirs and watch craftsmen at work. For a meal with a view, the Marco Polo rooftop restaurant at the Holiday Inn, 70 Regaena Street, offers spectacular views over the city. From the outside it looks like an old house, but push open the door and it opens out, Tardis-like, nto a huge bar with atmospheric arches and walls decked with memorabilia, and stays open until 2am.
It includes a sightseeing tour, cathedral visit, free time for shopping and drive through the Troodos mountains. This is a community-moderated forum. All post are the individual views of the respective commenter and are not the expressed views of Travel Weekly. The highest official awards for UK businesses since being established by royal warrant in
Further, it introduces the reader to our case study, Cyprus, and its history, crucial national identity issues, and museum environment. Defining Politics: The Political Museum In order to understand the relationship between museums and politics it is important to first unpack the term politics and arrive at a useful definition. As the discipline of political science was born at the crossroads of history, sociology, psychology, economics, and public law, a variety of schools of thought have claimed its analysis de Sousa, ; Heywood, Political science, the main discipline that deals with politics, has traditionally aimed at creating a firm disciplinary grounding by attaching itself to the natural sciences and by using positivist approaches.
The positivist mainstream views politics as a science with a unified ontology, epistemology, and methodology that has methods and standards similar to those of the natural sciences Heywood, ; Keating, Furthermore, positivist political scientists usually seek to eliminate the parameters of culture, tradition, and geography in search for universal models Keating, As a reaction to positivist approaches, a number of researchers and thinkers have highlighted the subjective nature of politics and the social embedding of individual actors.
Museums, Politics, Stakeholders, and Conflict 23 These more open notions of politics support a more constructivist or contextual approach where history and geography play an active role Keating, Disciplinary boundaries such as those of politics and economy are nowadays accepted as artificial and unnecessary, and a dialogue between various disciplines is encouraged Hay, Defining politics and what exactly makes a social interaction political has been political itself.
The definitions provided by political analysts depend on the approach they use and vary from extremely narrow definitions that focus on state government, and even party politics, to all encompassing definitions that include all social activities in all areas of social life. An overly narrow definition of politics cannot apply to institutions such as museums since museums do not usually play a direct role in state governance or party politics.
On the other hand, an all-encompassing definition such as the one provided by Leftwich is not very useful in discussing specific concepts such as power and conflict, which are important to political discussions. Baker provides a very useful definition for our purposes that emphasizes the linguistic and symbolic realm of politics.
We adopt this definition for the purposes of this book, since museums are institutions that function within the symbolic realm to help articulate, negotiate, visualize, and present community and individual narratives. In the case of Cyprus, museums seem to reflect and crystalize the competing claims of the two main ethnic communities of the island.
Baker also maintains that: Political culture is, in this sense, the set of discourses or symbolic practices by which these claims are made. It comprises the definitions of the relative subject-positions from which individuals and groups may or may not legitimately make claims one upon another, and therefore of the identity and boundaries of the communities to which they belong. From the above definition two key issues become prominent, which lie at the heart of politics: power and conflict.
The following paragraphs explore these concepts in order to further examine in what ways museums are political in nature. What is often ignored is the fact a that it is difficult, if not impossible, to represent something in a museum, or any other medium, as objective social or political reality independent of our understanding of it Heywood, , and b that the context of an institution, and more specifically its culture, history, and geography, influence its entity and practices.
Questions like what is worth preserving, what is studied and by whom, what is chosen for exhibition, and how it is interpreted are vital in understanding museums and their connections with politics. Nevertheless, it is worth noting that these crucial questions remain at a theoretical or professional level.
Most museum visitors often take museum narratives for granted without questioning their construction. Museums are invested with the power to represent certain points of view as natural, acceptable, and truthful. This power unavoidably carries a burden of responsibility—responsibility for the messages presented and for the messages not presented. Since museums are generally perceived as the unbiased safe houses of knowledge, authority and power become interrelated concepts. Authority seems to grant museums the right to control, articulate, and present narratives of the past, present, and future and thus influence perceptions, values and, finally, behavior.
Visibility and Representation: Politics at the Exhibition Level and Beyond Museums adopt two main roles when designing exhibitions: that of the selector or exhibitor and that of the interpreter. Unavoidably, the articulation of knowledge and power crystallizes at the exhibition space Bennett, In his book Museum Politics: Power Plays at the Exhibition, Luke provides various fascinating examples of articulations of knowledge and power by focusing on controversial exhibitions.
Furthermore, Luke argues that museums are venues where many key cultural realities are first presented and defined. His examples include exhibitions that directly challenge preconceived ideas and steer controversy. Any action of a museum is political in the sense that decisions are constantly made between competing alternatives.
For example, what is considered important to collect and exhibit at a national art museum might depend on broader art historical concepts such as what is considered art, who are considered to be the important artists of a period, and what is considered their most representative works and ideological and nationalist concepts such as what exemplifies a national identity of a place at the specific time , as well as practical reasons space, money, personnel, etc.
These concepts and ideas vary from place to place and from time to time. Second, focusing on museum micro-politics and the politics of specific exhibitions gives the illusion that museum professionals and experts are mainly responsible for exhibition narratives and therefore for visibility and representation politics.
We argue that, especially in countries where conflict is prominent, museum professionals are not the only, or even the main, stakeholders that shape exhibition narratives. Museums might be human constructions but their histories, collections, and functions go beyond the actions and careers of specific individuals. These stakeholders are responsible for the establishment of museums, their functions, and the narratives presented.
