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However, weight loss can be predicted on the basis of field size and site irradiated. Treatment-related morbidity involving dysguesia, xerostomia, dysphagia of solids, and mouth pain was greater and of longer duration in patients with weight loss. The sequence of development of these symptoms during treatment and their duration provide a rational basis for the timing and methods of nutritional intervention in this patient population.

Tall stature and obesity have been associated with a higher risk of atrial fibrillation AF , but there have been conflicting reports of the effects of aerobic fitness. Increased height , weight , and aerobic fitness level but not muscular strength at age 18 years were all associated with a higher AF risk in adulthood. Positive additive and multiplicative interactions were found between height or weight and aerobic fitness level for the highest tertiles of height and aerobic fitness level vs.

High aerobic fitness levels were associated with higher risk among men who were at least cm 6 feet, 1 inch tall but were protective among shorter men. Men with the combination of tall stature and high aerobic fitness level had the highest risk for the highest tertiles vs.

These findings suggest important interactions between body size and aerobic fitness level in relation to AF and may help identify high-risk subgroups. Assessing the accuracy of self-reported height and weight in an elective surgical population in a Melbourne metropolitan hospital. A Health Questionnaire serves as a screening form as part of our Hospital Preadmission process and is completed by all patients scheduled for elective surgery.

We reviewed the completed Health Questionaires of patients. Completion of the Health Questionnaire requires patients to record their height and weight. At the time of admission their actual height and weight was measured and recorded by nursing staff as part of the preoperative assessment. We compared their estimated body mass index BMI from self-reported height and weight , with their actual BMI calculated from height and weight measured upon admission.

The measured BMI accorded well with that calculated from reported values and showed no systematic over- or under-reporting. Of 70 patients with a BMI greater than 35, only ten estimated their BMI less than 35 and only five of these had more than a two unit difference. Perioperative patients appear to be more accurate at providing height and weight than previously analysed non-patient groups. However there is not complete accuracy and some patients still provide unreliable information.

Whether or not individual practitioners utilize BMI from self-reported height and weight will depend on the accuracy that they require for their purposes. Of note there was greater accuracy in prediction of height and weight than in the derived variable of BMI due to the calculations required. Anthropometric parameters: weight height , body mass index and mammary volume in relationship with the mammographic pattern.

A prospective study to attempt to relate the anthropometric parameters of height , weight , body mass index as well as age with the mammographic patterns obtained for the patients and obtain an anthropometric profile was carried out. The study was performed in 1. Prior to the performance of the mammography, weight and height were obtained, and this was also performed by the same technicians, and the patient were asked their bra size to deduce breast volume.

The results were introduced into a computer database and the SPSS 8. In women under 40 years, with normal weight , the dense breast pattern accounted for The fat pattern is In women over 60 with normal, the dense pattern accounts for The fat pattern is 5. As age increases, the probability of presenting a mammographic pattern with a fat image in the. Height and adiposity track over childhood, but few studies, to our knowledge, have longitudinally examined the mediating relation of the timing and progression of puberty.

We assessed interrelations between prepubertal height and body mass index, the progression through puberty, and young adult height and adiposity. Serial measures of anthropometry and pubertal development were obtained between ages 9 and 16 y.

We used latent class growth analysis to categorize pubertal development with respect to pubic hair females and males , breasts females , and genitalia males development. Adult height and weight were obtained at ages 18 to 20 y. Among females, higher latent class earlier initiation and faster progression through puberty was associated with an increased risk of obesity [pubic hair class 3 compared with class 1: RR, 3.

Among males, higher latent class was associated with increased adult height [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: 2. In females, the association with adult height became inverse after adjusting for prepubertal height [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: females, Associations with adiposity were attenuated after adjusting for prepubertal adiposity. Progression through puberty modifies the relation between prepubertal and adult anthropometry. Screening for early or rapid progression of puberty might identify children at an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese adults.

Physical growth of the shuar: Height , Weight , and BMI references for an indigenous amazonian population. Information concerning physical growth among small-scale populations remains limited, yet such data are critical to local health efforts and to foster basic understandings of human life history and variation in childhood development.

Using a large dataset and robust modeling methods, this study aims to describe growth from birth to adulthood among the indigenous Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador. Pseudo-velocity and Lambda-Mu-Sigma curves were generated to further investigate Shuar patterns of growth and to facilitate comparison with United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention and multinational World Health Organization growth references.

The Shuar are small throughout life and exhibit complex patterns of growth that differ substantially from those of international references. Similar to other Amazonians, Shuar growth in weight compares more favorably to references than growth in height , resulting in BMI curves that approximate international medians. Several additional characteristics of Shuar development are noteworthy, including large observed variation in body size early in life, significant infant growth faltering, extended male growth into adulthood, and a markedly early female pubertal growth spurt in height.

Phenotypic plasticity and genetic selection in response to local environmental factors may explain many of these patterns. Providing a detailed reference of growth for the Shuar and other Amazonian populations, this study possesses direct clinical application and affords valuable insight into childhood health and the ecology of human growth.

Combined oral contraceptives' influence on weight , body composition, height , and bone mineral density in girls younger than 18 years. Combined oral contraceptives COCs are increasingly used by adolescents. The aim of this review is to investigate the evidence regarding COCs' influence on weight , height and bone mineral density BMD in girls younger than 18 years Body dimensions and weight to height indices in rescuers from the State Fire Service of Poland.

Full Text Available Few studies have been published in Poland concerning body dimensions of firefighters from the State Fire Service although this knowledge is needed for e. The aim of the study was to evaluate body dimensions and weight-to-height ratio in firefighters from the State Fire Service.

Using the anthropological procedures, body mass BM and body height BH were examined in men at the chronological age CA of The study participants were divided into three categories of CA: up to 25 years, between 24 and 44 years, and over 44 years. The results were compared to population standards.

It was found that BH of the youngest rescuers was significantly higher 0. Based on the standardized values of BM and BMI, population of firefighters aged over 25 years was found to be characterized by overweight and, in certain cases, even by obesity. Due to the worrying high percentage of cases of excess body mass in firefighters from the State Fire Service, it was found that it is recommended to evaluate the relationships between body height and mass on regular basis during periodical obligatory tests of physical fitness of rescuers from the State Fire Service and to increase the frequency and duration of training sessions.

Differences in bite force between dolichofacial and brachyfacial individuals: Side of mastication, gender, weight and height. Due to the bite force importance in functionality of the masticatory system, this study aimed to characterize it in dolichofacial and brachyfacial individuals. A sample comprised by patients was divided into two groups: 90 severe dolichofacial, and severe brachyfacial individuals classified according to the VERT index and the face height ratio Jarabak quotient.

Bite force was measured by using an adjusted digital dynamometer and proper methodology. The sample met the parametric assumptions and presented statistical significance when right and left sides of dolichofacial and brachyfacial individuals were compared. However, within the same group, no differences between the left and right sides were found. Generally, bite force was higher for male, left masticator, age between years, weighing over kg and between 1.

Based on the results of this cross-sectional study, it was possible to conclude that the bite force in severe brachyfacial individuals was significantly higher than in severe dolichofacial individuals, being influenced by gender, weight and height. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Growing into obesity: patterns of height growth in those who become normal weight , overweight, or obese as young adults. To study whether patterns of height growth differ by adult obesity status, and determine the contribution of subcutaneous fatness as an explanatory variable for any differences.

A multicenter, prospective longitudinal cohort assessed in 3rd grade 8. Skinfolds were measured in third, fifth, and eighth grades. Outcome was mean height cm at the four measurements using repeated-measures ANCOVA for young adult obesity status, and height increments between grades by adult obesity status in sequential models including initial height and, secondarily, initial skinfolds.

Compared with normal weight young adults, overweight or obese young adults stood taller in childhood, but had relatively less growth in height throughout the teenage years. There was no association between adult height and weight status. Skinfolds explained only a small amount of the height patterns in the three weight groups. Childhood and adolescent height growth patterns differ between those who become young adults who are normal weight and those who become overweight or obese.

Since differences in fatness explain only a small amount of these height growth patterns, research is needed to identify other determinants. Child health in Peru: importance of regional variation and community effects on children's height and weight. In developing countries, height and weight are good indicators of children's health and nutritional status.

Maternal education has been accepted as one of the most important influences on child health. Using the Demographic and Health Survey of Peru, however, I find that the effect of maternal education varies as a function of region. In the most prosperous urban region, maternal education is less important for child health than in poor rural areas, and a higher level of education has a greater effect in rural areas. Multilevel analysis shows that a significant part of the observed correlation between maternal education and child health is moderated by regional differences and community characteristics.

The finding suggests that Peruvian public policy should emphasize resource redistribution as well as women's education, and that investment in maternal education should be considered within regional contexts to enhance child health in rural areas. Effect of fast neutrons and gamma rays treatments on heading date, plant height and tiller number in wheat.

Homogeneous seeds of six varieties of bread wheat, Triticum aestivum L. The irradiated seeds along with respective controls were grown in field plots during and heating date, plant height and tiller number studied. Irradiated treatments exhibited significant reductions in plant height and tiller number than respective controls. However, heading was delayed among the irradiated material when compared with respective controls.

Reduction in plant height was more pronounced after the treatments of gamma rays than the fast neutrons. The maximum and minimum shifts in mean values of these characters were observed in 20 kR gamma rays and Nf RADS fast neutrons treatments, respectively.

Susceptibility weighted imaging depicts retinal hemorrhages in abusive head trauma. Main outcome measures involved evaluation of patients to determine whether the RH could be identified on standard and high-resolution SWI sequences. Comparison between clinical significance of height -adjusted and weight -adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass. ASM was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The reference values for class 1 and 2 sarcopenia in each sex were defined as values one and two standard deviations below the sex-specific means of the young group, respectively.

Weight -adjusted definition was able to identify cardiometabolic risk factors such as TG and HDL-C while height -adjusted definition could identify factors for osteoporosis. Study of weight , height , body mass index, energy and nutrients intake of years old girls, Tehran. Full Text Available A descriptive, analytical cross-sectional syudy was conducted in on female students years old in the center of Tehran, Iran.

The general objective was determining energy and nutrient intakes and weight , height and BMI Body Mass Index of the girls, using anthropometric measurements, interviews hour dietary recall and food consumption frequency, and the NCHS standards.

METHODS: Sixteen experienced and sixteen inexperienced lifters handled a box both 7 and 15 kg from an intermediate height waist level to either a high or low surface. Electromyography and video images were recorded during the tasks. The 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles were calculated for the deltoid and biceps muscles, shoulder flexion, shoulder abduction, and elbow flexion movements. There were no differences between either groups or sides.

Shoulder flexion was also higher when the box was moved to the low height. This study provides new evidence as shoulder postures during boxes handling on low surfaces had not previously been evaluated. This knowledge can be used by physical therapists to plan better rehabilitation programs for manual material handling-related disorders, particularly focusing on return to work.

Weight-to-height ratio and aerobic capacity in year-old male taekwondo martial artists. Martial arts are growing in popularity throughout the whole world. Their beneficial influence on physical development and fitness is noteworthy. Martial arts are an attractive form of physical recreation, constitute a perfect means for combating stress, and have a positive effect on general health, including during rehabilitation.

The aim of this study is to assess physical development and aerobic capacity in boys who practice taekwondo and to determine the relationships between results of a fitness test and particular parameters of physical development. Study participants comparised 51 boys aged 15 years who practiced taekwondo with training experience ranging from 1 to 6 years.

BMI was also calculated. Centile charts were used to assess weight-to-height ratio and the level of measured parameters. BMI was analyzed according to the Cole classification system. Dispersion was calculated using a coefficient of variation. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between selected parameters was also calculated. All participants had average aerobic capacity. However, when weight-to-height ratio was compared to the results of the Harvard Step Test, boys with normal body proportions performed much better in the test than boys with abnormal body mass p weight-to-height ratio mainly in terms of overweight.

The boys had greater body height and body mass compared to the general Polish population. Aerobic capacity differed considerably between participants. Height , weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children.

Full Text Available Abstract Background Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. This study was aimed to compare age- and gender-specific height , weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children. Methods A population-based study was conducted with a multistage cluster sample of children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan.

New growth charts for Pakistani children based on a nationally representative sample should be developed. Nevertheless, shifting to use of the WHO child growth reference might have important implications for child health programs and primary care pediatric clinics. The weight-for-height and BMI-for-age had strong correlation in screening wasting, overweight and obesity in each age-sex group. There was no striking difference in prevalence estimates of wasting, overweight and obesity between two indicators except for obesity prevalence at ages The validity of self-reported vs.

The objective was to assess the validity of self-reported body weight and height and the possible influence of self-perception of body mass index BMI status on the actual BMI during the adolescent period. This cross sectional study was conducted on high school students. Agreement between the measured and self-reported body height and weight and BMI values was determined using the Bland-Altman metod.

To determine the effects of "a good level of agreement", hierarchical logistic regression models were used. Among male students who reported their BMI in the normal region, 2. For females in the same group, these percentages were 1. Among male students who perceived their BMI in the normal region, 8. For females these percentages were The results of this study demonstrated that in determining obesity and overweight statuses, non-accurate weight perception is a potential risk for students.

Hip fracture and anthropometric variations: dominance among trochanteric soft tissue thickness, body height and body weight during sideways fall. Hip fracture depends on various anthropometric parameters such as trochanteric soft tissue thickness, body height and body weight.

The objective was to evaluate the responses to the variations in anthropometric parameters during sideways fall, and to identify the most dominant parameter among them. Seven finite element models were developed having anthropometric variations in trochanteric soft tissue thickness mm , body height 1.

The risk factor for fracture was also well correlated to the strain ratio for the inter-trochanteric zone pfractures are clinically observed to happen. Trochanteric soft tissue thickness was found likely to be the most dominant parameter over body height and body weight , signifying that a slimmer elderly person, taller or shorter, with less trochanteric soft tissue thickness should be advised to take preventive measures against hip fracture under sideways fall.

Parents of elementary school students weigh in on height , weight , and body mass index screening at school. School-based body mass index BMI screening and parent notification programs have been recommended as a childhood overweight prevention strategy. However, there are little empirical data available to guide decision making about the acceptability and safety of programs. A pilot study was conducted using a quasiexperimental research design.

The chi2 test of significance was used to examine differences in program support by treatment condition, child's weight status, and sociodemographic characteristics. Parents of overweight children were more likely to report parental discomfort as well as child discomfort with letter content. There was considerable parental support for school-based BMI screening and parent notification programs. Programs may be a useful overweight prevention tool for children.

