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Just like every tree, every veneer is a unique piece of nature. Wood is a resource in every stage of its use. From the tree to wood material to furniture. Added value in every step. This type of finish is not real wood, but a wood imitation that often cannot be distinguished from real wood. Using photochemical or other technical processes, a simulated wood grain is transferred to a plastic surface.
You can only be sure you are getting real wood if you see the veneer label. In the process, the trunks are boiled for 48 hours to make the wood malleable, and the bark is removed. A log is then spun around its own axis against a cutter bar that sheers a thin continuous sheet of veneer off the log layer by layer. The roll of veneer is then separated into thin individual sheets. Veneer can be manufactured from more than types of wood.
Veneer allows for the most economical use of wood, a valuable resource. The shavings and other waste products from the manufacturing process are made into particle board or used in the production of energy. Did you know: Plywood is also made of veneer. A wooden board made from a number of layers of veneer glued together is called plywood.
We recommend changing them regularly. However the enhanced plastic glides have much better glide properties than standard ones. In accordance with DIN EN since january The ideal seat and table heights Tables and chairs must be ergonomic — to meet the natural requirements of children.
The DIN standard takes the body dimensions of children and young people into consideration in its seat and table heights. Comfortable Ergonomically shaped seat made of 10 layers of bonded beech wood veneers with rounded front edge and a seat shell that tapers off towards the back.
Height-adjustable footrest The height-adjustable footrest is bolted to the chair legs on its sides. Footrest only available with Easy to replace thanks to Velcro tape. Not stackable. It is easy to adjust and lock. Solid beech wood, seat and back. Ideal for mixed age groups, so all children can sit together at one table. The seat height is the distance between footrest and seat. With side panels. Material: Solid beech wood, seat and backrest made of genuine beech wood.
Although it is light weight, this chair for the little ones is tilt resistant. With grip holes in the backrest as well as the armrests, it can easily be moved. Corners and edges are rounded to prevent injuries. Genuine birch wood. Includes plastic glides.
Size: approx. Is ideal for mixed-age groups. Genuine beech wood. Stacking Chair move-upp Backrest is a handy bag holder. Steel tube legs and curved wooden shape. Genuine birch wood, powder-coated steel tube in RAL , aluminum. C-shape that is open towards the front. C-shape that is open towards the back. Stackable chair with grip hole and C-shape that is open towards the back.
Footrest with light gray surface RAL Release lever for height. Seat incline adjusts automatically to all directions for dynamic sitting 3-D seat dynamization. Description of the Active-Mechanism on page Aluminum star base with feet or casters. The surface of the plastic shell consists of robust PP copolymer.
Resists scratches and is easy to clean. Active-Design Movement is healthy — even while sitting The seat shell adapts to movements and shifting of weight forward, back and to the sides. The different sitting angles activate the muscles and stimulate blood circulation. Due to the frequent change of the sitting position, postural deformities and backache is alleviated.
With grip hole. With grip hole and sturdy release lever for height adjustment. With grip hole and sturdy release lever to adjust height. Seat incline adjusts automatically all directions for dynamic seating 3-D seat dynamization. All models have a bell-shaped round steel tube frame with plastic glides to protect floors.
The seat is an ergonomically formed beech shell. Armless chairs can be linked together securely to form fixed rows row connectors sold separately on request. Up to 12 chairs can be stacked. If not specified we will deliver GLKU. Overview "Which glide for which floor? Modern stackable chairs All models are made of slender, extremely robust round steel pipe, with floor-friendly plastic or felt glides. Chrome frame with ergonomically-shaped beech seat shell. Available with or without upholstery.
Up to 10 chairs can be stacked together. Models with armrests on request. At long last there is a popular favorite chair for adults, too. Beech solid wood. Seat and backrest upholstery are ergonomically designed to increase seating comfort. Geo four-leg chair The front legs of this stackable chair are made of round steel and the rear legs are made of oval tubular steel.
The large radius of the front seating edge supports good posture. The rounded back and the seating area are made of multiple-layer beech timber. Plastic covers for stacking. Rocker Chair With padded seat shell and steel tube frame. Frame color: silver pearl. Height-adjustable pedestal Table Gas lift and 5 casters, smooth surface. Frame made of powder-coated tubular steel and tabletop made of genuine birch with Duropal surface.
Mandatory Options Please specify the desired table top surface. If not specified we deliver K This pedestal table can be used as a flexible work space or as a height-adjustable table in the cafeteria. Height-Adjustable Pedestal Table With telescoping leg and round base. Simply lift and release the tabletop.
It latches with a click. To lower the table, lift the tabletop up to the highest position and press it all the way down, then lift it back up to the desired height. Waiting Room Column Table Table top made of strong 10 mm frosted glass, powder-coated steel frame. Experiment and building materials are easily accessed when you open the table leaf.
Helps keep everything in reach. Tidying up is easy. Combined cupboard and table. The cupboard has 2 fixed shelves and 2 compartments with a lid. The table can be folded up or down as needed. GS certified and therefore completely safe. Includes hardware for wall attachment. Beech wood composite panel with Duropal surface for more about the material see page It can only be unlocked by an adult to fold the table down. The mechanism is GS tested and therefore completely safe.
A side button locks the table leg. When the table is folded up there is space for other things. The underside of the table can also be made into a play area with the addition of a sensory panel please order separately. Load capacity: max. Beech real wood veneer, metal legs with plastic glides, powder-coated RAL Matches all fold-down tables.