An individual or an entity can belong to more than one of these categories. For example, an individual can be a museum professional, a researcher, and a visitor. Some of these identities might even conflict with each other. Sometimes different stakeholders might be in conflict.
In this case, different stakeholders envision the role of the museum in dramatically different ways. Museum professionals are increasingly aware of the conflict between different museum stakeholders and the effects these conflicts might have on the interpretation of their collections. For this reason, they often attempt to develop channels of communication and collaboration with different stakeholders Herle, ; Macdonald, However, what happens when conflict is not located within the different roles of an individual or within the narratives of a particular exhibition?
What happens when the conflict involves visibility and representational politics of ethnic communities with competing claims and takes place in a number of museums simultaneously? How are museums affected by broader political conflicts and debates? Can, or should, museums contribute to change and reconciliation? If yes, in what ways? These questions bring us to our case study: the island of Cyprus. Museums, Politics, Stakeholders, and Conflict 27 Time and Place: Cyprus as a Case Study Having tackled the definition of politics and examined the relationship of museums with visibility and representation politics, we now turn to our specific case study.
Undeniably, museums function in a specific place and time, and thus geography and history play a crucial role in their development and overall character. Place and time also determine which stakeholders are more active or powerful and thus which aspects of cultural heritage and histories become more visible and prominent. Then, we explore important issues of nationalism and identity in Cyprus and, finally, we provide an overview of the Cypriot museum environment and its main stakeholders.
History of Cyprus: A Brief Overview Cyprus, an island of the Eastern Mediterranean strategically located between East and West, has a long history of war, conflict, and occupation by competing powers striving to control the area. The history of Cyprus starts in the Neolithic period, approximately in bce. It is believed that the first people to arrive on the island originated in the Near East.
Successive people colonized the island from the third millennium bce onwards:5 settlers from Anatolia Early, Middle and Late Chalcolithic period, dating from bce to bce , Egyptian influence fifteenthth century bce , the Mycenaeans,6 the Phoenicians around bce ,7 the Assyrians bce , and then the Egyptians bce again, to be followed by the Persians, whose domination lasted until the end of the fourth century bce Coldstream, ; Hanworth, ; Karageorghis, ; Peltenburg, ; Tatton-Brown, As the Roman Empire grew in power and Cyprus became a province of the new empire in 30 bce, Christianization of Cyprus began in 46 ce with the visit of St.
Paul and St. By the fourth century ce, the bishops of Cyprus were strong and influential enough to achieve an autonomous status within the early Orthodox Church in the fifth century. Cyprus became a semi-independent autonomous province administered from Antioch and in was granted ecclesiastical autonomy Runciman, The wealth of the island attracted Arab raids in the seventh and eighth centuries, and these along with earthquakes destroyed many of the buildings of previous periods.
The earliest mosque in Cyprus, Hala Sultan Tekke, is associated with the first Arab attempts to occupy the island in ce. The Byzantine period lasted until , when, during 28 The Political Museum the Third Crusade, the island was conquered by Richard the Lionheart and his allies.
The inhabitants though fought him hard and forced him first to sell the island to the Knights Templar and then to offer it to Guy de Lusignan from Jerusalem, whose family produced the rulers of the island until Frankish period , when it came under Venetian rule that lasted until During the previous periods, the Orthodox Church was subjugated to the Latin Catholic and a feudal system of government was imposed.
The Ottomans arrived on the island in Feudalism was abolished, and Turkish settlers, mostly soldiers, were added to the local population of Greeks, Armenians, and Maronites. The Sultan, following a common Ottoman practice, arranged direct access to the Porte of the Archbishop of the island, who was eventually recognized as the leader the Ethnarch of the Greek Cypriot population in In the early nineteenth century, the Greek War of Independence resulted in a massacre of Cypriots, including the Archbishop, clergy, wealthy traders, and intellectuals, undertaken by the Ottomans just to make sure that Cyprus would not participate to the uprising.
Greek irredentism, envisioning the liberation of all Greeks under Ottoman rule, was the foundation of later attempts in Cyprus to achieve union enosis with Greece Kitromilides, After three centuries of Ottoman rule, Britain took over administration of the island in as part of the settlement between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. Indeed, during the twentieth century, there was a gradual rise first of Greek nationalism and later of Turkish, with Greek Cypriots supporting enosis, that is, the union of Cyprus with Greece, while Turkish Cypriots demanded taksim, that is, partition.
From to a clandestine armed organization called eoka Ethniki Organosis Kyprion Agoniston - National Organization of Cypriot Fighters initiated an armed struggle against the British, under the military guidance of George Grivas Digenes8 , a Cyprus born Greek army officer.
The political movement for enosis was led by the Ethnarch, Archbishop Makarios, who later became the first President of the Republic of Cyprus. Colonial authorities, taking advantage of the growing discontent of the Turkish Cypriot community with the prospect of becoming a very small minority in a major Greek state, began recruiting Turkish Cypriot auxiliary policemen to suppress civilian demonstrations in favor of enosis. The chasm between the two communities was growing and inter-communal fighting broke out in the summer of ; both eoka and tmt attacked not just members of the opposing ethnic Museums, Politics, Stakeholders, and Conflict 29 groups but also members of their own—mostly supporters of the left-wing political parties active on the island Papadakis, b.