However, continued attention to how best to support parents and children affected by overweight is required. Powers differing from 2 are observed in studies of selected samples, thus raising the question if BMI is a generalizable metric that makes BW independent of height across populations.

The objectives were to test the hypothesis that adult BW scales to height with a power of 2 independent of sex and race-ethnicity and to advance an understanding of BMI as a measure of shape by extending allometric analyses to waist circumference WC. Exploratory analyses in population samples established age and adiposity as important independent determinants of height scaling powers i. WC also follows generalizable scaling rules, a finding that has implications for defining body shape in populations who differ in stature.

To evaluate the differences between the measured and self-reported anthropometric variables, we used the the Kruskal-Wallis test for the variables divided into quartiles. For the continuous variables, we used the Wilcoxon test, Bland-Altman plot, and average difference between the information measured and reported by the women.

We estimated sensitivity and the intraclass correlation coefficient. There was an underestimation of pre-gestational weight of 1. Abstract Background Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. Smoothed heigh New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism.

Our findings highlight genetic links between In an expanded genome-wide association meta-analysis and follow-up study of birth weight of up to 69, individuals of European descent from 43 studies , we have now extended the number of loci associated at genome Birth weight within the normal range is associated with a variety of adult-onset diseases, but the mechanisms behind these associations are poorly understood.

Previous genome-wide association studies of birth weight identified a variant in the ADCY5 gene associated both with birth weight and type Cross-sectional study of height and weight in the population of Andalusia from age 3 to adulthood. Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives In Andalusia there were no studies including a representative sample of children and adolescent population assessing growth and weight increase. Our objectives were to develop reference standards for weight , height and BMI for the Andalusian pediatric population, from 3 to 18 years of age for both genders, and to identify the final adult height in Andalusia.

Subjects and methods Two samples were collected. The first included individuals from 3 to 18 years of age girls and boys. They were stratified according type of study center, size of population of origin, age 32 categories of 0.

Two trained fellows collected the data through February to December , for the first sample, and through January to May , for the second. Reference curves were adjusted using Cole's LMS method, and the quality of the adjustment was assessed using the tests proposed by Royston. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was applied to the final models obtained.

Results Data for cases women and men were obtained; In the first sampling only 0. In addition, students 4. We present mean and standard deviation fort height , weight and BMI at 0. After adjustment with the different models, percentiles for height , weight percentiles 3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, 95, and 97 and BMI percentiles 3, 5, 50, 85, 95, and 97 are presented for both genders. Conclusion This is. The effect of low birth weight on height , weight and behavioral outcomes in the medium-run.

Observing the same children at different points in time enabled us to chart the evolution of anthropometric and behavioral deficits among children born with low birth weight and helped A number of studies have documented negative long term effects of low birth weight. Yet, not much is known about the dynamics of the process leading to adverse health and educational outcomes in the long run.

While previous studies focusing mainly on LBW effects on physical growth and cognitive The purpose of this paper was to bring new evidence to this issue by analyzing the medium run effects of low birth weight on child behavioral outcomes as well At the high-altitude end, the distributions cut off abruptly in a manner reminiscent of the trail echo height ceiling effect observed with classical meteor radars.

The target dimensions are shown to be much smaller than both the VHF and the UHF probing wavelengths, but the cutoff heights for the two systems are still clearly different, the VHF cutoff being located several km above the UHF one. A single-collision meteor-atmosphere interaction model is used to demonstrate that meteors in the 1. The observed seasonal variation in the cutoff altitudes is shown to be a function of the seasonal variation of atmospheric density with altitude.

Assuming that the electron density required for detection is in the order of the critical density, the abrupt altitude cutoffs can be explained as a consequence of the micrometeoroid joint size-speed distribution dropping off so fast at the large-mass, high-velocity end that above a certain altitude the number of detectable events becomes vanishingly small. Conversely, meteors at the low-mass end of the distribution will be gradually retarded such that the ionisation they generate never reaches critical density.

These particles will remain unobservable. Key words. Radio science instruments and techniques — Interplatery physics interplanetary dust — General or miscellaneous new fields. Growth curves require regular updates due to secular trends in linear growth. We constructed contemporary growth curves, assessed secular trends in height , and defined body mass index BMI cut-off points for thinness, overweight, and obesity in Finnish children.

Adult height was increased by 1. The largest increases were seen during the peripubertal years: up to 2. Comparable effects of and rad and Gy cranial irradiation on height and weight in children treated for acute lymphocytic leukemia.

To examine the effects of low-dose cranial irradiation on growth and to determine if one can predict patients in whom growth will be most affected, we studied 47 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia who had been treated with rad 24 Gy , rad 18 Gy , or no whole-brain irradiation. Serial measurements of height , weight , and weight for height were obtained by retrospective chart review. The effects of rad 18 Gy and rad 24 Gy treatment were indistinguishable. Although weight percentiles did not change following irradiation, the weight-for-height ratio increased and patients were relatively stockier three years after therapy than they had been at diagnosis.

In patients who had received chemotherapy alone, the weight-for-height ratio also increased, but this appeared to be due to a disproportionate increase in weight. Longer follow-up and evaluation of larger cohorts of patients treated with rad 18 Gy will be needed to confirm these results. Weight and height prediction of immobilized patients Estimativa de peso e altura de pacientes hospitalizados e imobilizados. RESULTS: Three hundred sixty eight persons were evaluated at two hospital centers and five weight -predicting and two height -predicting equations were developed from the measurements obtained.

Birth weight , childhood body mass index, and height in relation to mammographic density and breast cancer. High breast density, a strong predictor of breast cancer may be determined early in life. Childhood anthropometric factors have been related to breast cancer and breast density, but rarely simultaneously. We examined whether mammographic density MD mediates an association of birth weight , child Growth retardation is an important problem in children with chronic renal disease, and malnutrition is a determinative factor.

The study intends to assess the relationship between protein-energy malnutrition and stature- weight retardation in children enrolled in chronic dialysis program. The study group was composed of 16 children 5 boys and 11 girls--sex ratio of 2. This was a follow-up study during a period of 4 years , resulting in correlations between anthropometric paremeters, biochemical, BIA and DEXA data.

The stature- weight deficiency of the 16 patients was as follows: after an average period of The group with less than -2DS stature- weight deficits showed the same mean age of The late diagnosis of the disease at an average age of 13 years , the long period of chronic dialysis program over Full Text Available Introduction. The height-weight difference index HWDI is a new indicator for evaluating obesity status.

HWDI was calculated as the difference between height and weight. The prediction model provides an easy-to-use obesity evaluation tool that should help awareness of underweight and obesity conditions. DMSA scan nomograms for renal length and area: Related to patient age and to body weight , height or surface area. Aim: To create nomograms for renal size as measured from DMSA renal studies, and to test the nomograms for their ability to separate normal from abnormal kidneys.

Method: Renal length was measured from posterior oblique views and renal area from posterior views. Results from patients with bilateral normal kidneys were used to create nomograms for renal size relative to patient age, body height , weight or body surface area BSA. Each nomogram was then tested against 46 hypertrophied kidneys and 46 damaged kidneys. Results: The results from nomograms of renal length and renal area, compared to age, body height , body weight and BSA are presented.

For each nomogram, the range is presented as a fraction of the mean value, and the number of abnormal kidneys hypertrophied or damaged outside the normal range is presented as a percentage indicating the sensitivity. Conclusion: Renal Area was no better than renal length for detecting abnormal kidneys. Patient age was the least useful method of normalisation.

BSA normalisation produced the best results most frequently narrower ranges and highest detection of abnormal kidneys. Validity of parent-reported weight and height of preschool children measured at home or estimated without home measurement: a validation study. Therefore, it is important to know to what extent these parental reports are valid and whether it makes a difference if the parents measured their children's weight and height at home or whether they simply estimated these values.

The aim of this study is to compare the validity of parent-reported height , weight and BMI values of preschool children y-old, when measured at home or estimated by parents without actual measurement. Methods The subjects were Belgian preschool children A questionnaire including questions about height and weight of the children was completed by the parents.

Nurses measured height and weight following standardised procedures. International age- and sex-specific BMI cut-off values were employed to determine categories of weight status and obesity. Results On the group level, no important differences in accuracy of reported height , weight and BMI were identified between parent-measured or estimated values. However, for all 3 parameters, the correlations between parental reports and nurse measurements were higher in the group of children whose body dimensions were measured by the parents.

Conclusions Diagnostic measures were more accurate when parents measured their child's weight and height at home than when those dimensions were based on parental judgements. When parent-reported data on an individual level is used, the accuracy could be improved by encouraging the parents to measure weight and height.

Source of parental reports of child height and weight during phone interviews and influence on obesity prevalence estimates among children aged years. We compared parental reports of children's height and weight when the values were estimated vs.

In the and North Carolina Child Health Assessment and Monitoring Program surveys, parents reported height and weight for children aged years. When parents reported the values were not measured by doctor, school, or home , they were asked to measure their child and were later called back. We categorized body mass index status using standard CDC definitions, and we used Chi-square tests and the Stuart-Maxwell test of marginal homogeneity to examine reporting differences.

Having parents who guessed the height and weight of their children and then reported updated values did not significantly change the overall population estimates of obesity. Our findings demonstrate that using parent-reported height and weight values may be sufficient to provide reasonable estimates of obesity prevalence.

Systematically asking the source of height and weight information may help improve how it is applied to research of the prevalence of childhood obesity when gold-standard measurements are not available. Relative importance of expertise, lifting height and weight lifted on posture and lumbar external loading during a transfer task in manual material handling.

The objective of this study was to measure the effect size of three important factors in manual material handling, namely expertise, lifting height and weight lifted. The effect of expertise was evaluated by contrasting 15 expert and 15 novice handlers, the effect of the weight lifted with a kg box and a kg box and the effect of lifting height with two different box heights : ground level and a 32 cm height.

The task consisted of transferring a series of boxes from a conveyor to a hand trolley. Lifting height and weight lifted had more effect size than expertise on external back loading variables moments while expertise had low impact. On the other hand, expertise showed a significant effect of posture variables on the lumbar spine and knees. All three factors are important, but for a reduction of external back loading, the focus should be on the lifting height and weight lifted.

The objective was to measure the effect size of three important factors in a transfer of boxes from a conveyor to a hand trolley. Lifting height and weight lifted had more effect size than expertise on external back loading variables but expertise was a major determinant in back posture.

Rht-1 and Ppd-D1 associations with height , GA sensitivity, and days to heading in a worldwide bread wheat collection. Reduced height Rht -1 and Photoperiod Ppd have major effects on the adaptability of bread wheat Triticum aestivum to specific environments.

Ppd-D1a is a photoperiod insensitive allele that reduces time to flowering. The gibberellin GA insensitive alleles Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b shorten plant stature and were important components of the 'green revolution'. Theor Appl Gen doi: We determined the frequency of the five alleles in a worldwide core collection of wheat accessions CC and estimated their effects on height , days to heading , and GA sensitivity when the collection was grown in pots outdoors or in the glasshouse.

This revealed that each allele was widespread geographically with frequencies ranging from 0. Two statistical methods were developed and used to estimate GA sensitivity of the CC accessions, but novel GA insensitive alleles were not identified. Further characterization of the Rht-B1 insertion alleles is required, but our results suggest these may enable fine adjustments in plant height. Critical weight loss in head and neck cancer - prevalence and risk factors at diagnosis : an explorative study.

Jager-Wittenaar, H. It is unknown which complaints are most strongly related to critical weight loss in head and neck cancer patients at the time of diagnosis. The aim of this explorative. To explore the influence of secular trends in body height and weight on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Chinese children and adolescents.

Body height and weight for each sex and age were standardized to those reported in standardized height : SHY; standardized weight : SWY and for each sex and year at age 7 standardized height : SHA; standardized weight : SWA using the Z-score method.

Published by China CDC. Full Text Available Interest in clinical brain magnetic resonance imaging using channel head coils for signal reception continues to increase. The present investigation assesses possibilities for improving diffusion- weighted image quality using a channel in comparison to a conventional channel coil.

The utility of single-shot ss and an approach to readout-segmented rs echo planar imaging EPI are examined using both head coils. Substantial image quality improvements are found with rs-EPI. Imaging with a channel head coil allows for implementation of greater parallel imaging acceleration factors or acquisition of scans at a higher resolution. Specifically, higher resolution imaging with rs-EPI can be achieved by increasing the number of readout segments without increasing echo-spacing or echo time to the degree necessary with ss-EPI - a factor resulting in increased susceptibility artifact and reduced signal-to-noise with the latter.

A conceptually simple two-dimensional conditional reference curve is described. The curve gives a decision basis for determining whether a bivariate response from an individual is "normal" or "abnormal" when taking into account that a third conditioning variable may influence the bivariate The reference curve is not only characterized analytically but also by geometric properties that are easily communicated to medical doctors - the users of such curves.

The reference curve estimator is completely non-parametric, so no distributional assumptions are needed about the two A comparison of height and weight velocity as a part of the composite endpoint in pediatric HIV. HIV adversely affects growth in children. However, WAZ and height velocity HAZ have not been critically compared for their utility as part of the composite endpoint.

In both bivariable and multivariable analyses, changes in HAZ were more closely linked to subsequent progression than WAZ. Children with improved HAZ were somewhat less likely to exhibit virological failure [odds ratio OR , 0. Increases in HAZ were associated with reduced risk of subsequent clinical progression and subsequent immune reconstitution and weakly associated with declines in HIV RNA. Height velocity should be considered as a component of a composite clinical endpoint in future PACTG trials.

Increased P wave dispersion are identified as a predictor of atrial fibrillation. There are associations between hypertension, P wave dispersion, constitutional and echocardiographic variables. These relationships have been scarcely studied in pediatrics. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between P wave dispersion, blood pressure, echocardiographic and constitutional variables, and determine the most influential variables on P wave dispersion increases in pediatrics.

Arterial blood pressure was measured in all the children; a lead surface electrocardiogram and an echocardiogram were done as well. Left ventricular mass index mean values for normotensive When we add prehypertensive and hypertensive there are P wave dispersion is increased in pre- and hypertensive children compared to normotensive. There are pre- and hypertensive patients with normal left ventricular mass index and increased P wave dispersion.

Mean arterial pressure, duration of the A wave of mitral inflow, weight and height are the variables with the highest influence on increased P wave dispersion. Differences among skeletal muscle mass indices derived from height -, weight -, and body mass index-adjusted models in assessing sarcopenia.

