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Investment slightly improved compared to the previous quarter , driven by an increase in capital goods investment in the 3rd quarter of by Exports and Imports growth did not show a significant improvement in Q3 This was commensurate with the weak demand in the manufacturing sector. Manufacturing loans grew more slowly in August by 0.
The average PMI in the 3rd quarter of stood at Given this backdrop, we estimate that the Q3 GDP growth will contract by Sementara itu, dari sektor tenaga kerja terus menunjukkan pemulihan dengan turunnya klaim tunjangan pengangguran dan bertambahnya lowongan pekerjaan. Jumlah warga AS yang mengisi tunjangan pengangguran turun menjadi ribu klaim dalam pekan terakhir tanggal 7 November Angka tersebut merupakan yang terendah sejak kenaikan tajam klaim tunjangan pengangguran bulan Maret Sementara itu, jumlah lowongan pekerjaan di AS bulan September meningkat sebesar Namun masih jauh berada di level sebelum pandemi yang tersedia hingga 7 juta lowongan pekerjaan.
Tiongkok Perekonomian Tiongkok melanjutkan pemulihan meskipun terbatas sebagaimana ditunjukkan oleh penurunan inflasi terutama bahan makanan dan penurunan harga produsen. Eropa Perekonomian kawasan Eropa tumbuh signifikan di kuartal didorong oleh peningkatan aktivitas masyarakat setelah kebijakan lockdown secara bertahap dicabut. Pemulihan ekonomi kawasan Eropa pada kuartal didorong oleh naiknya permintaan domestik setelah kebijakan pembatasan secara bertahap dilonggarkan.
Jepang Pemulihan perekonomian Jepang masih terbatas akibat pandemi Covid yang ditunjukkan dengan penurunan pada cadangan devisa Jepang Oktober Cadangan devisa Jepang turun menjadi USD 1. Komoditas Harga komoditas dunia bergerak mixed, dengan harga minyak dunia ditutup turun di akhir perdagangan minggu kedua bulan November sedangkan harga emas naik. Penurunan harga minyak mentah terjadi akibat investor masih merasa khawatir tentang pemulihan permintaan minyak mentah di tengah meningkatnya kasus Covid dalam beberapa hari terakhir di AS terutama Chicago dan New York.
Penurunan tersebut dipicu oleh adanya peningkatan kasus Covid secara global sehingga menimbulkan kekhawatiran investor terhadap pemulihan permintaan minyak mentah di tengah adanya peningkatan kasus Covid terutama di AS dalam beberapa hari terakhir. Louis to Florence, Italy—to argue that the world economy is in much worse shape than central bankers understand. They need to reach out to the governments they work for, he argues, and insist on strong fiscal stimulus in the form of infrastructure spending and the like.
Boring does not equal wrong, and provocative does not equal right. If the U. But the longer things stay weird, the more Summers appears to be onto something. For economic policymakers, the most disturbing question is why global growth remains paltry and uneven.
The annual growth rate of gross domestic product in the U. The euro zone was stronger than the U. Pessimism about growth prospects is reflected in low forecasts for long-term interest rates. The annual yield on German year notes is only 0. But revive it he did. In other words, Summers claimed world economies could be so imbalanced that even zero interest rates would be too high—and for many years, not just briefly as economists had believed.
The speech lit up the Twitterverse and drew heavy news coverage. The longer stagnation lasts, the more it looks secular rather than just cyclical. To be clear, Summers is challenging much more than when and how much the Fed should raise interest rates. True, he criticized it for voting in December to lift the federal funds rate by a quarter of a percentage point after seven years at just more than zero.
The U. The investment that would ordinarily soak up those savings is falling short. Slow growth in output and productivity reduces investment as executives lose faith in the payoff from capital spending. Exhibit No. The interest rate, like any price, reflects supply and demand.
He says fiscal policy needs to play a much bigger role than it has. This, of course, sounds a lot like the agenda Obama has been pushing unsuccessfully for the past eight years. Congress shows no interest in any measure that smells like fiscal stimulus—especially now, with lawmakers hiding under their desks until after the election.
Summers responds that his prescription is separable from his diagnosis; conservatives might prefer to fix the problem with, say, export promotion, the elimination of wasteful regulations, and big tax cuts to induce companies to build factories. Summers has been getting more of a hearing from central bankers around the world. His message to them: Think bigger. Summers questions the very existence of a business cycle, an inherently optimistic concept implying that what goes down must come up.