In agreements in Zurich and London brought an end to the armed conflicts, and an independent Republic of Cyprus was established on August 15, Britain retained sovereignty over its military bases, and the peace between the two major ethnic communities, Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots, was to be guaranteed by Britain, Greece, and Turkey. The two communities formed two different assemblies, the Greek Cypriot one with 80 percent of the total population and the Turkish Cypriot one with 18 percent.
The new state formation did not satisfy either of the two main communities, and both continued to pursue their separate objectives. In a new round of inter-communal conflict broke out that lasted until , with Turkish Cypriots bearing heavy costs in terms of casualties and displacements around a fifth of their population was displaced, mainly transported to enclaves and camps.
With the rise in power in Greece of a military dictatorship, Greek Cypriots gradually edged away from union with Greece and sought instead to preserve the independence of Cyprus Mallinson, Nevertheless, a new conflict developed, this time among Greek Cypriots. As a result, Turkey, which along with Greeks and the British was appointed according to the Zurich agreement as a guarantor power, organized a military operation that led to the division of the island and the displacement of the population most Greek Cypriots fled to the southern part of the island and Turkish Cypriots to the northern part.
This time Greek Cypriots suffered the most in terms of human losses, social costs of dislocation, and financial losses of their properties. Cyprus then divided in two parts. Around , Greek Cypriot refugees were re-settled in the southern part of the island, while 71, Turkish Cypriots were forced to move to the northern part and were mostly accommodated in the vacated Greek Cypriot properties.
This is, of course, only a rough sketch of the political events of this period for more information see Calotychos, ; Hitchens, ; Kitromilides, ; Loizos, ; Papadakis, a. Following the Ottoman example, Turkey re-settled an 30 The Political Museum estimated 60, Turks Hatay, in the northern part of the island— although numbers are uncertain. In , crossing points for people to move between the two parts were opened and some trade was allowed.
The access has caused major emotional responses for many, since Greek Cypriots found their former properties occupied by Turkish and Turkish-Cypriots and vice versa, or in some cases, sold to foreign owners; a number of high profile lawsuits have been concluded or are in progress to this day.
The year also saw the accession of the Republic of Cyprus to the European Union despite the continued division. It has had an effect on educational, economic, social, and cultural policies and thus has a profound influence on both national and personal identities. There have been many attempts at the unification of the island, but Nicosia still remains divided and a buffer zone monitored by United Nations troops is still located at the divide.
The map in Figure 2. It also shows the British military bases. Figure 2. Blue and white barrels are stacked one on top of the other to block a road leading to the northern part of Nicosia. The specific area is being revitalized slowly, and thus one can see abandoned, dilapidated houses coexisting with a number of bars, alternative cafes, and small businesses that are located in the vicinity. A number of advertising and directional signs evident in the photograph testify to the coexistence of a recent, turbulent past with nearby physical and emotional scars and a commercial present with economic and tourist development.
The crisis deepened in and peaked in with the European Union and International Monetary Fund rescue plan, which resulted in the bail-out of uninsured depositors of the two biggest local banks. As a result, the Cyprus problem and the financial crisis are currently the two main preoccupations of the government and the media, marginalizing other important issues such as gender equality, social inclusion, civil rights, and environmental issues Demetriou, ; Hadjipavlou, Map of Cyprus, CIA.
Public domain. Photo by the authors. Indeed, identity, memory, and nationalism have been catchphrases used and scrutinized almost compulsively in diverse disciplines such as history, political studies, art history and practice, anthropology, sociology, and, of course, museum studies.
Even though it falls outside the scope of this book to provide an overview of this literature, we will discuss a useful distinction made by Smith , , between two forms of nationalism: civic and ethnic nationalism. This distinction is crucial for the discussion on museums in countries amidst conflict, and we will return to this distinction in Chapter 3 and in Chapter 9.
In civic nationalism, nationhood is defined by a common citizenship regardless of ethnicity, race, color, religion, or gender. The civic nation comprises citizens who are all equal, hold the same rights, and share a common set of political practices and values.
It is thus united by a civic rather than an ethnic definition of belonging. As we will see in this book, most Cypriot museums and especially national museums seem to adopt an ethno-national approach by promoting an ethnic instead of a civic sense of nationalism. As a result, the official documents accumulated by both communities are mainly one-sided and fragmented. Other identity markers such as age, gender, and sexual orientation are usually underplayed or ignored.
Furthermore, different political aims caused the two communities to adopt different official narratives of the past. On the other hand, the Turkish Cypriot authorities claim that the past was one of pure animosity and conflict and therefore separation is the only reasonable solution. In general, there is an unwillingness to consider or engage with the positions of the other side.
As a matter of fact, any conflicting information is usually dismissed as propaganda and 34 The Political Museum any dissident voices as traitors Papadakis, a. This approach often results not only in the self-censorship of individuals but also of museums. Right and left wing politics also seem to play a crucial role. In any case, we need to keep in mind that identity in the sphere of official rhetoric and party politics is not necessarily the same as that of everyday life. Things become even more complicated when one zooms in on the individual level.
People are defined not only by their ethnic, religious, and ideological orientation but also by their age, gender, social position, experiences, and attitudes. In addition, migration from Asian and Eastern European countries, as well as the increasing number of marriages between Cypriots and people from other nationalities, obscures the straightforward binary ethnic distinction Turkish Cypriots or Greek Cypriots.