The locking mechanism is on the wall, and snaps in when the bench is folded up. It can only be unlocked by an adult. If no seat is needed then it makes space for other things. The leg can be locked with a side button. GS tested and therefore completely safe. Beech wood composite panel with Duropal surface, metal legs with plastic glides, powder-coated RAL Folding Table "modo" The tabletop can be folded up using a simple mechanism with release lever.
When not in use can be rolled away. Several tables can be nested into each other to save space. With four casters. Available with ABS edge. Folding Table Sturdy frame with steel apron. Legs with plastic glides. On the bottom it has stacking protection. Only available with ABS edge. Table Transport Trolley Load capacity: 10 tables. Black metal frame. Only available with metal frame and Duropal. Relax on this softly upholstered chair with 4-way adjustable arm rest, and table, you can attach either on the left or right.
Genuine birch, foam upholstering and hygienic synthetic leather cover. The footstool offers you additional comfort please order separately. Rattan, with plastic glides. Sit comfortably on the floor with back support. The stackable chair is delivered unassembled, but is quickly and easily transformed into a practical seating option. Connect the metal frame and pull the fabric cover over it, and the chair is ready. Weight: 41 lbs, 1. Wall Workspace A variable workstation that adapts to your needs and saves space.
The height of the folding table is adjustable to convert to a standing or sitting worktable. Fold the table up if more space is needed. Shelves and cabinets are easily attached to the pegboard, which has a metal surface and also serves as a pin board. Pegboard with folding table, height adjustable. Real wood - birch, tabletop HPL birch. Teacher wall workplace With 1 drawer, one compartment under the folding cover, a pen tray and retainer bar.
Dynamic Workstation Slightly tilt to move the table with two casters. The drawers and the cabinet are locked to protect contents. With 2 table hooks and 1 shelf. Birch wood. Clover Stool The design of this three-legged stool offers maximum leg room for the respective table height.
Seat of real beech wood, legs of solid beech wood. Seat beech veneer and frame beech plywood; natural finish. Genuine beech wood, powder-coated steel tube in RAL , white aluminum, natural finish. Four footrests. Precision steel tube, epoxy resin powder coating, plastic parts are made of polypropylene black, RAL , seat made of real wood - beech, varnished. Select the type of glides. If not specified, we will deliver GLKU.
See page 8 for information on what glides work for which floor type. The grip holes facilitate handling. No matter how you turn the stool and the table — everything fits together. Two seat and table heights to choose when turned over. The stools are so lightweight that the children can turn them around on their own. The roller bin is sized so that it fits under the work surface when the turnabout table is turned upright. Includes 4 casters. Set up on end and its surface is cut in half and the table has a second height.
Roller Boxes for Stackable Benches Each bench can fit 2 of the appropriate height roller boxes underneath. Each 1 piece. Great for mixed-age groups. Benches can be nested together to save space. Real birch wood with powder-coated steel frame. Plastic glides included. You can combine this bench with the medium or the small rolling cart. Beech wood real veneer. Stool Can also be used as corner or middle element in combination with the benches. Real beech — wood.
Real beech wood. Corner Bench with Backrest Makes a corner bench when combined with benches item no. The corners of the shelves, tables, and stools have been rounded and outer edges have a soft padding. Furniture is perfect size and color to create an inviting play area. Birch wood, foam material padding, synthetic leather. Two compartments. Safety mirror. Three compartments. Five compartments. All edges on the outside have several layers of padding.
The inside ends have been rounded off at an extra-large radius. For toddlers, kindergarden, school, office and anywhere. Since January, , it has applied to all EU countries. Ergonomic seating requires tables and chairs which are adjusted for body height. The size table from DIN EN shows which table and seat heights are required for the respective body heights. Special Tables Activity Table Anyone who needs to feed six hungry children at the same time, or supervise them while they eat, is very busy.
Here is the "helping hand" they need: The U-shaped work table is designed in such a way that the teacher can sit on a roller stool and quickly move from place to place, or turn from one child to the other — during mealtimes and also when crafting or playing. Floor Play Table Floor play tables in various shapes. Pentagon Table Five sides for a new perspective These flexible, movable tables can be combined in a variety of ways, and liven up the room with organic structures.
They have plenty of space for drawing, gluing, cutting They can be combined with each other or standard tables. Combining different heights creates a particularly attractive look. It is also an advantage for mixed-age groups. If large and small tables of differing heights are combined then they can be pushed together to save space.
Octagonal Table Note, play zone: eight children can sit comfortably here to play, build or do puzzles: together or each on their own. Lowering the table is just as easy: pull the table top up to the maximum height, press it all the way down again, and then pull it up to the desired height.
For preschool, pre-K and daycare centers. They protect the floors with their rounded ends. This guarantees stability. Sextuple connection and the mounting plate: Stable due to the thickness of the plate and the density of the material. Safety furniture for the Little Ones Our safety furniture was developed especially for children under three years of age. Inside width Single legs 1.
Inside size Individual legs 1. How to order Mandatory Options Please specify the desired table top surface. Choose your glide design. Table Stability An internal cross nut bolt and 2 threaded rods connect the table-legs to the corner piece and table-frame. Solid and long wearing. Strong double bolts draw table leg into the frame opening, for a solid, stable joint.
Metal to metal connection. The protective cover has rounded corners but is not cut proof. Made from semi-transparent, environmentally friendly Polypropelyne material. Additional legs used to change height of existing tables only. Suited for preschool, pre-K and daycare centers. Building and Construction Table This table was designed especially for play with building blocks, and construction or experimenting.
Material bins sold separately on page Without the table top the tub can be used. As well as various play materials, the tub can also be filled with water or sand. Table top with Duropal surface and plastic tub, frame and legs either real beech wood or powder-coated metal RAL , white aluminum , depending on model. Built to Last. German Quality Student workstations with ergonomic, height adjustable desks and chairs, drawing tables, and teacher workstations.