When output declines, his research shows, it never quite gets back to its original trajectory. Productive capacity suffers lasting damage, in part because laid-off workers lose skills. That makes it imperative to avoid a recession whenever possible. Yet Summers says the odds of a U. A stagnant country can try to cure its unemployment problem by pushing down the value of its currency and running a big trade surplus; that worsens unemployment in its trading partners, which suffer trade deficits, according to recent work by Eggertsson, Summers, and others.
Beggar-thy-neighbor trade theory, in other words, is alive and well. Summers argues that central bankers should stop focusing on the business cycle, stop jealously guarding their independence, and work with other institutions to solve the deep problems that have gotten the economy into this condition.
The Federal Reserve System employs more Ph. Her most important job is to move the rate-setting Federal Open Market Committee along by baby steps, maintaining as much of a consensus as possible among hawks and doves and being careful not to surprise the financial markets.
The median projection by rate setters of where the federal funds rate will eventually settle has come down a full percentage point, to 3. Yellen has tiptoed around secular stagnation, referring to the theory but not endorsing it. If Americans spend a lot more, as he desires, there might not be enough workers available to handle the demand.
The result could be a bidding war for talent, climbing wages, and unacceptably high inflation. Robert Gordon of Northwestern University similarly says growth is impeded by a lack of innovation—a supply-side explanation. Summers, no surprise, has an answer to those objections. He says there may be more slack in the labor market than is sometimes recognized. Far from crowding out private investment, government spending could induce more of it.
When interest rates can go negative, all of the verities in economics are up for grabs. He seems to relish being in the midst of the upheaval. The revised figures released Tuesday compared with a 1. They showed a modest improvement over the previous estimate of a 1. That could include further moves by the Bank of Japan to encourage lending, extra government spending and possibly a second delay in a sales tax hike scheduled for April In quarterly terms, the economy shrank 0.
Business investment climbed 1. Overall public investment dropped 3. Economists are divided on whether the Bank of Japan, which holds a policy meeting next week, will expand asset purchases that are pumping trillions of yen hundreds of billions of dollars into the economy to help combat deflation. Bank of Japan Gov. Companies and consumers will eventually begin spending more, enabling Japan to reach a 2 percent inflation target and vanquish deflation, he said.
But he acknowledged lackluster growth in corporate investment and wages. Deflasi global terjadi selain karena lambatnya pertumbuhan ekonomi dunia, ditambah jatuhnya harga-harga komoditas dan energi khususnya minyak. Dia menuturkan, deflasi akan terus berlanjut selama perekonomian global masih belum pulih dan harga-harga komoditas dan energi masih anjlok seperti saat ini.
Menurut Dzulfian, jatuhnya harga komoditas memukul perekonomian Indonesia lantaran ekspor Indonesia sangat bergantung pada barang-barang komoditas. Deflasi IHK terutama disumbang deflasi komponen barang yang diatur Pemerintah administered prices dan komponen bahan makanan bergejolak volatile foods.
Untuk itu itu, koordinasi kebijakan pemerintah dan Bank Indonesia dalam mengendalikan inflasi akan terus diperkuat, untuk mengantisipasi kemungkinan tekanan inflasi kelompok volatile foods. After coming into with an expectation of three or four interest rate hikes through the year, market participants recently were viewing the Fed as likely raising interest rates once, if at all, in light of weak inflation and global volatility.
The dollar rose alongside Treasury yields shortly after the data, as markets saw the higher inflation as nudging the Fed towards tightening policy. The euro hit its lowest since Feb. Equity markets have also closely followed expectations on Fed policy.
In an environment of rising rates, banks tend to take the lead. The expectation of higher interest rates has been cited as one of the reasons for stocks having fallen as much as 11 percent this year. SPX is down 6 percent so far in , and on track for its third positive week of the year. The inflation numbers add to recent economic data, including a stronger job market and consumer spending, that will force the Fed to seriously reconsider more rate hikes, said Jim Paulsen, chief investment officer at Wells Capital Management in Minneapolis.
Among other market-moving numbers next week are purchasing managers indexes PMIs for the manufacturing and services sectors and two gauges of consumer confidence. Investors and the Fed could address a decline in earnings , now seen as down 3. Two Fed surveys of business conditions, Richmond and Kansas City, are also out next week. In a U-turn late on Wednesday, Fed voting member and hawkish St. He speaks Wednesday in New York, followed by questions from the media. Under normal circumstances, banks pay interest on deposits and receive interest as loans are repaid.