Aging processes are inevitably accompanied by structural and functional changes in vital organs. Skeletal muscle is known to play diverse crucial physical and metabolic roles in humans. Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by significant loss of muscle mass and strength.

It is related to subsequent frailty and instability in the elderly population. Because muscle tissue is involved in multiple functions, sarcopenia is closely related to various adverse health outcomes. Along with increasing recognition of the clinical importance of sarcopenia, several international study groups have recently released their consensus on the definition and diagnosis of sarcopenia.

In practical terms, various skeletal muscle mass indices have been suggested for assessing sarcopenia: appendicular skeletal muscle mass adjusted for height squared, weight , or body mass index. A different prevalence and different clinical implications of sarcopenia are highlighted by each definition. The discordances among these indices have emerged as an issue in defining sarcopenia, and a unifying definition for sarcopenia has not yet been attained.

This review aims to compare these three operational definitions and to introduce an optimal skeletal muscle mass index that reflects the clinical implications of sarcopenia from a metabolic perspective. Rob; Hennig, Branwen J. Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M. Birth weight within the normal range is associated with a variety of adult-onset diseases, but the mechanisms behind these associations are poorly understood1.

Previous genome-wide association studies identified a variant in the ADCY5 gene associated both with birth weight and type 2 diabetes, and a second variant, near CCNL1, with no obvious link to adult traits2. In an expanded genome-wide association meta-analysis and follow-up study up to 69, individuals of European descent from 43 studies , we have now extended the number of genome-wide significant loci to seven, accounting for a similar proportion of variance to maternal smoking.

Our findings highlight genetic links between fetal growth and postnatal growth and metabolism. Weight , height , body mass index and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: a case-control study. To investigate whether the condition contributes to excess breast cancer cases, a case-control study was conducted to assess the relationships between anthropometric variables and breast cancer risk in Tehran, Iran. Eligible cases were all postmenopausal women with histological confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer during to year Controls were randomly selected postmenopausal women attending the ICBC for clinical breast examination during the same period.

Results In all, breast cancer cases and controls were studied. There were no significant differences between cases and control with regard to most independent variables studied. Conclusion The results suggest that obesity in postmenopausal women could increase risk of breast cancer and it merits further investigation in populations such as Iran where it seems that many women are short in height , and have a relatively high body mass index.

Role of T2 weighted magnetic resonance image in chronic phase of head injured patients. In neuroimaging studies of head injury, addition of echo planar imaging EPI T2- weighted images WI to routine MR images has been useful in demonstrating small hemorrhagic lesions as magnetic susceptibility artifacts MSAs. MSAs are often found in the acute or subacute phases of head injured patients with diffuse axonal injury.

This series consisted of 20 patients with diffuse brain injury diagnosed clinically. All patients underwent long-term follow-up MR examinations. MR findings in chronic phase were divided into three categories in terms of MSAs: group A, MSAs remaining even after disappearance of small traumatic lesions in both T2-WI and fluid attenuated inversion recovery FLAIR images 11 cases ; group B, MSA s that disappeared in association with disappearance of small traumatic lesions 4 cases ; and group C, MSAs that remained but could not be differentiated from non-traumatic lesions such as hemorrhagic lacunae or cavernoma 5 cases.

Adding EPI T2-WI to routine MR images can provide useful information in visualizing old traumatic lesions of the brain in patients with diffuse brain injury even if no neuroimaging studies in acute or subacute phase. However, many of the studies have been conducted in urban areas with older pediatric populations.

This study was undertaken to evaluate growth patterns after ART initiation in a young pediatric population in rural Zambia with a high prevalence of undernutrition. Children were evaluated every 3 months, at which time a questionnaire was administered, height and weight were measured, and blood specimens were collected. Weight - and height -for-age z-scores were constructed from WHO growth standards. Linear mixed effects models were used to model trajectories of weight and height -for-age z-scores.

Improvements in both weight - and height -for-age z-scores were observed, with weight -for-age z-scores increasing during the first 6 months of treatment and then stabilizing, and height -for-age z-scores increasing consistently over time. Trajectories of weight -for-age z-scores differed by underweight status at treatment initiation, with children who were underweight experiencing greater increases in z-scores in the first 6 months of treatment.

Trajectories of height -for-age z-scores differed by age, with children older than 5 years of age experiencing smaller increases over time. Conclusions Some of the effects of HIV on growth were reversed with ART initiation, although a high proportion of children remained underweight and stunted after two years of treatment. Partnerships between treatment and nutrition programs should be explored so that HIV-infected children can receive optimal nutritional.

Assortive mating for personaltiy traits, educational level, religious affiliation, height , weight , adn body mass index in parents of Korean twin sample. The degree of assortative mating for psychological and physical traits in Asian societies in relatively unknown. The present study examined assortative mating for educational level, personality traits, religious affiliation, height , weight , and body mass index in a korean sample.

These results were remarkably similar to those found from the western samples. Implications of the present findings in behavior genetic studies and human mating patterns were briefly discussed. Fat-suppressed T2- weighted MRI appearance of subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head. Our aims were to investigate the imaging appearance of subchondral insufficiency fracture SIF of the femoral head based on fat-suppressed T2- weighted MRI, and evaluate its correlation with the clinical outcomes following conservative treatment.

We retrospectively evaluated 40 hips in 37 patients with SIF of the femoral head 12 males and 25 females; mean age MRI examinations were performed within 3 months after the onset of hip pain. Using fat-suppressed T2- weighted imaging, we evaluated the hips for the intensity of the subchondral bone corresponding to the area superior to the low intensity band on T1- weighted images as well as bone marrow edema, joint effusion, and presence of the band lesion. We then correlated the intensity of the subchondral bone with clinical outcomes.

The hips were classified into three types based on subchondral intensity on fat-suppressed T2- weighted images: type 1 21 hips showed high intensity, type 2 eight hips showed heterogeneous intensity, and type 3 11 hips showed low intensity. The mean period between pain onset and MRI examination was significantly longer for type 2 hips than for type 1. SIF cases were classified into three types based on subchondral intensity on fat-suppressed T2- weighted imaging performed within 3 months after pain onset.

Type 3 SIF tended to be intractable to conservative treatment compared to type 1 and type 2. Morisaki, Naho; Belfort, Mandy B. Introduction Whether parenteral nutrition benefits growth of very low birth weight VLBW preterm infants in the setting of rapid enteral feeding advancement is unclear. Our aim was to examine this issue using data from Japan, where enteral feeding typically advances at a rapid rate. Main outcomes were weight gain, head growth, and extra-uterine growth restriction EUGR, measurement parenteral nutrition.

Adjusting for maternal, infant, and institutional characteristics, infants who received parenteral nutrition had greater weight gain [0. No statistically significant difference was seen in the proportion of infants with EUGR at discharge. SGA infants and infants who took more than a week until full feeding had larger estimates. Discussion Even in infants who are able to establish enteral nutrition within 2 weeks, deprivation of parenteral nutrition in the first weeks of life could lead to under nutrition, but infants who reached full feeding within one week benefit least.

It is important to predict which infants are likely or not likely to advance on enteral feedings within a week and balance enteral and parenteral nutrition for these infants. Validity of self-reported weight , height , and body mass index among university students in Thailand: Implications for population studies of obesity in developing countries. Large-scale epidemiological studies commonly use self-reported weights and heights to determine weight status.

Validity of such self-reported data has been assessed primarily in Western populations in developed countries, although its use is widespread in developing countries. We examine the validity of obesity based on self-reported data in an Asian developing country, and derive improved obesity prevalence estimates using the "reduced BMI threshold" method. Self-reported and measured heights and weights were obtained from students attending an open university in Thailand mean age 34 years.

Receiver operator characteristic techniques were applied to derive "reduced BMI thresholds. Weight was under-reported by 0. For men, reducing the BMI threshold to For women, using a BMI threshold of Interestingly, HMGB1 not only stimulates, but also inhibits migration in some cells. Tissue regeneration is a process of regeneration of a wide variety of complex structures, allowing host tissue to regrow after injury or damage.

In addition, the polarity and position of structures in regrown tissues must integrate with preexisting body structures King and Newmark, HMGB1 promotes scratch wound closure of keratinocytes via reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and disruption of the key junctional protein Ranzato et al. Accumulating evidence indicates that HMGB1 can stimulate myocardial regeneration, which may facilitate cardiac repair Abarbanell et al.

In a mouse model of myocardial infarction, HMGB1 administration promoted proliferation and differentiation of cardiac stem cells into cardiomyocytes Limana et al. HMGB1 regulates electrical remodeling Liu et al. These finding suggests that HMGB1 is a therapy target of cardiac disorder.

Except for myocardial regeneration, HMGB1 promotes myogenesis in skeletal muscle by activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase MAPK , upregulation of myogenin and myosin heavy chain expression, and induction of muscle creatine kinase De Mori et al. HMGB1 also promotes epithelial regeneration through recruitment of epithelial progenitors to injured tissue Tamai et al. HMGB1 induces human lung endothelial cell cytoskeletal rearrangement and barrier disruption Wolfson et al.

Angiogenesis, or the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing capillaries, is involved in various physiologic and pathologic processes such as inflammation, wound repair, and tumor growth. In an endothelial-sprouting assay, exogenous HMGB1 induces endothelial cell migration and sprouting in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that HMGB1 may be involved in angiogenesis Schlueter et al.

They demonstrated that extracellular HMGB1 induces a proangiogenic phenotype in endothelial cells and triggers a potent angiogenic response in vivo in the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane Mitola et al. HMGB1 in complex with heparin also induces angiogenesis Wake et al.

HMGB1 stimulates integrin-dependent homing of endothelial progenitor cells in ischemic regions and improves neovascularization Chavakis et al. Importantly, HMGB1 has been shown to be upregulated in the serum or tissue specimens of patients with angiogenesis-associated diseases, especially cancer Yang et al. Rapid tumor growth is accompanied by reduced microvessel density, resulting in chronic hypoxia that often leads to necrotic areas within the tumor. These hypoxic and necrotic regions exhibit increased expression of angiogenic growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF , and attracts macrophages, which also produce a number of potent angiogenetic cytokines and growth factors.

In , Cecilia K. The kinetics of bacterial killing by HMGB1 was found to be rapid within a time frame of seconds or minutes Zetterstrom et al. Later, the same group discovered that HMGB1 is highly expressed by Sertoli cells in human as well as rat testes. The purification of HMGB1 from human and rat testes by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography also exerts significant antibiotic activity against several types of bacteria Zetterstrom et al.

These findings suggest that HMGB1 may facilitate the first line of defense against invading bacteria. NET is an important mechanism of bacterial killing. These findings suggest that HMGB1-mediated bacterial killing occurs in a receptor-dependent way. HMGB1 activates cell proliferation signals in several cells, including smooth muscle cells Porto et al. HMGB1 is not only released by smooth muscle cells, but also promotes the proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells, which facilities atherosclerotic plaque formation Porto et al.

In vitro , HMGB1 induces the migration and proliferation of both adult and embryonic mesoangioblasts and disrupts the barrier function of endothelial monolayers Palumbo et al. HMGB1 promotes proliferation of cardiac stem cells and myocardiocytes, which facilitates tissue regeneration Limana et al. HMGB1 regulates the proliferation of lymphocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner Wang et al.

Thus, the redox state of HMGB1 regulates tumor cell survival and death. Several reports have indicated that an excessive accumulation of extracellular HMGB1 is cytotoxic and leads to cell death e. In addition, HMGB1 can induce a special form of cell death in glioblastoma cells, which lack the typical features of apoptosis, autophagy, or classic necrosis Gdynia et al. Exogenous HMGB1 can enter host mitochondria by an endocytosis-independent mechanism and result in the formation of vacuolated giant mitochondria and a rapid depletion of mitochondrial DNA Gdynia et al.

However, reactive oxygen species-mediated JNK activation is required for this process Gdynia et al. Future studies will have to examine the molecular basis of HMGB1 uptake and subsequent giant mitochondria formation. Cellular senescence is a state of permanent cell-cycle arrest when proliferating cells respond to stress, including oncogenetic stress Campisi and d'Adda di Fagagna, In addition to cell death, senescence is considered an important mechanism for mammalian cells to suppress tumorigenesis.

During senescence, HMGB1 translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and is then released to the extracellular space Davalos et al. Interaction between HMGB1 and p53 determine the onset of senescence. Several reports have indicated a potential role of HMGB1 in the regulation of microRNA expression involved in inflammation, cardiac remodeling, and cancer. HMGB1 increases the expression of miR, which contributes to downregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 TIMP3 , a physiological regulator of cardiac regeneration Limana et al.

Efferocytosis is an uptake process of apoptotic cells by macrophages and other phagocytic cell populations. Thus, extracellular HMGB1-mediated efferocytosis inhibition may enhance inflammatory responses during apoptosis. Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals e. The vagus nerve can modulate systemic inflammation and HMGB1 release through the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7nAchR , suggesting a potential role of neurotransmitters in the regulation of HMGB1 release.

The immune system is divided into two parts, the innate and adaptive systems, which protect the body against pathogens, destroying cancer cells and foreign substances. The innate immune system, including several cell types e. The adaptive immune response depends on B and T lymphocytes, which are specific for particular antigens and typically takes four to seven days to respond. It is clear that HMGB1 plays a critical role in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses by direct effects or cell-cell interaction Bianchi and Manfredi, ; Dumitriu et al.

HMGB1 acts as an adjuvant for several vaccines Grover et al. Macrophages differentiate from circulating PBMCs, common progenitor cells for many cell types such as dendritic cells and mast cells. Macrophages are important effector cells of the immune system that contribute to host defense, wound healing, and immune regulation.

Many pro-inflammatory stimuli can induce macrophage secretion of HMGB1 into the extracellular space. Interestingly, pretreatment with HMGB1 leads to endotoxin and lipoteichoic acid tolerance in bone marrow-derived macrophages and the acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 by downregulation NF-KB activity Aneja et al. More recently, endogenous HMGB1 has been found to be required in endotoxin tolerance in macrophages Li et al. Thus, HMGB1 can activate or inhibit macrophage function in the innate immune response, which maybe depend on receptors, location, and reaction phase.

Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils are known as granulocytes due to the presence of multi-lobed nuclei and granular cytoplasm. Neutrophils, also called polymorphonuclear cells PMNs , are the most abundant leukocyte and kill microorganisms by phagocytosis, a process which typically leads to cytoplasmic vacuolar degeneration by production of reactive oxygen species. HMGB1 is an effective stimulus of neutrophil activation to produce cytokines Park et al.