Ergonomic shape, made of 7-layer, naturally varnished beech plywood, rounded in the front. Fixed and adjustable seat heights. With 1 bag hook. With 2 bag hooks. It is worth selecting a model carefully, as the ideal table-chair combination can benefit many generations of students. This table consists of a welded frame with scratch-proof, hard-wearing powder-coating and a melamine resin-coated table top with additional overlay top layer.
If desired with an additional wire basket under the table top for storage. The chair: The frame is made of stable precision steel pipe with 2 mm wall thickness, and has a scratch-resistant powder coating. Thanks to the enclosed steel rivets students can neither dismantle the wooden parts, which are made of 7-layered genuine beech wood, nor snag their clothing.
The frame protects the front edge of the robust seating surface against mechanical damage. Ergonomically shaped, made of 7-layer natural finish real beech wood, rounded at the front, seat height dependent on model, in part height-adjustable. Three-layer quality chipboard, both sides with melamine resin coating and additional overlay, 1", 25 mm thick. Comes with 1 bag hook.
Without wire basket, size 2 - 4 With wire basket, size 2 - 4 Without wire basket, size 3 - 5 With wire basket, size Without wire basket, size 4 - 6 With wire basket, size 4 - 6 Without wire basket, size 5 — 7 With wire basket, size 5 - 7. Comes with 2 bag hooks. The following table shows you which seat and table height corresponds to the body height of your students. With our height adjustable tables and chairs, you cover three table and seat heights with just one desk. The code colors serve as a guide for height adjustment.
Price Group 2 — PU-edge attached to the Tabletop. The substructures of the tables can be mounted left or right. If no substructure is specified, UBRE will be deliverd. You can also fold up and close the cable channel. The sturdy four-leg frame made of tubular steel has a circular frame supporting the board made of tubular sectional steel.
The legs have plastic glides for equalizing height. With an ABS edge. Order drawers and CPU holder separately. Is mounted on the right of the frame. For computers. Can be mounted on the right or on the left of the border frame. Includes hardware. Can be mounted on the right or the left of the border frame.
Includes hardward and side bar. Metal, powder coated. Sturdy, stable frame made of powder coated steel tube with 4 casters, two locking. Height adjustment via turning knob. ABS edge. Group Room Years sq ft, 50 m2; max. Trapezoid Nature Discovery Cabinet 2 solid shelves with drilled holes to decorate e. Please order acrylic box page 87 separately. With 2 finger holes, acrylic front. Trapezoid Seating Cushions The low cabinets have space for 15 pieces, the high ones for 25 pieces.
The children decide what is played here. Whether doll's house, garage, landscape or As a cabinet top piece or freely positioned elsewhere. Consists of a panel with a tap with 2 turning knobs , a milled hotplate and a curtain. The hotplate can be turned "on and off" with a lever; it visually changed from a red disc to a black disc.
Birch wood, curtain with Velcro. Encourages children to sort materials into the divisions. Anyone who wants to can lay out a beautiful mandala with stones, chestnuts etc. Strung with pentatonically tuned strings, with which children can very easily create harmonious tones. Can also be freely positioned and used as a musical instrument. Select synthetic leather color p. Access height approx. Important: Use only battery-operated adio devices as the sound box does not have a cable.
Folding, with speaker cutout. Bottom and side pieces with non-slip profile. Can be set up freely in the room, not just in the corners. Curtain LED light V power point with motion sensor, portholes protected by safety glass. Cable approx. Light Corner Cave Cupboard incl. Curtain Includes remote control with light switch. Numerous freely selectable color settings. Cable length cm. Space requirements: approx. LED light V power point. For attaching under the button handles of move. Each leaf has two colors one side light green, one dark green.
For attaching to the bar handles of move. Crawl Tunnel Partition The hole leads to a softly padded tunnel. Tunnel can be removed for washing. A fun onion dome shape, made of fabric, with small mesh windows and a split curtain.
An ideal retreat with the padded mat please order separately. The cave can be set up on a straight partition or on a corner. With colored prisms, acrylic glass pane, tree trunk decoration, peepholes, leaves and milled notches to trace with the fingers. One side has a large safety mirror and tree decoration, the other tree decoration, prisms and small convex and concave mirrors. With 3 colored acrylic glass windows, colored prisms and milled notches.
Bird Partition With colored prisms and movable colored balls: in the spider's web and on the rods. With tree decoration on one side, milled notches, leaf decorations and a movable bird on the other side, as well as colored prisms.
The thick rope with sliding ring can be played with from both sides. Skill and dexterity are needed to push the ring through the hole to the other side. With real, rotating stones, colored prisms, milled notches, and a woodpecker which "works" its way from the top to the bottom on a tree trunk decoration. The door has an acrylic glass window and colored prisms. It cannot be opened by the children but must be held up by an adult. Can only be for fixed installation between partitions no eyelets.
Partition Walls are delivered without connecting eyelets. For connecting partition walls at a flexible angle. Steel tube, powder-coated. Top ball made of beech. Colors as depicted. Drawer with rail system and lock. Birch wood, Plexiglass. Sensory Platform A With three different surfaces: the cork plate feels pleasantly warm, the mirror cold and smooth. And there is an exciting ridged pattern to discover on the structured wooden surface.
Birch wood, cork, safety mirror. Colors as shown. How to order. Tundra Carpet 2 Piece Set Consisting of 2 x small tundra carpets. C small, fill quantity: 30 l. Back has 5 mm MDF panel as reinforcement. Cover is removable and washable. Underside is covered with non-slip fabric. Consists of Explorer Sofa, item no. Fabric: CanvasBione, for colors see legend.