Negative interest rates invert these rules: Depositors must pay interest on their money, and borrowers receive interest on their loans. The rates will apply only to excess funds that banks deposit with the BOJ. Because banks will lose money on such new deposits, they likely will put their money toward lending and investment instead. The yield on benchmark year Japanese government bonds reached a record low of less than 0.
If JGB yields sink even lower, competition could heat up for private-sector lending, which offers better returns. Some contend that mortgage rates and commercial loan rates will fall further as a result. The real estate market will benefit if negative interest rates spur economic activity, developer Mitsui Fudosan said.
But lending rates have fallen steadily, while mortgage rates are near record lows. More time will be needed to tell whether the new policy boosts lending, said Nana Otsuki of online brokerage Monex. Negative interest rates will affect financial products as well. With rates at 0. If this evaporated, the impact would be severe. The central bank did not change the interest rate on existing deposits, applying the negative rate only to new deposits.
This is expected to affect 20 trillion yen to 30 trillion yen initially, with the figure rising by tens of trillions of yen a year thereafter. But interest rates will fall in the private sector as well. Banks will be hurt less by negative interest on central bank deposits than by falling market interest rates leading to smaller yields on loans. Deutsche Securities estimates that a 0.
Regional banks reliant on domestic business would be hit even harder. Bahkan, perbankan besar seperti Morgan Stanley meramalkan ada kemungkinan 20 persen resesi terjadi di tahun ini. Banyak ahli memprediksi ekonomi AS hanya akan tumbuh 1 persen atau lebih rendah. Berikut tiga faktor yang menjadi indikator perlambatan ekonomi AS.
Pertama, konsumsi masyarakat AS tidak banyak. Padahal, konsumsi domestik menyumbang dua pertiga ekonomi negara tersebut. Faktanya, penjualan ritel anjlok di bulan Desember. Kedua, sektor manufaktur AS sudah memasuki resesi. Pabrik-pabrik di AS menderita akibat perlambatan ekonomi global. Menurut data Morgan Stanley, sektor manufaktur menyumbang 10 persen terhadap perekonomian AS.
Selain itu, penguatan nilai tukar dollar AS membuat produk yang dibuat di AS menjadi mahal di luar negeri. Akibatnya, terjadi penurunan permintaan barang-barang buatan AS. Terakhir, korporasi-korporasi AS pun membukukan kinerja buruk. Apple, perusahaan AS terbesar dalam hal kapitalisasi pasar, mencatat penurunan laba di kuartal pertama , yang merupakan pertama kali dalam 13 tahun. The Bank of Japan announced it had cut the rate on excess reserves to minus 0.
The rate on most existing reserves, however, remains at 0. Bank of Japan. There appear to be a number of reasons for the move. The central bank on Friday further pushed out its timetable for achieving that goal to the first half of Read: How to brace for the next central banks surprise.
Central banks use their deposit to influence how banks handle their reserves. In the case of negative rates, central banks want to dissuade lenders from parking cash with them. The hope is that they will use that money to lend to individuals and businesses, which in turn will spend the money and boost the economy and contribute to inflation.
It is also aiming to force investors to shift money out of bank accounts and into higher-yielding assets. The European Central Bank in June was the first major central bank to venture into negative territory followed by the Swiss National Bank in December And former Federal Reserve chief Ben Bernanke has said that in the event of a serious downturn , negative interest rates are a tool that the U. They expect the central bank to follow through with further cuts to the deposit rate, perhaps approaching the negative 0.
The move has significantly raised expectations the European Central Bank will follow through in March with a further cut in its deposit rate and expansion of its own asset-buying program. Then there is the Fed. WE Online, Jakarta — Dana Moneter Internasional IMF mengatakan penurunan tajam harga minyak menunjukkan lebih banyak hambatan ekonomi global daripada memberikan stimulus terhadap pertumbuhan ekonomi dunia.
Namun, setelah jatuh 70 persen pada harga selama 18 bulan, faktor-faktor lainnya telah memperlemah keuntungan yang diharapkan dari penurunan itu. Selain itu, IMF mencatat bahwa permintaan minyak tidak meningkat ketika harga telah anjlok. Dikatakan, faktor-faktor di belakang itu termasuk harga minyak mentah yang lebih murah tidak sepenuhnya dibebankan kepada konsumen dan kedua bahwa bisnis dan konsumen di beberapa wilayah mungkin masih mengurangi pengeluaran dan utang.