The total population of the southern part of the island according to the latest population census conducted in is , people, of whom , are Cypriot citizens and of these, , were born on the island of Cyprus , , are eu citizens, and 64, are non-eu citizens11 Republic of Cyprus, The same census indicates that non-Cypriot permanent residents rose to The changing composition of the population points to a multiplicity of voices, and it is this multiplicity of voices and perceptions that makes civic rather than ethnic nationalism more urgent than ever.
Cypriot Museums and Stakeholders At first glance, in Cyprus, a small country with less than a million residents, there is a large number of museums per capita in operation. The first museum in Cyprus, the Cyprus Museum, was inaugurated in during the British rule and is still the largest archaeological museum in Cyprus. During the first half of the twentieth century a number of museums were initiated by the British authorities or by local societies.
What follows is a short overview of the museum scene in Cyprus and the key stakeholders who have established and maintain museums in the southern part of the island. Even though the various chapters of this book deal equally with museums in the northern and southern parts of the island, there is not much information about the cultural policy or establishment of museums in the northern part of Cyprus. The most active decade for the establishment of museums, at least in the southern part, was the s, a decade of financial prosperity and security.
The state runs all archaeological museums apart from one 11 out of 12 and has also established a small number of ethnographic museums. The law, which became effective in , aims primarily at setting professional standards for museums as well as broadening and advancing the services offered to their visitors. State funding for museums aims at serving their further development by covering only developmental expenses and not financing any operational needs Nicolaou, As we mentioned, there are three main stakeholders involved in the establishment and running of museums in the southern part of Cyprus and most probably in the northern part as well : a the state, b communities and municipalities, and c foundations and private collectors.
For this reason a whole chapter Chapter 3 is dedicated to the examination of the network of national museums established by both the Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot authorities. In the field of local government, cultural departments and services have been created in most municipalities of Cyprus.
They develop cultural activities by organizing festivals and other events, but also by establishing and managing museums and other cultural institutions Ministry of Education and Culture, When communities or municipalities establish museums, their goals usually involve the preservation of tangible and intangible heritage for future generations and the promotion of local and community identities.
In contrast with state priorities, smaller communities or municipalities are usually mostly interested in local identities and economic revitalization. Municipal and community museums seem to focus on ethnographic museums mainly for two reasons. First, the diminishing number of inhabitants, especially young people in rural villages and, as a result, the slowly disappearing of traditional knowhow increases the perceived urgency of preservation of local customs and traditions and folklore.
The availability of funding for restor- Museums, Politics, Stakeholders, and Conflict 37 ing traditional buildings from the government of Cyprus and the European Union contributes to and reinforces this trend. Second, museums are seen by these communities as a way to attract tourists to the mainly quiet but picturesque villages and therefore have a positive effect on local economic development.
Private collectors or foundations often establish and run museums with an aim to preserve and make public private collections. Private museums can be museums owned by individuals e. Private museums comprise the most diverse category of museums in Cyprus because of the many stakeholders involved in their establishment. Some private museums are large institutions with strong partnerships, while others are small, one-person affairs.
Furthermore, some private individuals and foundations maintain fruitful collaborations with municipalities while partially maintaining their private legal status. These museums were initiated by the Leventis and the Pierides families respectively and primarily house what originally were their private collections.
Two other key private stakeholders that play an important part in the preservation and promotion of Cypriot heritage and contemporary arts are financial institutions such as banks and the Church of Cyprus. Several banks through their cultural centers i. Their contribution is based on the principle of corporate social responsibility. Additionally, the Church of Cyprus has always played an important role in the socio-cultural and political environment of Cyprus.
Ten out of fourteen Byzantine museums that currently operate in southern Cyprus were established and run by the Church of Cyprus with an aim to preserve and promote the Byzantine and post-Byzantine heritage. These museums are also archaeological, in the sense that they deal with Byzantine archaeology, but they represent a separate category, since the religious aspect of the collections seems to prevail over the archaeological one.
Finally, some institutions, such as the Nicosia Municipal Arts Centre or the Evagoras and Kathleen Lanitis Foundation, house only temporary exhibitions and thus encourage repeat visits. These institutions focus on creativity and artistic vitality and are quite popular with the local population. This is true in the case of Cyprus, since the most innovative art institutions are not state-run but private ones. One last group of stakeholders are the museum professionals themselves. Museum professionals are authoritative figures in the sense that they are the products of an educational and professional system that emphasizes specialized disciplinary knowledge, and they are governed by professional societies that adhere to ethical guidelines.
Museum professionals make everyday decisions concerning their individual museums. These everyday, mundane decisions often have a political function, even if museum professionals may not intend or anticipate such functions. In Cyprus this group of stakeholders is not very strong. For example, with only a few exceptions, the majority of ethnographic museums in different rural communities go about their business with just one person, usually a guard. On the other hand, the government employs a number of specialized museum professionals mainly archaeologists , especially in the Department of Antiquities.
The Department of Antiquities is also the base of the professional association icom International Council of Museums Cyprus. Usually, the activities of the Cyprus Committee of icom are restricted to events organized once a year for International Museum Day and Night. No other professional museum association exists in Cyprus that would support, develop, and further educate the museum community.