Plastic poles, wooden balls, 5 polyester net fabric leaves. Wall Play Shelves With holes in the side pieces and shelves. Can be attached individually or combined. Birch wood, natural. Toys and Books are not included. Tree Backrest Perfect for simply leaning back a little now and then. Just to unwind or to have a look at some new reading material. Birch wood, natural; foam with synthetic leather cover.
When the green disc is turned the small one also starts moving. In the process the small panel creates an exciting visual effect as it moves up and down. With 2 turning discs. When the disc is turned the rainmaker starts to trickle, the leaves move in a circle and the mirror element encourages discovery of the surroundings. Encourages the children to move the cherry stones from one chamber to the other by turning the panel.
Here the laws of gravity and centrifugal force can be seen, with the help of a slight acoustic effect. Promotion of fine motor skills. Birch wood; natural cherry stones. Here one thing follows the other: a 5 piece gear wheel mechanism to discover. Anyone who gets the hang of it can skilfully manoeuvre the rubber ball through the labyrinth.
Turning panel with Plexiglas. Here a sensitive touch and a good sense of hearing are in demand! The five leaves are arranged in a fan-like design, and each leaf is filled differently wooden beads, cherry stones, granulate, marbles, cotton wool and squeaker.
If the green wheel is set in motion then the two white turning elements produce interesting noises. Children can turn various wooden shapes on the wooden thread. Promotes of fine motor skills. Birch wood, robust fabric. Noise Control Rest We use space in rooms which is usually not used: ceilings and walls. Our noise control elements can be easily install in only a few hours. Partitions Acoustic Wall Elements Robust chipboard base with sound absorbing elements 2", 5 cm thick and fabric covering.
Total thickness: approx. Simple, non-visible mounting with V-ledge and Velcro. When you visually separate an area you also ensure better acoustics at the same time. Acoustic partitions can be perfectly combined with all other Haba partitions. Acoustics Sound reducing element on both sides. Therefore it can also be noise. Use as a pin board. With straight edges. Thickness: 2", 5 cm. Available in white or light blue.
The acoustic cubes — available in white or light blue — have straight edges. Hanging ceiling cubes have much higher values for sound absorption than flat ceiling elements, because the sound waves are absorbed from all sides. This absorbs sound with its open-pored structure. The netlike cell structure causes friction, causing sound to loses its energy. Color: light gray. Include adhesive and attachment instructions.
Simple installation which you can do yourself is naturally much less than construction. Hanging ceiling panels have much higher values for sound absorption than flat glued ceiling elements. Sound waves are absorbed from all sides. Coated glass fibers.
Color: white. Includes fastening materials 16 anchors and 16 cords and installation instructions. Elements with beveled edges. They are attached with Ecophon adhesive. Includes Installation instructions. Ecophon Adhesive For items , , The glue is ready to use and dries clear. As listed in the installation instructions, leftover adhesive can be used, for example, as strong craft adhesive.
Fire-protection class A2. Warm and comfortable! We use veneer from genuine timber for most of our furniture. Wood has an excellent ecological balance and a tree is one of the basic foundations of our ecological system. It protects our atmosphere, bonds carbon dioxide and actively purifies the air.
Our wood comes from sustainable forestry that maintains woodlands. At least one new tree has to be planted for each tree we use. Obtaining and using veneer is highly efficient because approximately m2 of furniture surface can be obtained from one log 2. Raw materials are processed with a low level of energy and its entire material is used: the chips and other residues are pressed into particleboard or used for generating energy.
Wood has a high value even after it is no longer used because it is a supplier of energy in thermal utilization. Its combustion is designated CO2 neutral because only as much carbon dioxide is released as the tree took in ahead of time. It is often visually difficult to distinguish its imitation surface from genuine wood. Sometimes terms used are wood design, wood appearance and wood decoration foil.
All of these designations are an imitation surface. Also known as multiplex board, it is manufactured from a whole series of veneer wood layers glued crossways. Its core consists of glued solid timber ledges. The uppermost layer forms a high-quality genuine veneer wood.
Our move-upp range of shelves and of other furniture are manufactured with these two genuine wood boards. The major feature of these genuine birch timber boards over particleboard consisting of chips in various sizes pressed in several layers and MDF boards consisting of pressed sawdust is the fact that they have unmatched strength.
The technical links within the cabinet are substantially stronger and hold longer. Hardware connections achieve enormous strength in the veneer wood board Our move-up range of shelves survives several generations of children effortlessly. This is why we can give you a year guarantee without hesitation. Naturally, we only use water-based lacquers free of solvents. Select from almost models.
Ideal as room dividers, and useful storage areas. The well thought out modular system makes flexible usage of the base cabinets possible with unique learning elements. These can either be used individually or in combination with the move. The arrangement can be changed at any time for playing, learning, creative work or experimenting. A bolt connection holds the attachable elements securely in place.
Water and Sand With the sturdy plastic tub, a simple shelf is quickly transformed into an exciting play table that allows wonderful experiments with water and sand. This gives your little charges the chance even during the cold weather seasons to gain basic experiences. Playing with water and sand stimulates the senses and promotes creativity and motor skills. In addition, sand has a calming effect. Children learn while playing, the differences between solid and liquid materials.
They discover that figures can be shaped from moist sand, and that they can leave traces behind in the sand. And just by filling materials from one container to another they learn about the relationship between size and volume. Children can grasp inter-relationships in play. Small cars can be moved forward and backward, balls can be pushed back and forth, and bars can be moved in a circle. When turned, the colorful wooden disks produce patterns, small metal disks make cheerful sounds, and brushes tickle the fingers.