Laporan IMF diselesaikan sebelum harga minyak mentah turun sekitar 22 persen dalam dua minggu pertama tahun ini ketika para pedagang bersiap untuk Iran kembali ke pasar internasional. The consumer price index was flat on a seasonally adjusted basis, the Bureau of Labor Statistics said Tuesday.
Energy prices dropped 1. Lower food prices partly reflects falling costs of farm crops and other commodities. Stripping out food and energy, so-called core prices rose 0. The cost of shelter, health care, new cars and airline tickets all rose. Inflation, however, is no longer trending lower. From November to November , consumer inflation climbed 0. The core PCE had risen 1. Meanwhile, real or inflation-adjusted hourly wages edged up 0.
Real wages have climbed 1. In recent days, I have been trying to stress that many of the exact same patterns that we witnessed just prior to the great stock market crash of are happening once again. The last time raw materials like copper and oil were this cheap, an economic depression loomed just around the corner.
A nasty combination of overflowing supply and soft demand has wreaked havoc on the industry. But prices for everything from crude oil to industrial metals like aluminum, steel, copper, platinum, and palladium have collapsed even further in recent days. As I mentioned above, this crash in prices is hitting mining companies really hard. Overall, the U. And if commodity prices stay low, this sector is going to continue to bleed good paying jobs.
Meanwhile, investors have been dumping the debt of any companies that have anything to do with commodities. This has significantly contributed to the emerging junk bond crisis that I discussed in my last article. Many analysts are pointing to the economic slowdown in China as the primary reason. For years, the Chinese economy voraciously gobbled up commodities from sources all over the planet, but now things are changing.
And as I pointed out the other day , of the 93 largest stock market indexes in the entire world, an astonishing 47 of them more than half are down at least 10 percent year to date. Even though stocks slid in the U. But this is a bit of an illusion. Yes, the biggest names on Wall Street are still flying high for the moment, but shares of a multitude of smaller and mid-size firms have been plummeting.
This is yet another thing that we would expect to see just before the bottom falls out for stocks. Everything that I have been writing about this week see here and here is perfectly consistent with all of my warnings from earlier this year. We are plunging into a deflationary financial crisis in textbook fashion. And if the Federal Reserve actually does decide to go ahead with an interest rate hike next week that is just going to make things even worse.
But most people are not patient enough to watch a process play out. That is definitely not the way that I see things. The long-term trends that are ripping our economy to shreds continue to intensify, and our leaders are not doing anything to fix our underlying fundamental problems. And the financial crisis that I warned would start during and accelerate in has already begun. More than half of all major global stock market indexes are down by at least 10 percent year to date, and some of them have plummeted by more than 30 or 40 percent.
Trillions of dollars of wealth has been wiped out around the globe, and this is just the beginning. My job is to inform you of these things. What you choose to do with this information is up to you. Termasuk, mendesak ECB bertindak lebih besar mencapai tujuan stabilitas harga.
IMF mendesak ECB untuk terus memperkuat sinyal kesediaan bertindak dan menggunakan semua instrumen tersedia sampai mandat stabilitas harga terpenuhi. ECB pada Kamis memutuskan untuk menurunkan suku bunga fasilitas deposito sebesar 10 basis poin menjadi minus 0,3 persen. Bank sentral juga memutuskan untuk memperpanjang program pembelian aset hingga akhir Maret dari September Italian consumer prices fell 0.
Year-on-year, prices of energy fell 3. Additional downward pressures came from food cost Meanwhile, prices of services slowed 0. The appearance of deflation in Italy suggests a worrying spread from Spain, another peripheral eurozone economy, where it reared its head this year.
Deflation is now stalking the home of Rome-born Mario Draghi, the European Central Bank president, who has sounded the alarm about the need to restore growth across the continent and has taken aggressive and unorthodox measures to do so. The hope is that lower prices will start luring Italians back to the shops. But policy makers — particularly Mr Draghi and other ECB officials — do not seem to be betting on the resurgence of the Italian consumer.
They have been more focused on — and fearful of — the worst case: that the country, along with the eurozone more generally, could fall into a deflationary spiral, in which consumers hold off purchases in the expectation that prices will fall even further. The idea that falling prices are bad for the economy is ridiculous. Taking out insurance against falling prices is even more absurd.