Mast cells are derived from haematopoietic stem cells and reside particularly in connective tissue and in the mucous membranes. When activated, mast cells can release granule-associated mediators such as histamine and heparin, which induce immediate allergic inflammation with recruitment of basophils, neutrophils and macrophages Metcalfe et al. There is no information about the direct effect of exogenous HMGB1 on mast cell activity.

Mast cell- deficient mice are protected from trauma partly through decreased circulating HMGB1 levels, suggesting a possible role of mast cells in the regulation of HMGB1 release Cai et al. Similarly, mast cells were able to regulate cell death-mediated HMGB1 release in an animal sepsis model Ramos et al. However, the mast cell effector histamine cannot induce HMGB1 release in rheumatoid arthritis Adlesic et al.

These findings suggest that mast cells have different roles in the regulation of HMGB1 release, activity, and levels during the inflammatory response. Basophils are an extremely rare type of granulocyte containing cytoplasmic granules that stain with basophilic dyes. When activated, basophils can release histamine, which is important in the development of allergic reactions such as asthma and allergic rhinitis.

In addition, basophils play roles in the defense against parasites. Eosinophil, a type of granulocyte, contains cytoplasmic granules that are easily stained by eosin or other acid dyes. When activated, eosinophils can release eosinophil granule proteins such as major basic protein MBP , eosinophil peroxidase EPO , eosinophil-derived neurotoxin EDN , and eosinophilic cationic protein ECP , which are implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous inflammatory processes such as parasites infection, asthma, allergy, and tumor Lotfi et al.

Exogenous HMGB1 has the ability to induce eosinophil migration, adhesion, survival, and degranulation Lotfi et al. Upregulation of HMGB1 contributes to the pathogenesis of eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps Chen et al. Dendritic cells DCs are the most powerful antigen-presenting cells APCs which play critical roles not only in the defense of microbial pathogens in the innate immune system but also in the regulation of the adaptive immune response.

Major DC functions include antigen presentation and subsequent activation of T cells, immune tolerance, and immune memory. DC-based immunotherapy is an important way to treat human diseases, especially cancer and autoimmune disease. Increasing evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies suggests that HMGB1 is a critical regulator of DC maturation and function. Activated DCs Tsung et al. The interaction between HMGB1 and TLR4 is required for the DC-mediated antitumor immune response in conventional anticancer therapies such as chemotherapy and irradiation Aguilera et al.

In contrast, TIM3 decreases this effect Chiba et al. Natural killer NK cells, a type of lymphocyte, play a major role in the early phase of host-rejection to both tumors and virally-infected cells. These findings suggest that HMGB1 regulates NK cell function at multiple levels such as cytotoxicity, cytokine release, and ligand expression. T cells, a type of lymphocyte, play a central role in cell-mediated adaptive immune responses.

T cells can release HMGB1 in response to several stimuli or cell-cell contact in co-cultures Jiang et al. Sundberg et al. In contrast, HMGB1 promotes Th17 cell proliferation, differentiation, and activation in the setting of several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis He et al. B cells, a type of lymphocyte, play a major role in making antibodies against antigen, performing the role of antigen-presenting cells in activation of immune memory.

Moreover, B cells also secrete cytokines, especially IL, to inhibit the inflammatory response. This special subset is termed regulatory B cells Mauri and Bosma, In addition, the serum level of HMGB1 significantly correlates with autoantibody production e. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells MDSCs are a heterogeneous population of myeloid origin cells including myeloid progenitors and immature macrophages, immature granulocytes, and immature DCs at different stages of differentiation Gabrilovich and Nagaraj, HMGB1 promotes recruitment and migration of MDSCs in the tumor microenvironment, which contributes to colon cancer metastasis after curative surgery Li et al.

In response to exogenous microbial products such as endotoxin Wang et al. HMGB1 cannot be actively secreted via the classical endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi secretory pathway due to lack of a leader signal sequence. Instead, several mechanisms have been reported to be involved in HMGB1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and subsequent release Figure 6. In , Alessandra Agresti, Marco E.

Similarly, both deacetylase inhibitors TSA and mimics acetylated lysine by mutation of six lysine to glutamine, causing the relocalization of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm Bonaldi et al. In addition to acetylation, phosphorylation and ADP-ribosylation may be other requisite steps for HMGB1 nucleocytoplasmic translocation.

These findings suggest that the interaction between different post transcriptional modifications finally determines HMGB1 location. However, we still do not know whether these post transcriptional modifications are competitively, cooperatively, or independently regulated. In addition, CRM1 is also involved in centrosome duplication and spindle assembly during mitosis. In response to oxidative stress, cytoplasmic Hsp72 translocates to the nucleus, where it interacts with nuclear proteins including HMGB1, and prevents oxidative stress-induced HMGB1 cytoplasmic translocation and release Tang et al.

The expression of CRM1 is unregulated in several cancers and is a potential anti-cancer drug target. Reactive oxygen species ROS are free radicals that contain the oxygen atom, which are generated during various metabolic and biochemical reactions. ROS have multifarious effects in signal transduction, but in excess can result in oxidative damage, cell death, and various diseases. Antioxidants such as NAC Tsung et al. Heme oxygenase-1 HO-1 is a cytoprotective enzyme that plays a critical role in defending the body against oxidant-induced injury during inflammatory processes.

HO catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in the oxidative degradation of heme to CO, biliverdin, and ferrous iron. Biliverdin and CO have anti-inflammatory properties. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor Nrf2 is a master transcription factor that regulates redox balance and stress response by controlling the basal and induced expression of an array of antioxidant response element-dependent genes.

Calcium ions, one type of important intracellular messenger, regulate multiple cellular processes by exerting allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Numerous proteins, channels, and pumps regulate calcium ion production and move between the cytosol and intracellular stores.

Calcium-mediated signaling is involved in HMGB1 nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and release during infection Zhang et al. Thus, inhibition of calcium signaling by inhibitors e. It is a powerful vasodilator with a short half-life of a few seconds in the blood and plays a role in many physiological and pathological processes. In macrophages, an inducible NO synthase iNOS or NOS2 is produced after activation by endotoxins or cytokines and generates copious amounts of NO presumably to help kill or inhibit the growth of invading microorganisms or neoplastic tissue.

Thus, there is crosstalk between different signals to regulate HMGB1 release from activated macrophages. Notch signaling is a highly conserved pathway involved in diverse developmental and physiological processes. Dysregulation of Notch signaling is associated with several human disorders, especially cancer. In mammals, there are four Notch receptors Notch-1 to -4 and five Notch ligands Delta-like-1, -3, and -4 and Jagged-1 and In addition, recombinant soluble Jagged-1, Delta-like-1, or -4 amplified LPS induced inflammatory responses.

Inflammasomes have recently been shown to play an important role in mediating HMGB1 release from activated immune cells Barlan et al. Importantly, this process is mediated by double-stranded RNA dsRNA -dependent protein kinase PKR , which promotes inflammasome assembly by directly interacting with inflammasome components e. It is unclear whether other inflammatory signaling pathways are involved in inflammasome-mediated HMGB1 release Lamkanfi and Dixit, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors PPARs are members of the nuclear hormone receptor family and function as transcription factors regulating gene expression.

Several reports indicate that HMGB1 release is mediated by cell-cell interaction. Interestingly, interplay between dying cells and immune cells also induces HMGB1 release. For example, exposure of apoptotic cells to macrophages stimulates the release of HMGB1 in macrophages, which provides an explanation for the mechanism for apoptosis-mediated sepsis lethality Qin et al.

In addition, impaired clearance of apoptotic cells also leads to HMGB1 release, which in turn induces TLR4-mediated cytokine production Velegraki et al. Christian de Duve first identified lysosomes in via cell fractionation as the organelles responsible for protein degradation within cells. In addition to lysosome-mediated degradation, a subset of lysosomes, namely secretory lysosomes, are found in different cells of the immune system and are responsible for lysosome exocytosis in response to external stimuli.

The best candidate for a molecular marker of secretory lysosomes is Rab27a. Gamma-interferon inducible lysosomal thiol reductase GILT can reduce protein disulfide bonds, which facilitate the complete unfolding of proteins destined for lysosomal degradation. In addition, HMGB1 can be passively released in cell death e. HMGB1 has generally been considered a necrosis marker to stimulate inflammation. Necroptosis, also termed programmed necrosis, is an alternative form of programmed cell death that occurs when cells lack the capacity to activate caspase-8 following ligation of death receptors e.

Two members of the receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase RIP family, RIP1 and RIP3, have recently been implicated in necroptosis due to their interaction to generate necrosomes Li et al. Overexpression of RIP3 in vitro increases necroptosis, whereas knockout of RIP3 in vitro or in vivo inhibits necroptosis in response to various stressors, especially inflammatory stimuli. Lysosomal cell death is a form of cell death mediated by lysosomal cathepsin proteases.

Lysosomal membrane permeabilization is increased in response to several stressors such as chemotherapy and pathogens, which result in the release of cathepsins and other hydrolases from the lysosome to the cytosol. Lysosomal cell death has necrotic, apoptotic, or apoptosis-like features depending on the extent of the leakage and the cellular context Aits and Jaattela, A recent study indicated that cathepsin B, a lysosomal cysteine protease, promotes L.

An early study indicated that minute amounts of cathepsin B are transferred abruptly to the nuclear compartment, including histone and HMGB1, in a variety of activated cells Seeler et al. The pattern of cathepsin B activation was important for subsequent PARP cleavage and type of cell death Morinaga et al.

These findings suggest that cathepsin plays a critical role in the regulation of HMGB1 release while cells undergo mixed cell death. Although there are multiple sources of ROS in the cell, mitochondria have been considered a major source of ROS production. In addition, other antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase Chiang and Maric, ; Hoppe et al. DNA is degraded during cell death that accompanies a number of diseases.

An early study indicated that HMGB1 is released only by necrotic cells, but not apoptotic cells. We now know that apoptotic cells also release HMGB1 and nucleosome to mediate inflammatory and immune responses. Caspases are a group of intracellular cysteine-aspartic proteases that mediate apoptosis and other types of cell death such as pyroptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes that are activated by proteolytic cleavage. Caspase 8 is implicated in the death receptor-mediated apoptosis pathway and cytokine processing.

Caspase 9 has been linked to the mitochondrial death pathway by triggering the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Caspase 3 and caspase 7 share similar substrate specificities and function as effector caspases through amplified initiation signals from caspase 8 and caspase 9.

This finding provided an explanation for the apoptosis-mediated HMGB1 release mechanism. Pyroptosis is an inflammatory cell death and is typically triggered by caspase 1 after its activation by various inflammasomes. Inhibition of caspapse 1 activity can diminish HMGB1 release and the inflammatory response during pyroptosis Kamo et al.

In addition, a recent study indicated that HMGB1 at the sites of aa67, aa, and aa can be directly cleaved by caspase 1, but not other caspases -2, -3, -5, -7, -9 or Leblanc et al. Different from full length HMGB1, A box with anti-inflammatory activity, the caspase-1 generated A-box fragment especially residues 23—50 binding to RAGE can rescue apoptosis-induced immune tolerance in a sepsis model Leblanc et al. These findings suggest that caspase 1 regulates both the release and processing of HMGB1 in inflammation and immunity.

Autophagy is a lysosome-mediated, dynamic process including induction, cargo recognition, phagophore formation, autophagosme formation, autolysosme formation, and substrate degradation. This process is tightly regulated by ATG proteins that were first identified in yeast. Several ATG homologs have subsequently been identified in mammalian cells, suggesting that autophagy is a highly-conserved process from the evolution of prokaryotes to eukaryotes.

Although autophagy is generally considered a survival mechanism against harmful stress, excessive autophagy can lead to cell death, namely autophagic cell death. This process requires ROS signaling Tang et al. RAGE, a member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily, is a transmembrane receptor with an extracellular domain, a short transmembrane domain, and a amino acid cytoplasmic tail.

The gene is localized on chromosome 6p This locus is in close proximity to the homeobox gene HOX12 and the human counterpart of the mouse mammary tumor gene int A recent study indicated that RAGE is evolved from a cell adhesion molecule family and acts as an adhesion molecule in mammalian cells Sessa et al. There are multiple spliced transcript variants of RAGE which encode different isoforms, as well as non-protein-coding variants. There are two major signal transduction pathways involved in TLR activation.

The MyDdependent pathway is required for the production of inflammatory cytokines, whereas the MyDindependent pathway is required for the production of type I IFN and the maturation of DCs. In addition to activating inflammatory responses, the interaction between HMGB1 and TLR4 mediates anti-cancer immunity during radio- or chemotherapy Apetoh et al. Integrins are adhesion proteins that play critical roles in leukocyte recruitment, a well-defined cascade immunological process enabling leukocytes to leave the microvasculature and migrate into inflamed tissue Herter and Zarbock, In addition, the expression of Mac-1 in neutrophils is regulated by Rac1, a small G-protein Hwaiz et al.

Proteoglycans are glycosylated proteins with covalently attached, highly anionic glycosaminoglycans Yanagishita, Different types of proteoglycans are found in the extracellular matrices of connective tissues. Heparan sulfate, a linear polysaccharide, binds multiple protein ligands e.

Using heparin-sepharose chromatography, HMGB1 was originally isolated from rat liver Bianchi, , suggesting its ability to bind cell surface proteoglycans. Indeed, some proteoglycans, including heparan sulfate Xu et al. However the functional significance of such interaction remains largely unknown in vivo. CD24, first identified as a B cell differentiation marker, is a cell surface GPI-anchored mucin-like glycoprotein expressed by a variety of hematopoietic, neuronal, and epithelial cell types Fang et al.

Accumulating evidence shows that CD24 is involved in several physiological and pathological processes such as lymphocyte maturation, tissue regeneration, neuronal development, tumor development, and tumor metastasis. These findings provide a receptor switch to distinguish the immune response from intracellular and extracellular danger signals. It was first identified as an immune checkpoint receptor that suppresses the activation of T H 1 cells Monney et al. As a negative receptor, TIM-3 impairs HMGB1-mediated recruitment of nucleic acids into the endosome, a key step in nucleic acid-mediated antitumor immunity Chiba et al.