In the case of Cyprus, two main ethnic communities, with competing claims, use museums to do exactly that: articulate, implement, and enforce ethno-national, community, and individual identities. Museums, Politics, Stakeholders, and Conflict 39 Museums were and will always be political institutions because they cannot easily escape the political codes, shared knowledge, and interpretations that are prevalent in the public sphere.
Furthermore, especially when a country is torn by ethnic conflict, each community tries to unite itself in every possible way and voice its claims as loudly and clearly as possible. In our case, the state, followed by religious institutions such as the Church of Cyprus, seems to be the most powerful stakeholder when it comes to establishing and reinforcing a sense of ethno-national identity.
Nevertheless, private foundations, institutions, and individuals contribute to the museum scene of Cyprus with a variety of museums that reflect their own objectives, visions, and interests. Even though or precisely because of this these institutions might not have the security of a steady and unquestioned flow of funding that national museums enjoy, some of the most innovative projects that diverge from ethno-national approaches come from these institutions see for example Chapter 9.
After all, museums are not stable and unchanging. On the contrary, they are often proactive and innovative organizations that are guided by missions, goals, and ideals. Change is possible when the right conditions are in place. To conclude, museums function in a complex political system in which various stakeholders share and negotiate power. Multiple stakeholders mean that power does not rest in the hands of specific individuals, groups, or institutions but is widely diffused.
Nevertheless, some stakeholders seem to be more powerful than others. Finally, while museums constitute the material reflection of societies, they also have the power to shape society. The following chapters focus on how politics and various stakeholders shape Cypriot museums and their narratives. However, we will also provide examples see Chapter 8 of how certain communities are questioning museum narratives and practices.
This page intentionally left blank 3 National Museums: Heritage and Identity For museums, and the museumizing imagination, are both profoundly political. Anderson, , p. Because museums are generally perceived as the unbiased safe houses of knowledge, the concepts of authority and power become interrelated. Realizing the potential of museums as mechanisms of authority, states—and especially newly formed states—have created and used museums extensively to re shape national identity and memory.
Aronsson et al. Therefore, national museums play a crucial role in re enforcing a sense of identity, defining the other, building symbolic boundaries, and thus defining the past and guiding the future. In the last few years, we have seen a number of articles and books that support the notion that national museums are instrumental in establishing a sense of national identity.
Some books are edited volumes that examine international case studies see for example Aronsson et al. This chapter builds on this literature by examining the interrelations among nations, conflict, and museums. We divide the history of Cypriot national museums into three main phases from their creation until today. We argue that the political events that marked these phases played a crucial role in the kinds of museums established, the time of their appearance, and their narratives.
But first, let us investigate the relationship among national museums, politics, and identity. As we mentioned in the introduction of this book, Aronsson , who examined a number of national museums in various European countries, argued that state-making trajectories influence the establishment of national museums.
He discusses the characteristics of three categories of nation-states: a empires and conglomerates such as Great Britain, France, Spain, the Netherlands, and Belgium; b smaller states with a long nation-state history such as Sweden, Denmark, Portugal, and Switzerland; and c newly emerging nation-states, such as the United States, Finland, Hungary, South Africa, Poland, Italy, Turkey, Greece, and Cyprus.
Considerable existing literature has looked at the first category and successfully connected the development of national museums with the rise of nationalism in the nineteenth-century European nation-states. Large, now multicultural countries such as Great Britain, France, Spain, and the Netherlands had the chance to acquire objects from their colonies. Museums such as the Louvre or the British National Museums: Heritage and Identity 43 Museum adopt an encyclopedic approach in order to present the story of civilization to their local and international audiences.
In these new emerging nation-states, museums are employed to construct, reinforce, and project specific national narratives. Cyprus, as a former colony with a turbulent history, falls into this category, which means that the main aim of its national museums is to present the nation to its citizens mainly schoolchildren and to the world mainly tourists.
This book builds on the existing literature and takes these arguments one step further by maintaining that museums in new emerging nation states amidst ethnic conflict are used to support ethnic instead of civic national identities see Chapter 2 for a discussion of ethnic vs. This chapter attempts to demonstrate how national museums on both sides of the divide have been, and still are, supporting ethno-national narratives.
Which Nation? Anderson defines a nation as an imagined political community that is limited to a specific place and whose members share a common sense of belonging. National identity is then the experience of belonging to a community with specific traditions and rituals. This imagined community is often crystallized in museums, and especially national museums, with the help of museum objects, texts, and images. First, nationhood assumes a horizontal sense of community without grouping members according to their class, gender, or political or sexual orientations.
National museums in Cyprus seem to assume and adopt this horizontal sense of community. Furthermore, there is a growing population of immigrants who cannot identify with any of these labels. This ethnic and religious distinction is the most prominent one in the media and history books. National museums in Cyprus seem to reflect and reinforce the identity divisions made elsewhere. Which National Museums?
Indeed, what is considered to be cultural heritage by the two communities, and therefore worth preserving and promoting, varies dramatically. Since , both the Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot communities have been responsible for museums in Cyprus. However, there is no collaboration or even communication between museums of the two communities. This strict separation and the lack of communication result in museums that often present exaggerated and contradictory narratives with an aim to reinforce a clear ethno-national identity, instead of a civic one.
Additionally, the management of these museums is located in departments of various governmental ministries. All museums examined in this chapter share these three characteristics and can be found in the official websites of the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot authorities. In this case, other important museums could have been part of our analysis, such as museums created and run by local authorities e.