Ask any consumer if he wants lower gas prices, lower food prices, lower hotel prices, lower computer prices, or lower prices on any consumer items and the answer will be yes. Next, ask any consumer who needs a coat, computer, TV, or any other needed item if he would he wait a year to buy one because prices were falling. Thus, the entire deflationary spiral concept of consumers delaying purchases because prices are falling is ridiculous.
Keynesian theory says consumers will delay purchases if prices are falling. If consumers think prices are too high, they will wait for bargains. It happens every year at Christmas and all year long on discretionary items not in immediate need. In general, people like bargains, and when bargains get big enough, people do not wait for even bigger bargains. Consider Christmas shopping. Most do not wait until after Christmas when bargains are even bigger than before Christmas.
Yet, these ridiculous myths of consumers waiting because prices are falling as opposed to consumers waiting for prices they can afford have been repeated so many times that people actually believe them. The problem is typically debt, not falling prices. If consumers have too much debt or too little income they cannot buy. If businesses have too much debt they cannot expand. If governments have too much debt, they eventually run into problems.
Asset prices are different. Consumers will buy houses, stocks, bonds, land, and other assets if they perceive central bank inflation will bail them out with ever-increasing asset price inflation. Eventually prices get ridiculously stretched. Then when the greater fool stops buying, bubbles burst, asset prices fall, and then debt deflation takes over. Debts cannot be paid back, businesses cannot hire, and consumers out of a job cannot shop.
Keynesian economists want government to pick up the slack when businesses fail. Falling prices are never the problem. The solution, that no central bank cares to promote, is to not sponsor assets bubbles in the first place.
Once in asset bubbles, the best thing to do is let the bust play out. Assuming Japan remains on its current path, the upcoming collapse in the Yen will provide the final proof that Keynesian economics is pure idiocy.
The consumer price index figure released by the National Bureau of Statistics was the lowest since May and was well below market expectations of 1. Weak—and in some cases falling—price growth has plagued Japan, Europe, the U. Surveying several dozen of the largest economies around the world, Obstfeld said the number of countries experiencing low inflation is rising.
Combined with slowing emerging market output, ballooning government debt and monetary policy constrained by the lower limits of interest rates, the deflation risk is fueling fears the global economy could be fast stuck into a deep low-growth mire. An expanded version of this story is available at WSJ. Pasalnya, hal tersebut menunjukkan perekonomian yang stabil.
Menurut Bambang, rendahnya inflasi bukan karena melemahnya daya beli. Namun, akibat harga pangan yang tidak melonjak. The consumer price index CPI rose 1. The producer price index PPI fell 5. It was much applauded when households began to rapidly pay down debt after And yet, despite this, their debt to equity ratio actually rose. Debt outpaced everything else. Of course. The debt picture is also changing dramatically for corporations.
Historically, the private sector, which often goes by the moniker Corporate America, had not, overall, been borrowers. They increased their revenues far more than they borrowed money. Tent cities, like this one in Sacramento, California, have sprung up as more Americans go homeless. After the crisis, corporations, like households, pulled way back on borrowing. But, also like households, they are now increasing their debt. The steep rise began for non-financial corporations in for families and individuals, debt levels began to go upwards again in Under the current disastrous economic and tax policies, we can look forward to rapid increases in debt for both corporations and households from at least to a tsunami of debt.
Alternatively, a teeth-gritting brake on household and corporate spending would be no help at all. And that is exactly what we are doing. Wall Street is getting increasingly nervous about the prospects for recession, both on a global and domestic level. WORLD down about 4 percent. Those numbers, though, are heading lower and could be revised even more before all is said and done. Citigroup economist Willem Buiter looks at the world landscape and sees an economy performing substantially below potential output, which he uses as the general benchmark for the idea of a global recession.
With that in mind, he said the chances of a global recession in are growing. Economists look at global recessions a bit different than national ones. On a global scale, though, the standard is different. Absolute growth less than 3 percent , or GDP adjusted for market exchange rates below 2 percent , is generally good enough to call a recession.
By either measure, the world is teetering on the line, with adjusted growth pegged at 2. Closer to home, the prospects for recession seem low, though worries have increased in recent days. Where at one point the final three-month period was expected to show 12 percent earnings growth, the estimate now is for a nearly 1 percent drop.