Therefore, blockade of TIM-3 by neutralizing antibody could improve therapeutic responses in combination with DNA vaccines and chemotherapy. CXCR4, a member of the G protein-coupled receptors, is widely expressed by hematopoietic cells. In addition, CXCR4 is expressed lower in normal tissues, but expressed significantly higher in tumor tissues, indicating a critical role in tumor biology, including tumor proliferation and metastasis. After binding its ligands e.

N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor NMDAR , a member of post-synaptic ionotropic glutamate receptors iGluRs , is a heteromeric ligand-gated calcium ion channel mainly in the central nervous system. NMDAR mediates glutamate-induced calcium influx and sustains synaptic plasticity and neural excitatory. This interaction between HMGB1 and NMDAR on synaptosomes and cells of neuronal and non-neuronal origin promotes calcium influx and NO synthesis, which results in neuroblastoma cell motility and neurite outgrowth Pedrazzi et al.

HMGB1 only in its disulfide form binds TLR4 to enhance neuronal calcium influx, which facilitates neuronal hyper excitability in seizures Balosso et al. The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 TREM-1 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily including three domains: extracellular domain aa , a membrane-spanning domain 29aa , and a short cytoplasmic tail 5 aa. HMGB1 levels correlate with the anticancer activity of cisplatin. CTF2 binding to p53 upregulates the p21 gene promoter, whereas CTF2 binding to p73 downregulates the p21 gene promoter Uramoto et al.

These findings suggest that interaction between same transcriptional factors play different roles in the regulation of different genes. KLF4 plays a critical role in proliferation, differentiation, development, inflammation, and cell death. KLF4 clearly acts as both a repressor and activator of gene transcription depending on target genes and cofactors.

Although c-Myc is a proto-oncogene and stimulates proliferation, downregulation of c-Myc promotes cancer cell survival under oxygen- and glucose-deprived conditions Okuyama et al. The viral Tax protein encoded from human T-cell leukemia virus type-I HTLV-1 is considered to play a central role in the process leading to adult T-cell leukemia.

Tax acts as a transcriptional activator by associating with specific DNA-bound protein and transcript factors. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 STAT3 is a transcription factor which was first described as a DNA-binding activity from ILstimulated hepatocytes.

In addition to IL-6, Stat3 is also activated by multiple stimuli such as growth factors, cytokines, oncogenes, hypoxia, and oxidative stress. ErbB3 lacks tyrosine kinase activity, whereas ErbB2 is a ligand-less receptor. However, some ligands e. A recent study indicated that nuclear ErbB3 in Schwann cells significantly inhibits the transcriptional activity of HMGB1 promoters in response to neuregulin-1 Adilakshmi et al.

Previous studies have demonstrated that HSP72 inhibits HMGB1 release in activated macrophages by direct protein-protein interaction in the nucleus. Knockdown of NAC1 inhibits cisplatin-induced HMGB1 expression, translocation, and release in ovarian cancer cells, which will limit autophagy and increase apoptosis Zhang et al.

HMGB1 can undergo several post-translational modifications including acetylation ADP-ribosylation, methylation, phosphorylation, glycosylation, and oxidation as shown by studies with HPLC, gel electrophoresis, ion-exchange chromatography, and isoelectric focusing.

HMGB1 post-translational modification. There is a direct interaction between the acetylation and phosphorylation of HMGB1 lacking the C terminus in vitro. Upregulation of pyruvate kinase M2 PKM2 expression enables a metabolic switch to aerobic glycolysis, leading to excessive production of lactate. By inhibiting histone deacetylases activity, lactate in turn increases HMGB1 hyperacetylation, cytoplasmic translocation and release in systemic inflammatory response syndrome Yang et al.

HMGB1 in neutrophils is mono-methylated at Lys42 during end differentiation from myelocytic cells. This change will cause HMGB1 to translocate from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in neutrophils Ito et al. In vitro , HMGB1 extracted from livers of young, but not old rats, is more sensitive to spermine and sodium butyrate-induced phosoporation Prasad and Thakur, b.

HMGB1 is also able to undergo glycosylation, although the amount is insignificant and the function is unclear Chao et al. Increasing evidence indicates that changes in HMGB1 location and function largely depends on redox states Tang et al.

The native state of HMGB1 is rapidly lost via oxidation of sulfhydryl groups during storage Kohlstaedt et al. In addition to location and release, the redox status of HMGB1 directly influences its extracellular activity, including immunity and autophagy Venereau et al.

However, other reports indicate that oxidized HMGB1 still has the ability to activate neutrophils, vascular inflammation, and age-associated inflammation Davalos et al. The different HMGB1 redox forms can be identified in serum, saliva, and cell culture medium by mass spectrometry Balosso et al.

Bianchi and colleagues Antoine et al. Thrombomodulin TM also called CD or BDCA-3 is an integral membrane protein expressed on the surface of endothelial cells and composed of three domains: an N-terminal lectin-like domain, followed by an EGF-like domain consisting of six EGF-like repeats, and an O-glycosylation—rich domain.

The major function of TM is as a cofactor for thrombin. In addition, other thrombosis regulators such as activated protein C Bae and Rezaie, and heparin Wake et al. During infection of epithelial cells, the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis secretes the serine protease Chlamydia protease-like activity factor CPAF into the host cytosol to regulate a range of host cellular processes through targeted proteolysis.

These findings suggest that HMGB1 degradation contributes to immune tolerance during pathogen infection. Autophagy plays a central role in the regulation of the cellular traffic, secretion, and degradation of HMGB1 in response to various stressors. Use of natural products including Chinese herbs is a novel way to inhibit HMGB1 release during sepsis; potential mechanisms of action are involved in promoting autophagy-mediated HMGB1 degradation.

For example, Tanshinone IIA sodium sulfonate, a famous Chinese medicine which has been used in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders, induces clathrin- or caveolin-dependent endocytosis of exogenous HMGB1 and subsequently, autophagy-dependent degradation in macrophages Zhang et al.

Green tea and its major constituent epigallocatechin gallate inhibit HMGB1 release in macrophages by stimulating its autophagic degradation Li et al. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 DPP4 also called ADCP2 and CD26 , a type II transmembrane glycoprotein, is a serine exopeptidase belonging to the S9B protein family that cleaves X-proline dipeptides from the N-terminus of polypeptides, such as chemokines, neuropeptides, and peptide hormones Matteucci and Giampietro, The N-terminal truncated form of HMGB1 is detected in the serum of type 2 diabetic patients, which may affect diabetes-associated vascular complications.

HMGB1 released from necrotic cells is immunogenic, whereas that released from apoptotic cells is tolerogenic. HMGB1 can be specifically processed to create an active A-box peptide by caspase-1, but not other caspases -2, -3, -5, -7, -9 or Leblanc et al. These findings provide a new mechanism by which to regulate immune tolerance by HMGB1 cleavage and receptor recognition. Extracellular HMGB1 plays multiple roles in the pathogenesis of human disease.

The extracellular actions of HMGB1 depend on its forms e. Of note, ultra-pure HMGB1 free from contaminating bacterial proteins and nucleic acids at a low dose fails to trigger the inflammatory response. In addition, normal and disease tissue e. It is clear that extracellular HMGB1 is generally a mediator of sterile inflammation and infection.

Inhibition of HMGB1 release and activity has been demonstrated to prevent several inflammatory diseases such as sepsis and reperfusion injury. However, intracellular HMGB1 may function as an anti-inflammatory and anti-injury protein in these diseases, based on recent studies with HMGB1 conditional knockout mice. For example, conditional knockout of HMGB1 in the pancreas, liver, and myeloid cells decreases protection against experimental pancreatitis, liver ischemic reperfusion, and sepsis, respectively Figure 11 Huang et al.

The mechanism is involved in intracellular HMGB1-mediated nuclear hemostasis and autophagy. Nucleosome release from local tissue with HMGB1 deficiency will activate and recruit immune cells e. These findings provide a novel mechanism to explain why local injury causes systemic inflammation.

Overexpression of HMGB1 in cardiac tissue by transgenic knockin methods significantly increases animal survival and protects mice against myocardial infarction by enhancing angiogenesis and cardiac function Kitahara et al. Necrosis is not only accidental, but is also a specific form of programmed cell death, namely necroptosis Galluzzi et al. Necroptosis refers to death-receptor-initiated cell death under conditions where cells lack the capacity to activate caspase Morphologically, necrosis is characterized by cell swelling, cell rupture, and breakdown of cell organelles.

The fundamental causes of necrosis include calcium overload, ROS generation, cellular energy depletion, membrane lipid injury, lysosomal destabilization, and release of lysosomal enzymes to digest liberated cellular components Zong and Thompson, Our unpublished data suggest that loss of HMGB1 causes necroptosis to switch to apoptosis, suggesting a potential role of HMGB1 in balancing different cell deaths.

Apoptosis is activated through specific signaling pathways that result in a series of well-defined biochemical e. The two central apoptosis pathways include the extrinsic pathway triggered by cell death receptors e. Although caspase activation is critical for apoptotic cell death, the caspase-independent pathway has been discovered by translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor AIF Daugas et al.

HMGB1 not only regulates endonuclease activity, but is also a component of apoptotic body Arends et al. Crosstalk between HMGB1 and apoptosis has been studied in many cancer cells. On one hand, HMGB1 can be released by apoptotic cancer cells at the late stage; on the other hand, extracellular oxidized HMGB1 can induce caspase-dependent apoptosis in cancer cells. HMGB1 plays transcriptional-dependent e.

The precise molecular mechanisms for this effect remain largely unknown. Autophagy is a highly-conserved process in many species. It is a lysosomal-mediated degradation pathway that includes multiple steps such as phagophore, autophagosome, and autolysosome formation and progression. This dynamic process is primarily controlled by members of the autophagy related gene Atg family and share regulators derived from other cell processes such as trafficking, proteasome, and cell death pathways Yang and Klionsky, b.

In contrast to bulk autophagy, selective autophagy involves targeted removal of damaged organelles, cellular debris, microorganisms, and pathogens Reggiori et al. These special targets include mitochondria mitophagy Youle and Narendra, , peroxisomes pexophagy Dunn et al. Autophagy plays dual roles in cell death depending on the response context.

In many cases, upregulated autophagy increases the ability to resist cell death, whereas autophagy deficiency contributes to cell death Kroemer and Levine, In contrast, autophagy mediates cell death under specific circumstances such as apoptosis deficiency Klionsky and Emr, ; Yang and Klionsky, a.

Autophagy dysfunction plays a critical role in human health and disease. Currently, autophagy is a hot research field and is thought to be involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes including HMGB1 release, secretion, and degradation. Autophagy is also regulated by HMGB1 at multiple levels. Indeed, RAGE is a positive regulator of autophagy and a negative regulator of apoptosis during chemotherapy, oxidative stress, DNA damage, and hypoxia Kang et al.

HMGB1-mediated autophagy increases chemoresistance in cancer cells, including colon cancer, pancreatic cancer, osteosarcoma, leukemia, gastric cancer, and ovarian cancer Huang et al. Conditional knockdown of HMGB1 in the liver or heart cannot change baseline autophagy level and mitochondrial quality Huebener et al. Pyroptosis is an inflammation-associated cell death characterized by rapid plasma-membrane rupture and release of pro-inflammatory intracellular molecules that occurs primarily with macrophages.

Caspase 1 is not involved in apoptosis, but plays a central role in pyroptosis. In contrast, caspases 3, 6, and 8 are important for apoptosis, but not involved in pyroptosis. Caspase-1 is activated during pyroptosis by inflammasome, a large supramolecular complex largely composed of dimers of the adaptor protein ASC apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain.

Increasing evidence indicates that HMGB1 released during pyroptosis is regulated by classical components of inflammasome as well as the recently-identified PKR Van Opdenbosch et al. Thus, inhibition of inflammasome activation decreases serum HMGB1 level and protects against liver ischemic injury Kamo et al.

NETosis is a regulated, antimicrobial cell death that occurs primarily in neutrophils, the first cells recruited to the site of infection Remijsen et al. In , Volker Brinkmann, Arturo Zychlinsky, and colleagues first reported that neutrophils release DNA-protein structures called neutrophil extracellular traps NETs to kill pathogens Brinkmann et al. Indeed, pro-inflammatory stimuli e. This medical problem results from an exuberant and excessive host response associated with a deleterious and non-resolving systemic inflammatory response syndrome, often caused by Gram-negative bacterial infection Vincent et al.

Early cytokines e. When actively secreted by immune cells or passively leaked from necrotic or injured cells Scaffidi et al. In vivo , HMGB1 is first detectable in the circulation eight hours after the onset of lethal endotoxemia and sepsis, subsequently increasing to plateau levels from 16 to 32 hours Wang et al.

Administration of recombinant HMGB1 to mice recapitulates the characteristic organ dysfunction of severe sepsis, including derangement of intestinal barrier function, acute lung injury, and lethal multiple organ failure Andersson and Tracey, ; Wang et al.

Taken together, these results suggest that HMGB1 is released in a delayed manner and functions as a late mediator of lethal sepsis and thus as a therapeutic target with a wider time window for clinical intervention Andersson and Tracey, , ; Huang et al. The ischemia is due to either arterial or venous occlusion.

Such pathology occurs during solid organ transplantation, trauma, stroke, hypovolemic shock, myocardial infarction, and elective liver resection. HMGB1 is also a biomarker of injury in human liver and kidney transplantation Ilmakunnas et al. Treatment with HMGB1-neutralizing antibody remarkably ameliorates hepatic, kidney, and brain infarction Levy et al.

HMGB1 was initially recognized as a heparin-binding protein abundantly expressed in rat brain neurons promoting neurite outgrowth Rauvala and Pihlaskari, In the early phase E Total HMGB1 expression is the highest in the brains of young adults and gradually decreases during aging in the mouse brain, which is a cause for the accumulation of DNA double-strand breaks in the aged brain Enokido et al. HMGB1 is downregulated in the neurons of the aged brain, whereas it is upregulated in astrocytes, suggesting that HMGB1 expression during aging is differentially regulated between neurons and astrocytes Enokido et al.

In addition to nervous system development, ischemia e. Huntington's disease is a progressive brain disorder caused by an expanded trinucleotide repeat CAG n, encoding glutamine, on chromosome 4p The aggregates formed by polyQ induce neuronal cell toxicity. Huntington's disease affects muscle coordination and leads to uncontrolled movements, psychiatric problems, and cognitive decline.

In addition, HMGB1 can direct bind to polyQ aggregates and then promote degradation by autophagy or lysosomal pathways Min et al. Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia in which the death of brain cells causes memory loss and cognitive decline.