By touching and moving the elements, the children develop tactile perception, eye-hand coordination, and concentration. Here the children can get to the bottom of things in the truest sense of the word. The light box top piece makes it possible to do exciting light experiments, and view X-ray images of plants or animals. Dramatic Play Children love to replay everyday situations. Just like the play store, the kitchen offers children unlimited possibilities to recreate events and situations they have experienced.
To identify with other people and copy their gestures and language requires an exact study of roles and behavior. Our module quickly transforms a simple shelf into a workstation for aspiring cooks. Children can slip into which ever role they like. And even though it's just a game, the children learn many valuable lessons for life.
By experimenting with letters and numbers on the whiteboard, the abstract world of mathematics and writing becomes more understandable and concrete. Playing is much more than just a fun way to spend time. While playing, children learn about their environment and develop social skills. The creative interaction with staging areas that offer much free space trains the imagination and abstract thinking.
All of the play backdrops feature bright cheerful colors and allow for all types of creative play. With the top pieces children can see the cubes, pyramids, balls and cylinders at eye level. This helps them train their logical and mathematical reasoning, as well as their spatial awareness.
Showcase Guaranteed to capture attention. What is displayed in the showcase hardly matters — just the fact that they are behind acrylic panels and inaccessible to little hands makes the exhibits fascinating. So even the smallest children can view the discoveries, works of art, or personal treasures.
World of Sound Ball track set Marble runs are fascinating at any age, and have an almost magical appeal. The children send the marbles running down over and over again. It doesn't matter if it's only the marbles moving on this top piece or if there are also sounds — it's just fun to watch the marble roll, or, in this case, with a marble run which can be played with from both sides, to run after it.
Little musicians can train their sense of rhythm and sound perception. Tones and first melodies can be produced by hitting the 7 pentatonic musical tubes. The tubes can be played with a mallet or with building blocks. When removed from the unit, the tubes can be knocked together to produce tones. Eight little bells produce different sounds when hit with the mallet. Triangles and cymbals can also be attached on the hooks. The shelf has plenty of storage space for more musical instruments such as drums, rattles, or castanets.
Carpeted bottom. With 2 sorting bars and 16 geometric shapes. With acrylic panels. For V. Not available in the USA. Marble Run Element With cork layer in the catcher basket and 4 wooden marbles. With 6 cars, 10 turntables, 5 tone bells, bent wire with 6 beads, 5 rollers, round bar with cord and brush.
With 7 musical pipes, 8 musical bells, 1 mallet, and hook for triangle. Group room 1 to 3 year olds A permanent, clear division of the room helps children orient themselves. Group rooms with separated areas for playing, building, reading, drawing and eating are ideal.
The various play areas and materials foster individual abilities and interests, as well as the children's independence. The impact of rooms is made up of individual aspects: characteristics such as arrangement, acoustics, light, colors and materials. Optimal design Partition cabinets and partitions divide the room into individual areas, offer storage space and appeal to the senses with their many details. Another, higher play level is created with the system, which inspires movement.
Depending on space available, the system can be adjusted or expanded as required. The seating and floor play area, with a cozy carpet and colorful stools, is an ideal spot for the morning circle. This is where everyone sings, makes music and discusses the day's schedule. In the building corner sound insulation is provided with a carpet. The mirror fosters spatial awareness. The play benches are excellent construction sites. If required, this space can easily be transformed into a dress-up or reading corner.
It's all about movement! Group rooms in preschool As well as a rest area to dream, cuddle and read, there should also be a creative and learning area for drawing, playing in the mud, crafting, building and experimenting. A play area and plenty of open space.
This can be redesigned whenever required, e. This creates space for a seated circle or movement games etc. Higher play area From the ground to up high - and the mirrors offer plenty of perspectives Children need something reliable to orient themselves in space and time. Clear structure in a room, and clearly arranged materials makes it easier for the children to use them with a sense of purpose, and to make decisions based on their own interests.
Anywhere that children play, frolic, sing and laugh This is completely normal. Good room acoustics are needed so that this doesn't become a problem. This isn't nearly as difficult as it might seem. Wall and ceiling elements, or even partitions, can separate particularly loud areas. More about sound insulation from page Make the best use of your rooms. All structures and arrangements of rooms must however always remain adjustable and changeable.
Children should be given the opportunity to participate in the design of a room with their interests and needs. One safety mirror, center with rear panel and 1 shelf. Available with glides only. Safety Furniture These cabinets are just the right height for children.
The grip holders on the front sides provides stability and support. Our safety furniture does not have any sharp corners or edges. Birch wood Open shelf 1 fixed shelf. A Without mirror B With mirror. It is intended for playing and storing things. Of course, you can keep books and toys in it when the drawer is closed. One side open to crawl through. The other side closed to store books and toys. Safety roller wagon For storing building blocks or books and more — the side walls are construced almost to the floor so that they almost completely cover the casters.
Children cannot put their hands under the wagon. E Without divider F With divider. The brightly colored acrylic back panels allow the light to shine through, and sunlight provides fascinating effects. However, the exact molecular abnormalities are difficult to pinpoint by this approach and as such, there are many discrepancies in the literature. Disclosures: Du, Nothing to Disclose; C. Yuksel, Nothing to Disclose; S.
Lukas, Nothing to Disclose; B. Cohen, Nothing to Disclose; D. Data on the expression of these genes in mental disorders are inconsistent. Overall, there was no effect of nicotine or medication on gene expression. Conclusions: Human specific CHRFAM7A is preferentially expressed in fetal samples, suggesting it may play a role in development of the prefrontal cortex.