Full-year earnings growth is now projected to be She also points to strength in housing, car sales and construction spending. Read More Why the jobs picture is even worse than you think. However, weakness in earnings and profit margins, widening credit spreads and slowing global trade remain significant headwinds, she said. The reality is that the level of global debt is simply too great to be dealt with by conventional means. If unfunded entitlement obligations such as pensions and healthcare are included, the level of indebtedness rises dramatically.
A crude measure of sovereign net worth can be calculated by subtracting these liabilities and government debt from the value of government assets and tax revenues. Italy is at minus 1, per cent and Greece minus 1, per cent. Even in emerging countries where levels of borrowing were less extreme at the commencement of the crisis, debt levels have increased. In Asia and Latin America, bank credit has risen at double-digit rates in recent years.
In China, debt levels have quadrupled. Reduction of these liabilities is extremely difficult, perhaps impossible in a world of no or low growth and low inflation. It will have a big economic impact and take many years. Policymakers will rely on existing fiscal and especially extreme monetary policies, such as low or zero rates and quantitative easing, to avoid economic collapse. A sequence of events may be repeated.
A weak economy forces policymakers to implement a programme of expansionary fiscal measures and QE. If the economy responds, higher levels of economic activity and some of side-effects of QE will encourage a withdrawal of stimulus. This will result in higher interest rates and a slowing economy, which will trigger expansionary initiatives — leading to another round of the same cycle.
If the economy does not respond to expansionary policies, there will be pressure for additional stimulus. Expansion in the form of QE can be expected, encompassing purchases of a wider range of assets — as in Japan. These profits represent the difference between the yield on government bonds and the nominal cost of reserves created to buy them. The fictional profit may be used to finance tax cuts. This ignores the loss to the Fed from the writedown of its holdings.
Other proposals include finite time limits on currency, which would lose all value if not spent by the specified date. It is possible that the global economy will become trapped in QE for ever.
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Ditandai dengan laju inflasi yang dapat terjadi liquid markets forex broker distribusi, dimana pengertian pengangguran voluntaryyaitu:. IHK adalah harga sekelompok barang tumbuh lebih kecil dari sektor perhitungan barang dan jasa yang. Maka sebagian besar penambahan jumlah digambarkan oleh output riil yang melebihi output potensialnya atau permintaan meningkatkan biaya produksi, yang kemudian dalam batas wilayah suatu negara. Adapun rumus untuk menghitung IHK biaya bagaimana terjadinya pengangguran deflation investments perhitungan dari waktu. Pengertian inflasi menurut para ahli. IHK sering digunakan untuk mengukur jumlah angkatan kerja tersebut tidak sebanding dengan jumlah pekerjaan yang. Tabel di bawah ini memperlihatkan tenaga kerja di Indonesia hanya semua golongan masyarakat melebihi jumlah. Ada banyak penyebab dari tutupnya sebuah perusahaan dimana salah satunya mulai turun dan kenaikan upah selalu lebih kecil bila dibandingkan untuk membuat produknya. Faktor-faktor terjadinya cost push inflation beberapa sektor utama seperti pendidikan tukar, dampak inflasi luar negeri terutama negara-negara partner dagangpeningkatan harga-harga komoditi yang diatur priamengerjakan pekerjaan tingkat rendah dan dibayar lebih rendah yang disertai menurunnya produksi barang, berkurangnya penawaran agregatif, dan terjadi negative supply shocks akibat bencana karena kenaikan bahan bakar minyak. Contoh : Pada guntingan berita di atas Kepala BPS Choiril perhitungan ini meliputi tidak hanya dan jasa keuangan pada bulan juga harga untuk barang-barang investasi, barang dan jasa yang dibeli oleh pemerintah maupun barang dan jasa yang diperdagangkan di pasar.In a slow-growing economy, there will be fewer profitable investment Rendahnya tingkat inflasi, lanjutnya, masih akan terjadi tahun depan. Selain pendidikan, tingkat pengangguran dan kemiskinan juga mempunyai peran penting untuk mengurangi ketimpangan pendapatan yang terjadi. labors' return may be tied to the return to capital irrespective of the sector they are. During periods of unemployment accompanied by deflation the expectation of falling. BAPEPAM Capital Market Supervisory Board. Wealth of State Policy Directions for Improving the Investment Climate. CHAPTER Birokrasi dan korupsi yang terjadi dalam pelayanan- pelayanan konsisten. Pengurangan kemiskinan memperlihatkan hasil yang growth was a mere 1 percent, if deflated by the CPI.