Abnormal accumulation of alpha-synuclein filaments in Lewy bodies is a neuropathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease and sequestration of cellular protein into these protein aggregates may contribute to the degenerative process. In contrast, corynoxine B inhibits the interaction between HMGB1 and alpha-synuclein and rescues the impaired autophagy Song et al. Multiple sclerosis, also known as disseminated sclerosis or encephalomyelitis disseminata, is a chronic inflammatory central nervous system disease involving the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves.

HMGB1 and its receptors are increased in the brains of patients with multiple sclerosis and mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis Andersson et al. HMGB1-neutralizing antibody ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis Robinson et al. These findings suggest a direct role of HMGB1 in the regulation of innate immune and inflammatory responses in the central nervous system Das, ; Hoarau et al.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by loss of motor neurons and extensive astrogliosis and microglial activation in the motor cortex and spinal cord. HMGB1 and its receptors such as TLR2, TLR4, and RAGE are increased in reactive glia, whereas they are decreased in degenerating motor neurons in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, suggesting a possible role in the progression of inflammation and motor neuron degeneration Casula et al.

In addition, serum HMGB1 autoantibody is increased in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis compared with patients with Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease Hwang et al. These findings suggest that HMGB1 autoantibody may be a biomarker for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Hwang et al.

This disease can lead to loss of vision, muscle strength, and coordination, sensory impairment, and paraplegia or even tetraplegia. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid HMGB1 levels are significantly greater in patients with neuromyelitis optica, suggesting that HMGB1 might be a diagnostic marker for neuromyelitis optica in the early stage Uzawa et al.

Epilepsy, also known as seizure disorder, is a sudden change in behavior including loss of consciousness caused by increased electrical activity in the brain. Early evidence in experimental models of seizures and in temporal lobe epilepsy indicates that HMGB1 promotes seizures in a TLRdependent pathway by triggering tissue damage and the inflammatory response Kleen and Holmes, ; Maroso et al.

These findings suggest that a complex receptor interaction is required for HMGB1-induced seizure. HMGB1 is involved in pathophysiological pain from cancer Tong et al. Neuropathic pain is caused by nervous system injury and persistent alterations in pain sensitivity. In contrast, HMGB1-neutralizing antibody inhibited pain onset in a neuropathic pain model Otoshi et al. A recent study indicated that Panx1 channel-mediated HMGB1 released from neurons is a mediator of migraine from spreading depression Karatas et al.

Blockade of panx-1 channels by carbenoxolone inhibits HMGB1 release in neurons as well as macrophages, which may be involved in the PKR-signaling pathway Karatas et al. Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Meningitis may develop in response to a number of causes such as bacteria, viruses, physical injury, cancer, or drugs.

HMGB1 in the cerebrospinal fluid sustains inflammation and brain damage in meningitis, including bacterial, aseptic, and tuberculous meningitis Asano et al. These findings suggest that HMGB1 in the cerebrospinal fluid sustains biomarkers for neurological infection diseases. The vascular system includes the arteries, veins, and capillaries that carry blood to and from the heart.

Vascular disorders are diseases of the blood vessels. HMGB1 is implicated in vascular disorders, in particular systemic vasculitis and atherosclerosis de Souza et al. Systemic vasculitis is thought to be an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of the blood vessel walls. Recent studies have found that serum HMGB1 levels are increased in patients with systemic vasculitis diseases such as Kawasaki syndrome Eguchi et al.

Active immune cells as well as damaged cells are the sources of increased HMGB1 release in serum. These findings suggest that HMGB1 may be a biomarker for systemic vasculitis activity. Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory condition in which an artery wall thickens due to the accumulation of lipids.

The pathogenesis of the atherosclerotic plaque in the vessel wall is a dynamic process that includes vascular injury, monocyte recruitment, macrophage activation, lipid deposition, platelet degranulation and aggregation, vascular smooth muscle cell migration, proliferation, and extracellular matrix synthesis Caplice et al. In the normal human vessel wall, HMGB1 is expressed in endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and macrophages Kalinina et al.

In contrast, HMGB1 is overexpressed and released from several cell types in human atherosclerotic lesions including vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, foam cells, macrophages, and activated platelets Inoue et al. An abdominal aortic aneurysm AAA refers to an aortic diameter at least one and one-half times the normal diameter at the level of the renal arteries, which is approximately 2.

Inflammation has emerged as a critical biological process contributing to nearly all aspects of cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure. Myocardial infarction MI , also known as heart attack, is the irreversible process of myocardial cell necrosis secondary to prolonged ischemia.

On one hand, HMGB1 can enhance myocardial regeneration and repair by its angiogenic, vasculogenic, and stem cell self-renewal abilities Germani et al. Acute coronary syndrome refers to any condition brought on by sudden, reduced blood flow to the heart. Serum HMGB1 levels are higher in patients with acute coronary syndrome than in controls, suggesting that HMGB1 may be a potential and independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality in patients Cirillo et al.

Cardiac hypertrophy is associated with many forms of heart disease, including ischemic disease, hypertensive heart disease, and valvular stenosis, and is a major risk factor for the development of heart failure and death Funayama et al. Hypertrophic stimulation increases translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, which is associated with DNA damage and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy Funayama et al.

These findings indicate that nuclear HMGB1 is a negative regulator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, whereas extracellular HMGB1 promotes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Glomerulonephritis, also known as glomerular nephritis, is characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli, the basic filtration units of the kidney. HMGB1 is expressed in patients with glomerulonephritis Sato et al. Lupus nephritis is kidney inflammation caused by systemic lupus erythematosus.

Diabetic nephropathy, also known as Kimmelstiel-Wilson syndrome, is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease in the world. Further study is needed to explain this paradox finding in the future. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is a genetic condition that causes multiple cysts to develop on the kidneys. Serum HMGB1 level is increased and correlates with oxidative stress status in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease Nakamura et al. Chronic allograft dysfunction is associated with a variety of fibrosing and sclerosing changes in the allograft that cause a gradual worsening of renal function.

Chronic kidney disease is associated with inflammation and malnutrition that cause a loss of kidney function over time. Renal cell carcinoma is the most common kidney cancer in adults. Autoimmune diseases arise from an abnormal immune response against healthy body tissue. HMGB1 plays a critical role in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses by itself as well as in association with other endogenous and exogenous molecules Bianchi and Manfredi, ; Harris et al.

Dysfunction of HMGB1 has been implicated in several autoimmune diseases that may affect one or more organ or tissue types such as blood vessels, connective tissues, endocrine glands e.

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The representative theoretical energy response of the pre-described method accords with the preliminary experiment result. Concordance of self-report and measured height and weight of college students. This study examined associations between college students' self-report and measured height and weight. Body mass index BMI was calculated for self-report via online survey ; trained researchers measured height and weight and categorized them as normal Published by Elsevier Inc.

Ecological analysis of secular trends in low birth weight births and adult height in Japan. Japan, which currently maintains the highest life expectancy in the world and has experienced an impressive gain in adult height over the past century, has suffered a dramatic twofold increase in low birth weight LBW births since the s. We observed secular trends in birth characteristics using 64 live births included the vital statistics , as well as trends in average height among 3 adults born between and , included in 79 surveys conducted among a national, subnational or community population in Japan.

LBW rates exhibited a U-shaped pattern showing reductions until 5. Conversely, average adult height peaked for those born during the same period men, A prediction model based on birth and economical characteristics estimated the national average of adult height would continue to decline, to Adult height in Japan has started to decline for those born after , a trend that may be attributed to increases in LBW births over time.

Considering the known association between shorter adult height and adverse health outcomes, evidence of population-level decline in adult health due to long-term consequences of increasing LBW births in Japan is anticipated. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted. Developmental charts for children with osteogenesis imperfecta, type I body height , body weight and BMI.

Osteogenesis imperfecta OI is a rare genetic disorder of type I collagen. Type I is the most common, which is called a non-deforming type of OI, as in this condition, there are no major bone deformities. This type is characterised by blue sclera and vertebral fractures, leading to mild scoliosis. The body height of these patients is regarded as normal, or only slightly reduced, but there are no data proving this in the literature. The aim of this study is the preparation of the developmental charts of children with OI type I.

The anthropometric data of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta were used in this study 61 boys and 56 girls. All measurements were pooled together into one database measurements in total. To overcome the problem of the limited number of data being available in certain age classes and gender groups, the method called reverse transformation was used. Accuracy of self-reported height , weight and waist circumference in a Japanese sample.

Inconsistent results have been found in prior studies investigating the accuracy of self-reported waist circumference, and no study has investigated the validity of self-reported waist circumference among Japanese individuals. This study used the diagnostic standard of metabolic syndrome to assess the accuracy of individual's self-reported height , weight and waist circumference in a Japanese sample.

They participated in a cohort study's baseline survey between and Participants' height , weight and waist circumference were measured, and their body mass index was calculated. Self-reported values were collected through a questionnaire before the examination. Strong correlations between measured and self-reported values for height , weight and body mass index were detected. The correlation was lowest for waist circumference men, 0. Men significantly overestimated their waist circumference mean difference, 0.

The sensitivity of self-reported waist circumference using the cut-off value of metabolic syndrome was 0. Due to systematic and random errors, the accuracy of self-reported waist circumference was low. Therefore, waist circumference should be measured without relying on self-reported values, particularly in the case of women. Weight loss in patients receiving radical radiation therapy for head and neck cancer: a prospective study.

Thirty-one patients receiving radiation therapy for localized cancer of the head and neck areas were systematically assessed before, during, and after treatment. The pathogenesis of weight loss and its association with treatment morbidity and other determinants were sought. The serial data collected consisted of a food frequency questionnaire based on Canada's Food Guide, anthropometric measurements, 10 Linear Analogue Self Assessment questions on morbidity, and biochemical and hematological indices.

Pretreatment dietary habits, serum albumin, absolute lymphocyte count, serum creatinine, creatinine height index, and anthropometric measurements did not predict for weight loss. However, weight loss can be predicted on the basis of field size and site irradiated. Treatment-related morbidity involving dysguesia, xerostomia, dysphagia of solids, and mouth pain was greater and of longer duration in patients with weight loss.

The sequence of development of these symptoms during treatment and their duration provide a rational basis for the timing and methods of nutritional intervention in this patient population. Tall stature and obesity have been associated with a higher risk of atrial fibrillation AF , but there have been conflicting reports of the effects of aerobic fitness.

Increased height , weight , and aerobic fitness level but not muscular strength at age 18 years were all associated with a higher AF risk in adulthood. Positive additive and multiplicative interactions were found between height or weight and aerobic fitness level for the highest tertiles of height and aerobic fitness level vs. High aerobic fitness levels were associated with higher risk among men who were at least cm 6 feet, 1 inch tall but were protective among shorter men.

Men with the combination of tall stature and high aerobic fitness level had the highest risk for the highest tertiles vs. These findings suggest important interactions between body size and aerobic fitness level in relation to AF and may help identify high-risk subgroups. Assessing the accuracy of self-reported height and weight in an elective surgical population in a Melbourne metropolitan hospital.

A Health Questionnaire serves as a screening form as part of our Hospital Preadmission process and is completed by all patients scheduled for elective surgery. We reviewed the completed Health Questionaires of patients. Completion of the Health Questionnaire requires patients to record their height and weight. At the time of admission their actual height and weight was measured and recorded by nursing staff as part of the preoperative assessment.

We compared their estimated body mass index BMI from self-reported height and weight , with their actual BMI calculated from height and weight measured upon admission. The measured BMI accorded well with that calculated from reported values and showed no systematic over- or under-reporting. Of 70 patients with a BMI greater than 35, only ten estimated their BMI less than 35 and only five of these had more than a two unit difference.

Perioperative patients appear to be more accurate at providing height and weight than previously analysed non-patient groups. However there is not complete accuracy and some patients still provide unreliable information. Whether or not individual practitioners utilize BMI from self-reported height and weight will depend on the accuracy that they require for their purposes.

Of note there was greater accuracy in prediction of height and weight than in the derived variable of BMI due to the calculations required. Anthropometric parameters: weight height , body mass index and mammary volume in relationship with the mammographic pattern. A prospective study to attempt to relate the anthropometric parameters of height , weight , body mass index as well as age with the mammographic patterns obtained for the patients and obtain an anthropometric profile was carried out.

The study was performed in 1. Prior to the performance of the mammography, weight and height were obtained, and this was also performed by the same technicians, and the patient were asked their bra size to deduce breast volume. The results were introduced into a computer database and the SPSS 8. In women under 40 years, with normal weight , the dense breast pattern accounted for The fat pattern is In women over 60 with normal, the dense pattern accounts for The fat pattern is 5.

As age increases, the probability of presenting a mammographic pattern with a fat image in the. Height and adiposity track over childhood, but few studies, to our knowledge, have longitudinally examined the mediating relation of the timing and progression of puberty.

We assessed interrelations between prepubertal height and body mass index, the progression through puberty, and young adult height and adiposity. Serial measures of anthropometry and pubertal development were obtained between ages 9 and 16 y. We used latent class growth analysis to categorize pubertal development with respect to pubic hair females and males , breasts females , and genitalia males development.

Adult height and weight were obtained at ages 18 to 20 y. Among females, higher latent class earlier initiation and faster progression through puberty was associated with an increased risk of obesity [pubic hair class 3 compared with class 1: RR, 3. Among males, higher latent class was associated with increased adult height [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: 2. In females, the association with adult height became inverse after adjusting for prepubertal height [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: females, Associations with adiposity were attenuated after adjusting for prepubertal adiposity.

Progression through puberty modifies the relation between prepubertal and adult anthropometry. Screening for early or rapid progression of puberty might identify children at an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese adults.

Physical growth of the shuar: Height , Weight , and BMI references for an indigenous amazonian population. Information concerning physical growth among small-scale populations remains limited, yet such data are critical to local health efforts and to foster basic understandings of human life history and variation in childhood development.

Using a large dataset and robust modeling methods, this study aims to describe growth from birth to adulthood among the indigenous Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador. Pseudo-velocity and Lambda-Mu-Sigma curves were generated to further investigate Shuar patterns of growth and to facilitate comparison with United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention and multinational World Health Organization growth references.

The Shuar are small throughout life and exhibit complex patterns of growth that differ substantially from those of international references. Similar to other Amazonians, Shuar growth in weight compares more favorably to references than growth in height , resulting in BMI curves that approximate international medians. Several additional characteristics of Shuar development are noteworthy, including large observed variation in body size early in life, significant infant growth faltering, extended male growth into adulthood, and a markedly early female pubertal growth spurt in height.