Keywords: prefrontal cortex, human, nicotinic receptor, postmortem, SNP, genetic. Disclosures: Y. Kunii, Nothing to Disclose; T. Hyde, Nothing to Disclose; A. Deep-Soboslay, Nothing to Disclose; D. Weinberger, Nothing to Disclose; J. Kleinman, Nothing to Disclose; B. Lipska, Nothing to Disclose. Background: High impulsivity and hypo-activation in frontal brain areas including the anterior cingulate cortex ACC have been consistently reported in Borderline Personality Disorder BPD. Moreover, studies linking neurobiological markers of impulsivity to subjective and behavioral measures of impulsivity in patients with BPD are needed to further clarify the nature of impulsivity in this disorder.
In addition, a broad battery of self-reports on impulsivity was applied. No significant differences in behavioral performance on the impulse control task were observed between groups. However, significantly less activation in brain areas such as the inferior frontal gyrus and significantly increased activation in basal ganglia and in the orbitofrontal insula among others were found in BPD patients compared to HC.
Conclusions: In line with other studies, we observed higher self-reported impulsivity and frontal hypo-activation but no behavioral deficits during an impulse control task in patients with BPD compared to HC. Increased activation in a subcortical loop including the basal ganglia might be a compensatory mechanism to prevent the occurrence of self-perceived impulse control deficits on a behavioral level in individuals with BPD. As the ACC is a key region to emotional control, stronglyconnected to the limbic system, decreased GABA concentration may be related to self-perceived difficulties in control mechanisms in BPD.
Keywords: impulsivity, glutamate, GABA, borderline personality disorder. Krause-Utz, Nothing to Disclose; J. Cackowski, Nothing to Disclose; T. Demirakca, Nothing to Disclose; C. Schmahl, Nothing to Disclose; G. Ende, Nothing to Disclose. Background: Brain microdialysis studies have in general shown that acute alcohol suppresses glutamate release, while alcohol withdrawal leads to progressively increased extracellular levels. The positive effects, such as euphoria and increased verbal activity, occur when blood alcohol concentration BACs are rising or at their peak.
In contrast, negative effects like sedation and depression generally occur during the period of falling BACs Lewis ; Risinger and Cunningham The modulation of glutamatergic transmission may contribute to alcohol intoxication, reinforcement, tolerance, and dependence, while drug effects that influence glutamatergic transmission may mediate therapeutic efforts to treat alcoholism Spanagel and Keifer, Acute alcohol intoxication in non-dependent animals has generally been reported to suppress glutamate release, while alcohol withdrawal and a history of alcohol dependence have been shown to lead to increased central glutamate levels.
Alcohol dependence appears to induce progressive neuroadaptations within the glutamatergic system, and these have been proposed to contribute to the pathophysiology of alcoholism Spanagel and Kiefer, ; Heilig et al , Repeated cycles of alcohol intoxication were reported to result in progressively increasing elevations in extracellular hippocampal glutamate; this consequence of withdrawal was prevented by acamprosate treatment Dahchour et al , It is presently unknown how local tissue alcohol and glutamate levels are related to each other in humans, whether this relationship is associated with the subjective alcohol effects, and whether level of prior alcohol consumption influences these relationships.
There are to our knowledge no human studies that have related brain alcohol exposure to changes in measures of central glutamate. Studies that are available regarding central alcohol effects Biller et al , ; Melendez et al , are limited by the fact that none of these studies attempted to measure metabolite concentration under pharmacokinetically controlled conditions, such as those achieved using an intravenous IV alcohol administration to a pre-determined, steady state BAC Gilman et al , An MRS study using oral alcohol administration found only a moderate correlation between blood alcohol concentration BAC and brain alcohol concentrations Fein and Meyerhoff, The present study is designed to address several of these questions, by bringing human subjects to a steady state BAC of 0.
Methods: Here, we have used an acute, pharmacokinetically controlled alcohol challenge and magnetic resonance spectroscopy MRS to study the relationship between brain alcohol and glutamate concentrations. We collected spectra from the ACC voxel, a homogenous grey matter region which is implicated in alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence.
Healthy participants aged 21—45, without gross impairment of judgment or complicated psychiatric or other morbidity, received a preliminary infusion to ensure no adverse effects from intravenous IV alcohol administration to a target BAC of 0. In a subsequent session, participants were infused with alcohol to the same target level while being scanned in the MR scanner. The current results include data from 16 subjects 4 male Light Drinkers and 2 male heavy Drinkers.
Measurement was made from a 2. MRS data was analyzed using LCModel software Provencher , which estimates the concentration of metabolites relative to unsuppressed water reference signal. This finding is also consistent with the effects chronic use of alcohol in alcohol dependent patients. The results need to be further verified once more Heavy Drinkers are recruited.
Mann, Nothing to Disclose; C. Durkee, Nothing to Disclose; E. Grodin, Nothing to Disclose; V. Ramchandani, Nothing to Disclose; R. Momenan, Nothing to Disclose. Background: Disturbances in the circuitry of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex DLPFC appear to contribute to the pathophysiology of the cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.
In particular, pyramidal cells, the principal source of cortical glutamate neurotransmission, exhibit morphological alterations in schizophrenia. These alterations include a smaller somal size, a less complex dendritic arbor and a lower density of dendritic spines. This pattern of pathology is particularly marked in pyramidal neurons located in layer 3, and may reflect an intrinsic deficit in the expression of genes that regulate the actin cytoskeleton in these neurons.