Leventis Gallery, Pierides Museum. Although these museums are not national in the sense of being financed directly by the State, some of them do have the aspiration of presenting and articulating dominant national realities and myths. Some of these museums will be discussed in the following chapters, so that this chapter can more clearly illustrate the interrelationship between political events and the birth of state-run museums.
Another important problem we encountered in the definition of Cypriot national museums is the fact that, from a legal perspective, one can argue that the museums run by the unrecognized Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus trnc cannot be considered as national in any way, since their very legal entity is questioned.
Despite the fact that no country apart from Turkey recognizes the ministries and departments of trnc, we have chosen to consider them because they fit the description of national museums mentioned above. After all, comparing the museums of the two main ethnic communities can tell us more about what aspects of history and cultural 46 The Political Museum heritage are highlighted or silenced and where conflict is located.
What is omitted is often as important as what is presented. It is crucial to mention that by providing an overview of the creation of national museums in Cyprus and their relationship with key political events, unavoidably we reduce the complexities surrounding their individual development for the sake of making a specific overarching argument. However, we need to keep in mind that each individual museum mentioned here is a complex organism, and different political and socio-cultural forces have contributed to its creation and narratives.
For this reason, some of the most characteristic examples of each period are further discussed in detail in subsequent chapters of this book. Organizational Structure, Policies, and National Museums In the case of Cyprus, no single authority is responsible for overseeing national museums. The two main ethnic communities of the island employ different departments within different ministries to deal with museums. As a result, the organizational structure of national museums in Cyprus is quite fragmented.
Furthermore, due to the ongoing political conflicts and the fact that trnc is considered an illegal state, there is no communication or collaboration among the various ministries or departments that represent the two communities. Currently, in the southern part of the island, two different ministries assume responsibility for museums: the Department of Antiquities in the Ministry of Communications and Works2 is responsible for ancient, Byzantine, medieval, and Ottoman culture, while the Cultural Services of the Ministry of Education and Culture is responsible for contemporary Cypriot culture3 Ministry of Education and Culture, In the northern part of the island, the Department of Antiquities and Museums of the Ministry of National Education and Culture is responsible for all museums, apart from two military-related museums for which it shares the responsibility with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Defense4 see Figure 3.
Placing the management of individual museums in the hands of governmental employees who are also responsible for other projects or institutions and within a vertical bureaucratic system has two direct effects. Even though museum professionals working in national museums may not consider their institutions as political instruments and may strive to follow the disciplinary and ethical guidelines of their field of expertise as well as provide service to the nation Aronsson et al.
Second, it restricts the influence of museum professionals, academics, and other informed stakeholders, who are nowadays more often looking to deconstruct and critique museum narratives than reaffirm them. More specifically, the department is responsible for the management of the archaeological heritage of Cyprus and in particular for the following: … systematic and rescue excavations, as well as archaeological surveys; establishment, management and operation of archaeological museums; conservation, restoration, protection and promotion of Ancient Monuments […], archaeological sites and monuments of architectural heritage.
Department of Antiquities, n. As far as the museums are concerned, the Department of Antiquities, which was established in , is responsible for the management and running of the Cyprus Museum in Nicosia and for the district and local museums. The 48 The Political Museum Department of Antiquities is also responsible for a number of ethnographic museums. In , the department was reorganized and a new branch was created, which started to deal more actively with monuments of folk architecture and folk art.
Individual houses and compounds of houses have been declared ancient monuments, and many of them were turned into ethnographic museums. In this respect, the department is responsible for purchasing works of art for the State collection and the State Gallery of Contemporary Cypriot Art Ministry of Education and Culture, , and finances and oversees the Struggle Museum Ministry of Education and Culture, The Cultural Services division is also responsible for the cultural policy of the Republic.
In , after the independence of the island, assemblies were created to serve the needs of the Greek and Turkish communities. This department was responsible for the first directives towards a cultural policy of the Ministry of Education, which, in the absence of a recent comprehensive cultural policy document, has not changed substantially throughout the years. According to Nikita : The Department of Cultural Development followed a policy focused on the Greek civilization.
The fact that two distinct departments in two different ministries manage museums in the Republic of Cyprus often creates inconsistencies and National Museums: Heritage and Identity 49 problems. The physical distance, the different management and funding approaches, and the different priorities of the two ministries make communication and collaboration between the two departments difficult.
According to the current Head of Cultural Services, Pavlos Paraskevas: Culture suffers today because of fragmentation and because we, a department of contemporary culture, are stranded in structures and forms of the previous 30 years with limited capabilities that are lost in the size of the ministry we are part of […] The administration of culture must change urgently. Despite the fact that this problem was identified by reports of the National Cultural Policy Review program of the Council of Europe see Gordon, ; Ministry of Education and Culture, and a strategic plan was constructed that aimed to solve this problem Ministry of Education and Culture, , there is still no change in the organizational structure of the departments responsible for culture and museums.
The current and previous heads of Cultural Services attribute this to lack of political will personal communication with Pavlos Paraskevas and Eleni Nikita, However, in our view, deeply rooted beliefs about what constitutes culture and what role it should play in contemporary Cyprus are chiefly guiding political decisions. These beliefs will be discussed in this and subsequent chapters. The Greek Cypriot authorities currently run 17 museums, with the majority being archaeological museums.