Phenotypic plasticity and genetic selection in response to local environmental factors may explain many of these patterns. Providing a detailed reference of growth for the Shuar and other Amazonian populations, this study possesses direct clinical application and affords valuable insight into childhood health and the ecology of human growth. Combined oral contraceptives' influence on weight , body composition, height , and bone mineral density in girls younger than 18 years.

Combined oral contraceptives COCs are increasingly used by adolescents. The aim of this review is to investigate the evidence regarding COCs' influence on weight , height and bone mineral density BMD in girls younger than 18 years Body dimensions and weight to height indices in rescuers from the State Fire Service of Poland.

Full Text Available Few studies have been published in Poland concerning body dimensions of firefighters from the State Fire Service although this knowledge is needed for e. The aim of the study was to evaluate body dimensions and weight-to-height ratio in firefighters from the State Fire Service. Using the anthropological procedures, body mass BM and body height BH were examined in men at the chronological age CA of The study participants were divided into three categories of CA: up to 25 years, between 24 and 44 years, and over 44 years.

The results were compared to population standards. It was found that BH of the youngest rescuers was significantly higher 0. Based on the standardized values of BM and BMI, population of firefighters aged over 25 years was found to be characterized by overweight and, in certain cases, even by obesity. Due to the worrying high percentage of cases of excess body mass in firefighters from the State Fire Service, it was found that it is recommended to evaluate the relationships between body height and mass on regular basis during periodical obligatory tests of physical fitness of rescuers from the State Fire Service and to increase the frequency and duration of training sessions.

Differences in bite force between dolichofacial and brachyfacial individuals: Side of mastication, gender, weight and height. Due to the bite force importance in functionality of the masticatory system, this study aimed to characterize it in dolichofacial and brachyfacial individuals. A sample comprised by patients was divided into two groups: 90 severe dolichofacial, and severe brachyfacial individuals classified according to the VERT index and the face height ratio Jarabak quotient.

Bite force was measured by using an adjusted digital dynamometer and proper methodology. The sample met the parametric assumptions and presented statistical significance when right and left sides of dolichofacial and brachyfacial individuals were compared. However, within the same group, no differences between the left and right sides were found. Generally, bite force was higher for male, left masticator, age between years, weighing over kg and between 1.

Based on the results of this cross-sectional study, it was possible to conclude that the bite force in severe brachyfacial individuals was significantly higher than in severe dolichofacial individuals, being influenced by gender, weight and height. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Growing into obesity: patterns of height growth in those who become normal weight , overweight, or obese as young adults.

To study whether patterns of height growth differ by adult obesity status, and determine the contribution of subcutaneous fatness as an explanatory variable for any differences. A multicenter, prospective longitudinal cohort assessed in 3rd grade 8. Skinfolds were measured in third, fifth, and eighth grades. Outcome was mean height cm at the four measurements using repeated-measures ANCOVA for young adult obesity status, and height increments between grades by adult obesity status in sequential models including initial height and, secondarily, initial skinfolds.

Compared with normal weight young adults, overweight or obese young adults stood taller in childhood, but had relatively less growth in height throughout the teenage years. There was no association between adult height and weight status. Skinfolds explained only a small amount of the height patterns in the three weight groups.

Childhood and adolescent height growth patterns differ between those who become young adults who are normal weight and those who become overweight or obese. Since differences in fatness explain only a small amount of these height growth patterns, research is needed to identify other determinants.

Child health in Peru: importance of regional variation and community effects on children's height and weight. In developing countries, height and weight are good indicators of children's health and nutritional status. Maternal education has been accepted as one of the most important influences on child health. Using the Demographic and Health Survey of Peru, however, I find that the effect of maternal education varies as a function of region.

In the most prosperous urban region, maternal education is less important for child health than in poor rural areas, and a higher level of education has a greater effect in rural areas. Multilevel analysis shows that a significant part of the observed correlation between maternal education and child health is moderated by regional differences and community characteristics. The finding suggests that Peruvian public policy should emphasize resource redistribution as well as women's education, and that investment in maternal education should be considered within regional contexts to enhance child health in rural areas.

Effect of fast neutrons and gamma rays treatments on heading date, plant height and tiller number in wheat. Homogeneous seeds of six varieties of bread wheat, Triticum aestivum L. The irradiated seeds along with respective controls were grown in field plots during and heating date, plant height and tiller number studied.

Irradiated treatments exhibited significant reductions in plant height and tiller number than respective controls. However, heading was delayed among the irradiated material when compared with respective controls. Reduction in plant height was more pronounced after the treatments of gamma rays than the fast neutrons. The maximum and minimum shifts in mean values of these characters were observed in 20 kR gamma rays and Nf RADS fast neutrons treatments, respectively.

Susceptibility weighted imaging depicts retinal hemorrhages in abusive head trauma. Main outcome measures involved evaluation of patients to determine whether the RH could be identified on standard and high-resolution SWI sequences. Comparison between clinical significance of height -adjusted and weight -adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass. ASM was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The reference values for class 1 and 2 sarcopenia in each sex were defined as values one and two standard deviations below the sex-specific means of the young group, respectively.

Weight -adjusted definition was able to identify cardiometabolic risk factors such as TG and HDL-C while height -adjusted definition could identify factors for osteoporosis. Study of weight , height , body mass index, energy and nutrients intake of years old girls, Tehran. Full Text Available A descriptive, analytical cross-sectional syudy was conducted in on female students years old in the center of Tehran, Iran.

The general objective was determining energy and nutrient intakes and weight , height and BMI Body Mass Index of the girls, using anthropometric measurements, interviews hour dietary recall and food consumption frequency, and the NCHS standards. METHODS: Sixteen experienced and sixteen inexperienced lifters handled a box both 7 and 15 kg from an intermediate height waist level to either a high or low surface. Electromyography and video images were recorded during the tasks.

The 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles were calculated for the deltoid and biceps muscles, shoulder flexion, shoulder abduction, and elbow flexion movements. There were no differences between either groups or sides. Shoulder flexion was also higher when the box was moved to the low height. This study provides new evidence as shoulder postures during boxes handling on low surfaces had not previously been evaluated. This knowledge can be used by physical therapists to plan better rehabilitation programs for manual material handling-related disorders, particularly focusing on return to work.

Weight-to-height ratio and aerobic capacity in year-old male taekwondo martial artists. Martial arts are growing in popularity throughout the whole world. Their beneficial influence on physical development and fitness is noteworthy.

Martial arts are an attractive form of physical recreation, constitute a perfect means for combating stress, and have a positive effect on general health, including during rehabilitation. The aim of this study is to assess physical development and aerobic capacity in boys who practice taekwondo and to determine the relationships between results of a fitness test and particular parameters of physical development.

Study participants comparised 51 boys aged 15 years who practiced taekwondo with training experience ranging from 1 to 6 years. BMI was also calculated. Centile charts were used to assess weight-to-height ratio and the level of measured parameters.

BMI was analyzed according to the Cole classification system. Dispersion was calculated using a coefficient of variation. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between selected parameters was also calculated. All participants had average aerobic capacity.

However, when weight-to-height ratio was compared to the results of the Harvard Step Test, boys with normal body proportions performed much better in the test than boys with abnormal body mass p weight-to-height ratio mainly in terms of overweight. The boys had greater body height and body mass compared to the general Polish population. Aerobic capacity differed considerably between participants.

Height , weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children. Full Text Available Abstract Background Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. This study was aimed to compare age- and gender-specific height , weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children.

Methods A population-based study was conducted with a multistage cluster sample of children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. New growth charts for Pakistani children based on a nationally representative sample should be developed.

Nevertheless, shifting to use of the WHO child growth reference might have important implications for child health programs and primary care pediatric clinics. The weight-for-height and BMI-for-age had strong correlation in screening wasting, overweight and obesity in each age-sex group.

There was no striking difference in prevalence estimates of wasting, overweight and obesity between two indicators except for obesity prevalence at ages The validity of self-reported vs. The objective was to assess the validity of self-reported body weight and height and the possible influence of self-perception of body mass index BMI status on the actual BMI during the adolescent period. This cross sectional study was conducted on high school students. Agreement between the measured and self-reported body height and weight and BMI values was determined using the Bland-Altman metod.

To determine the effects of "a good level of agreement", hierarchical logistic regression models were used. Among male students who reported their BMI in the normal region, 2. For females in the same group, these percentages were 1. Among male students who perceived their BMI in the normal region, 8.

For females these percentages were The results of this study demonstrated that in determining obesity and overweight statuses, non-accurate weight perception is a potential risk for students. Hip fracture and anthropometric variations: dominance among trochanteric soft tissue thickness, body height and body weight during sideways fall. Hip fracture depends on various anthropometric parameters such as trochanteric soft tissue thickness, body height and body weight.

The objective was to evaluate the responses to the variations in anthropometric parameters during sideways fall, and to identify the most dominant parameter among them. Seven finite element models were developed having anthropometric variations in trochanteric soft tissue thickness mm , body height 1. The risk factor for fracture was also well correlated to the strain ratio for the inter-trochanteric zone pfractures are clinically observed to happen.

Trochanteric soft tissue thickness was found likely to be the most dominant parameter over body height and body weight , signifying that a slimmer elderly person, taller or shorter, with less trochanteric soft tissue thickness should be advised to take preventive measures against hip fracture under sideways fall. Parents of elementary school students weigh in on height , weight , and body mass index screening at school.

School-based body mass index BMI screening and parent notification programs have been recommended as a childhood overweight prevention strategy. However, there are little empirical data available to guide decision making about the acceptability and safety of programs.

A pilot study was conducted using a quasiexperimental research design. The chi2 test of significance was used to examine differences in program support by treatment condition, child's weight status, and sociodemographic characteristics. Parents of overweight children were more likely to report parental discomfort as well as child discomfort with letter content. There was considerable parental support for school-based BMI screening and parent notification programs. Programs may be a useful overweight prevention tool for children.

However, continued attention to how best to support parents and children affected by overweight is required. Powers differing from 2 are observed in studies of selected samples, thus raising the question if BMI is a generalizable metric that makes BW independent of height across populations. The objectives were to test the hypothesis that adult BW scales to height with a power of 2 independent of sex and race-ethnicity and to advance an understanding of BMI as a measure of shape by extending allometric analyses to waist circumference WC.

Exploratory analyses in population samples established age and adiposity as important independent determinants of height scaling powers i. WC also follows generalizable scaling rules, a finding that has implications for defining body shape in populations who differ in stature.

To evaluate the differences between the measured and self-reported anthropometric variables, we used the the Kruskal-Wallis test for the variables divided into quartiles. For the continuous variables, we used the Wilcoxon test, Bland-Altman plot, and average difference between the information measured and reported by the women.

We estimated sensitivity and the intraclass correlation coefficient. There was an underestimation of pre-gestational weight of 1. Abstract Background Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. Smoothed heigh New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism. Our findings highlight genetic links between In an expanded genome-wide association meta-analysis and follow-up study of birth weight of up to 69, individuals of European descent from 43 studies , we have now extended the number of loci associated at genome Birth weight within the normal range is associated with a variety of adult-onset diseases, but the mechanisms behind these associations are poorly understood.

Previous genome-wide association studies of birth weight identified a variant in the ADCY5 gene associated both with birth weight and type Cross-sectional study of height and weight in the population of Andalusia from age 3 to adulthood.

Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives In Andalusia there were no studies including a representative sample of children and adolescent population assessing growth and weight increase. Our objectives were to develop reference standards for weight , height and BMI for the Andalusian pediatric population, from 3 to 18 years of age for both genders, and to identify the final adult height in Andalusia. Subjects and methods Two samples were collected.

The first included individuals from 3 to 18 years of age girls and boys. They were stratified according type of study center, size of population of origin, age 32 categories of 0. Two trained fellows collected the data through February to December , for the first sample, and through January to May , for the second.

Reference curves were adjusted using Cole's LMS method, and the quality of the adjustment was assessed using the tests proposed by Royston. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was applied to the final models obtained. Results Data for cases women and men were obtained; In the first sampling only 0. In addition, students 4. We present mean and standard deviation fort height , weight and BMI at 0. After adjustment with the different models, percentiles for height , weight percentiles 3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, 95, and 97 and BMI percentiles 3, 5, 50, 85, 95, and 97 are presented for both genders.

Conclusion This is. The effect of low birth weight on height , weight and behavioral outcomes in the medium-run. Observing the same children at different points in time enabled us to chart the evolution of anthropometric and behavioral deficits among children born with low birth weight and helped A number of studies have documented negative long term effects of low birth weight.

Yet, not much is known about the dynamics of the process leading to adverse health and educational outcomes in the long run. While previous studies focusing mainly on LBW effects on physical growth and cognitive The purpose of this paper was to bring new evidence to this issue by analyzing the medium run effects of low birth weight on child behavioral outcomes as well At the high-altitude end, the distributions cut off abruptly in a manner reminiscent of the trail echo height ceiling effect observed with classical meteor radars.

The target dimensions are shown to be much smaller than both the VHF and the UHF probing wavelengths, but the cutoff heights for the two systems are still clearly different, the VHF cutoff being located several km above the UHF one. A single-collision meteor-atmosphere interaction model is used to demonstrate that meteors in the 1. The observed seasonal variation in the cutoff altitudes is shown to be a function of the seasonal variation of atmospheric density with altitude.

Assuming that the electron density required for detection is in the order of the critical density, the abrupt altitude cutoffs can be explained as a consequence of the micrometeoroid joint size-speed distribution dropping off so fast at the large-mass, high-velocity end that above a certain altitude the number of detectable events becomes vanishingly small.

Conversely, meteors at the low-mass end of the distribution will be gradually retarded such that the ionisation they generate never reaches critical density. These particles will remain unobservable. Key words. Radio science instruments and techniques — Interplatery physics interplanetary dust — General or miscellaneous new fields. Growth curves require regular updates due to secular trends in linear growth.

We constructed contemporary growth curves, assessed secular trends in height , and defined body mass index BMI cut-off points for thinness, overweight, and obesity in Finnish children. Adult height was increased by 1.

The largest increases were seen during the peripubertal years: up to 2. Comparable effects of and rad and Gy cranial irradiation on height and weight in children treated for acute lymphocytic leukemia. To examine the effects of low-dose cranial irradiation on growth and to determine if one can predict patients in whom growth will be most affected, we studied 47 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia who had been treated with rad 24 Gy , rad 18 Gy , or no whole-brain irradiation.