This notion is supported by limited data demonstrating that subjects with schizophrenia exhibited altered DLPFC gray matter levels of transcripts in the Rho family of GTPases e. The goal of the present study was to examine in more detail the molecular mechanisms that may contribute to the morphological alterations, especially the lower density of dendritic spines, present in layer 3 pyramidal neurons in the DLPFC of subjects with schizophrenia.
Focusing on gene expression in a particular population of neurons may be particularly informative since measures of transcript levels in total gray matter or even individual cortical layers may be diluted by unaffected cell types. Methods: Individual pyramidal cells approximately cells per subject in layer 3 of DLPFC area 9 were captured using laser microdissection from postmortem brain specimens from 19 subjects with schizophrenia and 19 matched healthy comparison subjects.
Pyramidal cells were identified based on their characteristic morphology ie, well defined triangular shape and prominent apical dendrite in Nissl-stained sections. The transcripts were selected using the GeneMANIA prediction algorithm which allowed us to construct a pathway for CDC42 based on known genetic and physical interactions, co-expression patterns, co-localization patterns and protein domain similarity data. For data analysis, the comparative threshold cycle method was used in which transcript levels were normalized values to the geometric mean of 3 reference genes ACTB , GAPDH and GNAS which were included based on their stable expression across schizophrenia and comparison subjects in previous microarray studies.
Results: Our findings revealed several alterations in the intracellular mediators of dendritic spine dynamics. Conclusions: Using a cell type-specific approach, our results identify several intracellular interacting partners of CDC42 with altered expression in DLPFC layer 3 pyramidal neurons in schizophrenia.
These findings support the idea that altered signaling in the CDC42 pathway might contribute to the dendritic spine deficit and other morphological abnormalities in layer 3 pyramidal cells in schizophrenia. The downregulation of the principal upstream regulatory components of the CDC42 pathway could directly compromise the structural stability of dendritic spines since the CDCPAK interaction can modulate the polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton into filopodia, which are believed to generate mature spines.
As a result, the reduced expression of the mRNAs for these proteins would be expected to be associated with a decrease in dendritic spine density. Moreover, these changes are accompanied by an apparent compensatory upregulation in the downstream effector proteins which can serve as a mechanism to enhance the stability of existing spines and promote spinogenesis in subjects with schizophrenia.
Thus, the net effect would be a promotion of actin stabilization and polymerization. Keywords: Actin cytoskeleton, prefrontal cortex, dendritic spines, schizophrenia, CDC Datta, Nothing to Disclose; D. Arion, Nothing to Disclose; D. Background: DOPA decarboxylase DDC is an important enzyme in the synthesis of neuroactive molecules, including dopamine, serotonin, and trace amines.
Exaggerated striatal [ 18 F]-FDOPA uptake, a measure of DDC activity, has been a well replicated positron emission tomography PET finding in schizophrenia, interpreted to represent hallmark illness-related presynaptic hyperdopaminergia. In order to test the hypothesis that such genetic variation is associated with differences in [ 18 F]-FDOPA uptake, we performed both extensive single nucleotide polymorphism typing across the DDC gene and PET studies in a large cohort of healthy adults.
Methods: One hundred and thirteen healthy Caucasian adults 58 women, 55 men under 55 years of age participated. Each underwent complete medical and psychiatric evaluation including history and physical examination, laboratory testing and psychiatric structured diagnostic interview to establish the absence of significant medical, substance, or psychiatric illness.
These scans were attenuation-corrected, realigned, and coregistered to a structural MRI obtained in a separate session. Three bilateral striatal regions of interest ROIs —dorsal caudate, dorsal putamen, and ventral striatum including nucleus accumbens —were hand drawn on each individual's structural MRI and these ROIs were applied to the individual's PET scan. The Patlak-Gjedde graphical method was employed using PMOD software to calculate the specific uptake constant K i using a cerebellar reference region.
General linear model analyses were performed in SPSS. Conclusions: Common variation in DDC predicts nominal but measureable differences in ventral striatal [ 18 F]-FDOPA uptake, suggesting a possible impact on DDC cis-regulation and deserving of further genetic investigation of its potential molecular underpinnings.
By offering evidence for functional effects of DDC polymorphisms in the living human brain, this study lays groundwork upon which to pursue hypotheses linking this candidate gene and aspects of neuropsychiatric conditions with ventral striatal involvement. Howes, J. Kambeitz, E. Kim, D. Stahl, M. Slifstein, A. Abi-Dargham, and S. Kapur, Arch Gen Psychiatry 69 , Borglum, M.
Hampson, T. Kjeldsen, W. Muir, V. Murray, H. Ewald, O. Mors, D. Blackwood, and T. Kruse, Mol Psychiatry 6 , Guan, B. Wang, Y. Chen, L. Yang, J. Li, Q. Qian, Z. Wang, S. Faraone, and Y. Wang, Mol Psychiatry 14 , Toma et al. Giegling, D. Moreno-De-Luca, D. Rujescu, B. Schneider, A. Hartmann, A. Schnabel, K. Maurer, H. Moller, and A. Ma, J. Beuten, T. Payne, R.
Dupont, R. Elston, and M. Li, Hum Mol Genet 14 , Eisenberg, Nothing to Disclose; J. Masdeu, Nothing to Disclose; P. Kohn, Nothing to Disclose; B. Kolachana, Nothing to Disclose; D. Weinberger, Nothing to Disclose; K. Berman, Nothing to Disclose. Background: Schizophrenia SZ is a mental illness that manifests itself with psychotic symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive deficits. Many studies show impairments in ACC function, blood flow, glutamtergic axons, pyramidal cell density and mitochondrial function.
The purpose of the present study is to compare markers of synaptic density synaptophysin and mitochondrial fusion mitofusin2 , the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 vGLUT1 and calcineurin in control and SZ postmortem human ACC. The SZ cohort tested as a whole and then divided by treatment or treatment response.