More specifically, the Republic of Cyprus runs ten archaeological, four ethnographic, two historical, and one art museum. Table 3. There are several dates of importance for each museum that are not always documented or precise. The date a museum opened its doors to the public is usually called the inauguration date. To start with, some museums might have an official inauguration date some time, even years, after the date they welcomed their first visitors.
Furthermore, a number of museums relocated and even changed names. In addition, official records are not always complete or accurate about such dates. Tables 3. Cyprus Museum, Nicosia Archaeology The Cyprus Museum is the first, biggest, and most important archaeological museum in Cyprus. It exhibits archaeological findings from the tenth century bce. Chapter 3 provides a comprehensive history of the museum. Paphos District Archaeological Museum, Paphos Archaeology The collection consists of antiquities ranging from the Neolithic to the Venetian periods found in the area of Paphos.
At the beginning the museum was housed in the Jacobean Elementary School and later earthquakes destroyed the previous building it was moved to the medieval baths Buyuk Hamam of the city. In the collection was moved to its current location, a new building at the entrance of the city of Paphos. In a new room was added to the west part of the building. Struggle Museum, Nicosia History This museum was initiated two years after the end of the struggle against the British with the aim to commemorate and document the liberation struggle of eoka.
More information about the museum can be found in Chapter 5. Larnaca District Archaeological Museum, Larnaca current location Archaeology The museum consists of two wings displaying antiquities, mainly coming from the area around Larnaka, in a chronological order2. It was initially housed in a room of the St. Lazarus monastery. In the collection was transferred to the Ottoman castle of the city, where it remained until , when it was moved to its current location.
At the beginning the building consisted of two rooms, but in another room was added and the exhibition was re-arranged. McFadden was a leading British archaeologist conducting excavations at Kourion from until his death in His house was turned into a museum of antiquities found in the surrounding areas in From until it housed the District Archaeological Museum.
In the galleries were rearranged to illustrate the history and archaeology of Kition and the Late Bronze settlement of Hala Sultan Tekke. Local Archaeological Museum of Archaeology Palea Paphos in Kouklia, Paphos This is another site museum housed since the s in the east wing of the medieval fortress of Kouklia.
The museum was closed in and reopened in In it closed again and the castle was given to the National Guards. A new building to house the museum was built between and ; the exhibition in the new building was inaugurated in March Recently there has been restoration and expansion of the building in order for new exhibition spaces to be created. Yeroskipou Museum of Folk Art, Paphos s Ethnography The museum first opened in the late s to house a small collection of folk art, but its operation proper started in A large part of the collection comes from the Paphos district.
There are also reconstructions of traditional crafts as well as a display of farming tools. Fikardou-Rural Museum Katsinioros House , Nicosia Ethnography The museum is located in the abandoned village of Fikardou, which is nowadays a protected site. Since an extensive revitalization plan has been in progress. The house has been restored, furnished in a traditional manner, as described by George Jeffery in , and interpreted.
Both the museum building and a nearby building used as a residence for researchers and a textile workshop have been awarded the Europa Nostra prize for their refurbishment. Continued on following page Table 3. Continued Name and Location Inaugurated Limassol Medieval Museum, Limassol Initiated Type History The museum is housed in the castle of the city dated , built on the ruins of a Byzantine castle and its Frankish replacement.
The castle was used for housing the District Archaeological collection between and ; it was then offered to the National Guard to be returned to the Antiquities Department in The display presents the economic, social and religious history of the island from the third century ce until the eighteenth century; in other words it covers the Byzantine, Frankish, Venetian, and Ottoman periods and it operates as part of the Cyprus Museum.
The Hadjigeorgakis Kornesios Mansion, Nicosia Ethnography Located in a stone-built eighteenth century house built in , typical of city architecture during the Ottoman period. The house has been restored and furnished with furniture of the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth century not the original furnishings of the house.
The exhibition presents the story of the Hadjigeorgakis Kornesios family, the restoration of the house, and artifacts from the Byzantine, the medieval, and the Ottoman periods. Patsalos Museum of Traditional Embroidery and Silverwork in Lefkara, Larnaca Ethnography The museum is housed in a 19th century mansion typical of Lefkara village. The museum displays furniture re-creation of the period settings , embroideries, traditional costumes, silverware, and lacework, as well as rural equipment.
State Gallery of Contemporary Cypriot Art, Nicosia Art The museum is housed in a neoclassical house and documents in chronological order the development of Cypriot art from the beginning of the 20th century.
It also houses an archive of the work of Cypriot artists and a small library. More information about the museum can be found in Chapter 8. The purpose built museum is rather unusual, being subterranean, and it was designed by the Italian architect Andrea Bruno. The exhibition does not contain original artifacts, but copies which are used for educational purposes.
Archaeological Museum of Marion-Arsinoe, Paphos Archaeology Its collection consists of finds from the ancient city of Marion renamed Arsinoe in the 3rd century bce. It is housed in a new building, following the neoclassical order. It is mostly a site museum that presents the history of the site and the antiquities unearthed there.
The archaeological side of Idalion is one of the most important archaeological sides in Cyprus, and a number of findings from this site can be found in museums abroad. Museums are listed in order of their inauguration date. See also Annual Report of the Department of Antiquities for the years mentioned in the text. For a description of the Museum, see Flourentzos, See also Annual Report of the Department of Antiquities for the year Today the Fort exhibits archaeological artifacts dating mainly from the Byzantine period and also two photography exhibitions.