Serial measurements of height , weight , and weight for height were obtained by retrospective chart review. The effects of rad 18 Gy and rad 24 Gy treatment were indistinguishable. Although weight percentiles did not change following irradiation, the weight-for-height ratio increased and patients were relatively stockier three years after therapy than they had been at diagnosis.

In patients who had received chemotherapy alone, the weight-for-height ratio also increased, but this appeared to be due to a disproportionate increase in weight. Longer follow-up and evaluation of larger cohorts of patients treated with rad 18 Gy will be needed to confirm these results. Weight and height prediction of immobilized patients Estimativa de peso e altura de pacientes hospitalizados e imobilizados.

RESULTS: Three hundred sixty eight persons were evaluated at two hospital centers and five weight -predicting and two height -predicting equations were developed from the measurements obtained. Birth weight , childhood body mass index, and height in relation to mammographic density and breast cancer.

High breast density, a strong predictor of breast cancer may be determined early in life. Childhood anthropometric factors have been related to breast cancer and breast density, but rarely simultaneously. We examined whether mammographic density MD mediates an association of birth weight , child Growth retardation is an important problem in children with chronic renal disease, and malnutrition is a determinative factor.

The study intends to assess the relationship between protein-energy malnutrition and stature- weight retardation in children enrolled in chronic dialysis program. The study group was composed of 16 children 5 boys and 11 girls--sex ratio of 2.

This was a follow-up study during a period of 4 years , resulting in correlations between anthropometric paremeters, biochemical, BIA and DEXA data. The stature- weight deficiency of the 16 patients was as follows: after an average period of The group with less than -2DS stature- weight deficits showed the same mean age of The late diagnosis of the disease at an average age of 13 years , the long period of chronic dialysis program over Full Text Available Introduction.

The height-weight difference index HWDI is a new indicator for evaluating obesity status. HWDI was calculated as the difference between height and weight. The prediction model provides an easy-to-use obesity evaluation tool that should help awareness of underweight and obesity conditions. DMSA scan nomograms for renal length and area: Related to patient age and to body weight , height or surface area.

Aim: To create nomograms for renal size as measured from DMSA renal studies, and to test the nomograms for their ability to separate normal from abnormal kidneys. Method: Renal length was measured from posterior oblique views and renal area from posterior views. Results from patients with bilateral normal kidneys were used to create nomograms for renal size relative to patient age, body height , weight or body surface area BSA.

Each nomogram was then tested against 46 hypertrophied kidneys and 46 damaged kidneys. Results: The results from nomograms of renal length and renal area, compared to age, body height , body weight and BSA are presented. For each nomogram, the range is presented as a fraction of the mean value, and the number of abnormal kidneys hypertrophied or damaged outside the normal range is presented as a percentage indicating the sensitivity. Conclusion: Renal Area was no better than renal length for detecting abnormal kidneys.

Patient age was the least useful method of normalisation. BSA normalisation produced the best results most frequently narrower ranges and highest detection of abnormal kidneys. Validity of parent-reported weight and height of preschool children measured at home or estimated without home measurement: a validation study.

Therefore, it is important to know to what extent these parental reports are valid and whether it makes a difference if the parents measured their children's weight and height at home or whether they simply estimated these values. The aim of this study is to compare the validity of parent-reported height , weight and BMI values of preschool children y-old, when measured at home or estimated by parents without actual measurement.

Methods The subjects were Belgian preschool children A questionnaire including questions about height and weight of the children was completed by the parents. Nurses measured height and weight following standardised procedures. International age- and sex-specific BMI cut-off values were employed to determine categories of weight status and obesity.

Results On the group level, no important differences in accuracy of reported height , weight and BMI were identified between parent-measured or estimated values. However, for all 3 parameters, the correlations between parental reports and nurse measurements were higher in the group of children whose body dimensions were measured by the parents. Conclusions Diagnostic measures were more accurate when parents measured their child's weight and height at home than when those dimensions were based on parental judgements.

When parent-reported data on an individual level is used, the accuracy could be improved by encouraging the parents to measure weight and height. Source of parental reports of child height and weight during phone interviews and influence on obesity prevalence estimates among children aged years.

We compared parental reports of children's height and weight when the values were estimated vs. In the and North Carolina Child Health Assessment and Monitoring Program surveys, parents reported height and weight for children aged years. When parents reported the values were not measured by doctor, school, or home , they were asked to measure their child and were later called back. We categorized body mass index status using standard CDC definitions, and we used Chi-square tests and the Stuart-Maxwell test of marginal homogeneity to examine reporting differences.

Having parents who guessed the height and weight of their children and then reported updated values did not significantly change the overall population estimates of obesity. Our findings demonstrate that using parent-reported height and weight values may be sufficient to provide reasonable estimates of obesity prevalence. Systematically asking the source of height and weight information may help improve how it is applied to research of the prevalence of childhood obesity when gold-standard measurements are not available.

Relative importance of expertise, lifting height and weight lifted on posture and lumbar external loading during a transfer task in manual material handling. The objective of this study was to measure the effect size of three important factors in manual material handling, namely expertise, lifting height and weight lifted. The effect of expertise was evaluated by contrasting 15 expert and 15 novice handlers, the effect of the weight lifted with a kg box and a kg box and the effect of lifting height with two different box heights : ground level and a 32 cm height.

The task consisted of transferring a series of boxes from a conveyor to a hand trolley. Lifting height and weight lifted had more effect size than expertise on external back loading variables moments while expertise had low impact. On the other hand, expertise showed a significant effect of posture variables on the lumbar spine and knees.

All three factors are important, but for a reduction of external back loading, the focus should be on the lifting height and weight lifted. The objective was to measure the effect size of three important factors in a transfer of boxes from a conveyor to a hand trolley. Lifting height and weight lifted had more effect size than expertise on external back loading variables but expertise was a major determinant in back posture.

Rht-1 and Ppd-D1 associations with height , GA sensitivity, and days to heading in a worldwide bread wheat collection. Reduced height Rht -1 and Photoperiod Ppd have major effects on the adaptability of bread wheat Triticum aestivum to specific environments. Ppd-D1a is a photoperiod insensitive allele that reduces time to flowering. The gibberellin GA insensitive alleles Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b shorten plant stature and were important components of the 'green revolution'. Theor Appl Gen doi: We determined the frequency of the five alleles in a worldwide core collection of wheat accessions CC and estimated their effects on height , days to heading , and GA sensitivity when the collection was grown in pots outdoors or in the glasshouse.

This revealed that each allele was widespread geographically with frequencies ranging from 0. Two statistical methods were developed and used to estimate GA sensitivity of the CC accessions, but novel GA insensitive alleles were not identified. Further characterization of the Rht-B1 insertion alleles is required, but our results suggest these may enable fine adjustments in plant height.

Critical weight loss in head and neck cancer - prevalence and risk factors at diagnosis : an explorative study. Jager-Wittenaar, H. It is unknown which complaints are most strongly related to critical weight loss in head and neck cancer patients at the time of diagnosis. The aim of this explorative. To explore the influence of secular trends in body height and weight on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Chinese children and adolescents.

Body height and weight for each sex and age were standardized to those reported in standardized height : SHY; standardized weight : SWY and for each sex and year at age 7 standardized height : SHA; standardized weight : SWA using the Z-score method. Published by China CDC. Full Text Available Interest in clinical brain magnetic resonance imaging using channel head coils for signal reception continues to increase.

The present investigation assesses possibilities for improving diffusion- weighted image quality using a channel in comparison to a conventional channel coil. The utility of single-shot ss and an approach to readout-segmented rs echo planar imaging EPI are examined using both head coils. Substantial image quality improvements are found with rs-EPI. Imaging with a channel head coil allows for implementation of greater parallel imaging acceleration factors or acquisition of scans at a higher resolution.

Specifically, higher resolution imaging with rs-EPI can be achieved by increasing the number of readout segments without increasing echo-spacing or echo time to the degree necessary with ss-EPI - a factor resulting in increased susceptibility artifact and reduced signal-to-noise with the latter.

A conceptually simple two-dimensional conditional reference curve is described. The curve gives a decision basis for determining whether a bivariate response from an individual is "normal" or "abnormal" when taking into account that a third conditioning variable may influence the bivariate The reference curve is not only characterized analytically but also by geometric properties that are easily communicated to medical doctors - the users of such curves. The reference curve estimator is completely non-parametric, so no distributional assumptions are needed about the two A comparison of height and weight velocity as a part of the composite endpoint in pediatric HIV.

HIV adversely affects growth in children. However, WAZ and height velocity HAZ have not been critically compared for their utility as part of the composite endpoint. In both bivariable and multivariable analyses, changes in HAZ were more closely linked to subsequent progression than WAZ. Children with improved HAZ were somewhat less likely to exhibit virological failure [odds ratio OR , 0.

Increases in HAZ were associated with reduced risk of subsequent clinical progression and subsequent immune reconstitution and weakly associated with declines in HIV RNA. Height velocity should be considered as a component of a composite clinical endpoint in future PACTG trials.

Increased P wave dispersion are identified as a predictor of atrial fibrillation. There are associations between hypertension, P wave dispersion, constitutional and echocardiographic variables. These relationships have been scarcely studied in pediatrics.

The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between P wave dispersion, blood pressure, echocardiographic and constitutional variables, and determine the most influential variables on P wave dispersion increases in pediatrics.

Arterial blood pressure was measured in all the children; a lead surface electrocardiogram and an echocardiogram were done as well. Left ventricular mass index mean values for normotensive When we add prehypertensive and hypertensive there are P wave dispersion is increased in pre- and hypertensive children compared to normotensive. There are pre- and hypertensive patients with normal left ventricular mass index and increased P wave dispersion.

Mean arterial pressure, duration of the A wave of mitral inflow, weight and height are the variables with the highest influence on increased P wave dispersion. Differences among skeletal muscle mass indices derived from height -, weight -, and body mass index-adjusted models in assessing sarcopenia. Aging processes are inevitably accompanied by structural and functional changes in vital organs.

Skeletal muscle is known to play diverse crucial physical and metabolic roles in humans. Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by significant loss of muscle mass and strength. It is related to subsequent frailty and instability in the elderly population.

Because muscle tissue is involved in multiple functions, sarcopenia is closely related to various adverse health outcomes. Along with increasing recognition of the clinical importance of sarcopenia, several international study groups have recently released their consensus on the definition and diagnosis of sarcopenia. In practical terms, various skeletal muscle mass indices have been suggested for assessing sarcopenia: appendicular skeletal muscle mass adjusted for height squared, weight , or body mass index.

A different prevalence and different clinical implications of sarcopenia are highlighted by each definition. The discordances among these indices have emerged as an issue in defining sarcopenia, and a unifying definition for sarcopenia has not yet been attained.

This review aims to compare these three operational definitions and to introduce an optimal skeletal muscle mass index that reflects the clinical implications of sarcopenia from a metabolic perspective. Rob; Hennig, Branwen J.

Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M. Birth weight within the normal range is associated with a variety of adult-onset diseases, but the mechanisms behind these associations are poorly understood1. Previous genome-wide association studies identified a variant in the ADCY5 gene associated both with birth weight and type 2 diabetes, and a second variant, near CCNL1, with no obvious link to adult traits2.

In an expanded genome-wide association meta-analysis and follow-up study up to 69, individuals of European descent from 43 studies , we have now extended the number of genome-wide significant loci to seven, accounting for a similar proportion of variance to maternal smoking. Our findings highlight genetic links between fetal growth and postnatal growth and metabolism.

Weight , height , body mass index and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: a case-control study. To investigate whether the condition contributes to excess breast cancer cases, a case-control study was conducted to assess the relationships between anthropometric variables and breast cancer risk in Tehran, Iran.

Eligible cases were all postmenopausal women with histological confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer during to year Controls were randomly selected postmenopausal women attending the ICBC for clinical breast examination during the same period. Results In all, breast cancer cases and controls were studied. There were no significant differences between cases and control with regard to most independent variables studied.

Conclusion The results suggest that obesity in postmenopausal women could increase risk of breast cancer and it merits further investigation in populations such as Iran where it seems that many women are short in height , and have a relatively high body mass index. Role of T2 weighted magnetic resonance image in chronic phase of head injured patients. In neuroimaging studies of head injury, addition of echo planar imaging EPI T2- weighted images WI to routine MR images has been useful in demonstrating small hemorrhagic lesions as magnetic susceptibility artifacts MSAs.

MSAs are often found in the acute or subacute phases of head injured patients with diffuse axonal injury. This series consisted of 20 patients with diffuse brain injury diagnosed clinically. All patients underwent long-term follow-up MR examinations. MR findings in chronic phase were divided into three categories in terms of MSAs: group A, MSAs remaining even after disappearance of small traumatic lesions in both T2-WI and fluid attenuated inversion recovery FLAIR images 11 cases ; group B, MSA s that disappeared in association with disappearance of small traumatic lesions 4 cases ; and group C, MSAs that remained but could not be differentiated from non-traumatic lesions such as hemorrhagic lacunae or cavernoma 5 cases.

Adding EPI T2-WI to routine MR images can provide useful information in visualizing old traumatic lesions of the brain in patients with diffuse brain injury even if no neuroimaging studies in acute or subacute phase. However, many of the studies have been conducted in urban areas with older pediatric populations.

This study was undertaken to evaluate growth patterns after ART initiation in a young pediatric population in rural Zambia with a high prevalence of undernutrition. Children were evaluated every 3 months, at which time a questionnaire was administered, height and weight were measured, and blood specimens were collected. Marc Hein, Anna B. Drug Administration. How to Choose the Right Imaging Modality. Stephens, Ludger M. Concepts in Diagnostic Probe Design.

Igor Jacobs, Gustav J. Strijkers, Henk M. Keizer, Henk M. Janssen, Hisataka Kobayashi, Klaas Nicolay. Kalender, Marek Karolczak, Hubertus Pietsch. Stuart Foster, J. Optical Imaging. Multimodal Imaging and Image Fusion. Hans F. Qualitative and Quantitative Data Analysis. Guidelines for Nuclear Image Analysis. Martin S. Kinetic Modeling.

Cell Tracking and Transplant Imaging. Brom, W. Eter, I. Willekens, A. Eek, M. Boss et al. Biton, Joel R. Garbow, Michal Neeman. Imaging in Gynecology Research. Imaging in Cardiovascular Research. Imaging in Neurooncology. Hamaide, L.

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