See Rizopoulou-Egoumenidou and Phiouri, For a detailed discussion, see the Annual Report of the Department of Antiquities for the years mentioned in the text. For its role as the medieval Department of the Cyprus Museum, see Loulloupis, See also Rizopoulou-Egoumenidou, , a, For a detailed presentation of the museological program, see Gazi, ; for the building, see Bruno, Sophia Semiliye Mosque.
It was established by G. A discussion of the history of the museum and its importance in identity creation process can be found in Chapter 3. The space was opened to the public in as the Turkish Cypriot Museum. After repairs to the building, the museum re-opened in as the Mevlevi Museum. This museum presents Ottoman traditions and cultural artifacts. It is disappointing that the sites have been pillaged of their many treasures but it is still a wonderful place to visit. The wealthier the citizen that was buried the more complex and grand the tomb is.
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View Map. Filter Museums. Leventis Gallery reviews. See 2 Experiences. Leventis Municipal Museum of Nicosia reviews. See 1 Experience. Cyprus Museum reviews. Centre of Visual Arts and Research 54 reviews. The paintings, cloth Cyprus Folk Art Museum 66 reviews. Ethnological Museum House of Hadjigeorgakis Kornesios 41 reviews. The National Struggle Museum 57 reviews. Cyprus Classic Motorcycle Museum 61 reviews. The Museum of Barbarism 48 reviews.
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Fairy Tale Museum 7 reviews. Gallery 37 8 reviews. Nicosia Municipal Arts Center 6 reviews. Cyprus Handicraft Centre 3 reviews. See 3 Experiences. Gallery Diachroniki 1 3 reviews. Museum of George and Nefeli Giabra 3 reviews. Previous Next 1 2 3. Frequently Asked Questions about Nicosia. Girne - Catalkoy Area , Catalkoy, Cyprus. Deniz Kizi on a Sandy Beach. Karaoglanoglu Caddesi 1 Alsancak , Kyrenia , Cyprus. The beach is a private bay and is really good. I always find the staff very friendly and helpful.
Lapta Holiday Club Hotel. They gave us a room with no electric, cooler or drink. My husband went to take a shower to find out that the shower was broken. I was thirsty and there was not even A drink Fevzi Cakmak Caddesi , Lapta , Cyprus. Livadhiotis City Hotel. Nikolaou Rossou 50 St. Lazarus Square , Larnaca , Cyprus. It has two single beds pushed together, a TV, desk, luggage rack, coffee-making facilities, fridge, side table with chairs, iron and ironing board, and in-room Eden Seniors Resort.
It had already caused months of pain, walking with great difficulty and using two crutches. The apartments, rooms and restaurants are super nice. The swimming pools are really nice too. Also special thanks to Oleg he gave us a tour and was very There are no more properties that match all of your filters. Clear all filters or view Tripadvisor's suggestions.
Theonos Limited Service Property. Othonos 30 , Nicosia , Cyprus. Semeli Apartments. Sylvias Antique House. Filotheou 11 , Nicosia , Cyprus. Xanthis Xenierou Inn. Bed and Breakfast. The kitchen was cleaned daily and provided all essential appliances including a coffee maker and toaster.
Tropical Dreams Hotel Apartments. Hotel itself very run down. Water ran brown and room so stuffy. Thank god we could use the facilities over the road for food and drink so we only used the room for sleeping! Map Boutique Hotel. Very pleasant and friendly staff. You should definitely have dinner at Scale restaurant and surely have a massage on their spa! Sky Hotel. The rooms are small with add-in tiny private bathroom.
The rooms have a TV with a couple of local and international stations and a Palm Garden Guest House. Very cosy, bunch of lovely rooms facing the palm trees, olive trees can make you feel very local and Mediterranean. The location of the facility can lead you The Sandstone. Tried booking but it said the site was closed and came up as The 3 Rooms Boutique which we then realised it is exactly the same Rimi Hotel. Solonos 5 Laiki Geitonia , Nicosia , Cyprus. Centrum Hotel.
Pasikratous 15 Eleftherias Square , Nicosia , Cyprus. Visit hotel website. Ledras Central Apartments. Ledras Apartments. Demand to have this property removed from advertising as it gives a Baskent Pansion. Girne No. Royiatiko Hotel. Apollonos 27 Old town center , Nicosia , Cyprus. It was our worst experience by far.
Don't forget to go upstairs five star rating because this admire the many icons, jewels. They gave us a room to the art gallery which. The Mevlevi Tekke Museum 18. Never seen such a collection KyreniaCyprus. Date of experience: October Brasschaat. The Pancyprian Gymnasium Museums 11. The swimming pools are really reviews. PARAGRAPHReally tell a cultural story. Loukia and Michael Zampelas Art to two main sections. Private Ethnographic Museum of Cyprus.Churches of Cyprus: Treasures of Byzantine Art (London, ). I owe sincere in Nicosia, now in the Archiepiscopal Museum, repro pl. The murals of the. Ofton Kleftiko Kyriakos, Nicosia: See 29 unbiased reviews of Ofton Kleftiko Kyriakos Archbishop Makarios III Foundation - Byzantine Museum and Art Galleries. Enjoying a snack in the museums café before exploring the museum's treasures is For some Cypriot history this museum in Nicosia covers mainly three areas of history. The Paphos Archaeological Park can also be found in Paphos which.