Methods: Postmortem human brain tissue was obtained from the Maryland Brain Collection. Demographics, measures of tissue quality, confounding factors were compared across groups and had no significant impact on the data. Frozen tissue from the anterior cingulatecortex from each case was used for protein analysis using Western Blot analysis.
Samples were run in duplicate. Blots were probed, stripped and re-probed for actin, synaptophysin, vGlut1, calcineurin and mitofusin2. Proteins werenormalized to actin, then normalized to NC, then averaged between duplicate sets of data. In several samples the levels of vGlut1 were minuscule or absent. This pattern was not observed for any of the other proteins.
Conclusions: Synaptophysin, vGlut1, mitofusin2 and calcineurin protein levels did not differ significantly between NC and SZ, or NC and the SZ subgroups divided by treatment or treatment response status. The correlation between these proteins, which play a role in the synapse, glutamate transmission, mitochondrial fusion and calcium buffering, is complex and was differentially correlated among the groups.
Keywords: postmortem, neuroleptics, mitochondria, synapses, glutamate. Roberts, Nothing to Disclose; K. Barksdale, Nothing to Disclose; A. Background: Prior research in youth with bipolar disorder has suggested that bipolar illness is associated with altered neuronal metabolism leading to neurometabolite abnormalities in multiple brain regions.
These alterations include prefrontal reductions in N-acetyl aspartate NAA and choline Cho , and increased levels of glutamate glu. However, much of the research in this field is potentially confounded by the effects of repeated affective episodes, disease progression, or exposure to psychotropic medications. With these considerations in mind, we conducted an analysis of H 1 magnetic resonance spectroscopy MRS data examining neurometabolite levels in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex of youth with bipolar disorder early in their illness course.
We expected that bipolar youth would exhibit abnormalities in neurometabolite levels relative to typically developing youth. In particular, we hypothesized that youth with bipolar disorder would have elevated levels of glutamate and decreased levels of NAA and choline. Methods: Adolescents ages 10—17 years 11 months with bipolar disorder type I were recruited from inpatient units during their first manic or mixed episode.
Diagnosis of bipolar disorder was confirmed using the Washington University in St. A comparison group of typically developing adolescents was also recruited. All subjects completed a high resolution structural scan and H 1 MRS scans, with separate 8cc voxels placed in the right and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex.
All subjects were scanned using a 4. Tissue segmentation for each voxel was performed on the structural scans using statistical parametic mapping SPM. Metabolites other than glu were corrected for the tissue content of the voxel and scan parameters. Initial analysis focused on group differences, and comparisons of demographic variables and metabolite levels were conducted in SAS using t-tests for continuous variables and chi-square tests for categorical variables.
Secondary analyses looked for differences between metabolite levels between girls and boys and relationships between metabolite levels and age. Results: Seventy-one adolescents with bipolar disorder and 39 healthy adolescents participated in this study. There were no significant differences between the groups in any of these demographic variables.
There were no significant differences between youth with early-course bipolar disorder and typically developing youth in any of the neurometabolites considered. There were also no significant correlations between any of the metabolites considered and age.
When the group analysis was repeated using age as a covariate, there were no significant group effects and no group by age interactions. The levels of several metabolites differed significantly between boys and girls. In the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, boys had significantly higher levels of mI, NAA and Ch2 on the right, and higher levels of all metabolites on the left. In the anterior cingulate cortex, only the levels of mI differed significantly, again with boys having higher levels than girls.
However, there was no difference in this pattern between youth with bipolar disorder and healthy youth. When the group analysis was repeated using sex as a covariate, there were still no significant effects of diagnosis, and no interactions between diagnosis and sex. Conclusions: Our results suggest that mania early in the course of bipolar disorder is not associated with alterations in neurometabolite levels in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex or the anterior cingulate cortex.
These results are consistent with the only other study of first episode manic youth, a smaller sample that was then treated with olanzapine. Such alterations, previously detected in samples not confined to first-episode patients, may be a result of disease progression or the effects of medication, but not present at the onset of bipolar illness. Indeed, several studies have found that the treatment of manic youth with medications, including divalproex, quietapine, and lithium, leads to changes in neurometabolite levels.
The presence of significant sex effects in the levels many of the neurometabolites makes it clear that future studies should carefully consider including sex in models of neurometabolite data, even in the absence of group differences in sex ratio. Further research is in progress which will expand upon the sample described here and explore the effect of pharmacological treatments on these neurometabolite levels.
Schneider, Nothing to Disclose; T. Benanzer, Nothing to Disclose; W. Weber, Nothing to Disclose; L. Patino Duran, Nothing to Disclose; J. Strawn, Nothing to Disclose; J. Welge, Nothing to Disclose; C. Adler, Nothing to Disclose; S.
Stephen, Nothing to Disclose; M. DelBello, Nothing to Disclose. Background: Symptoms that are linked to schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, such as auditory verbal hallucinations, are also commonly reported by individuals who function well in society, are not in need for care and do not suffer from schizophrenia or another psychotic disorders. These individuals provide the opportunity to investigate the relationship between subclinical psychotic symptoms and brain morphology unaffected by antipsychotic medication.
The purpose of this study was to compare cortical thickness in non-psychotic individuals with auditory verbal hallucinations to healthy subjects and to patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Methods: Fifty healthy subjects, 50 non-clinical individuals with auditory verbal hallucinations AVH group and 50 patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorders participated in the study and underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging.
The three groups were matched for age, gender, handedness and years of parental education. Cortical thickness was assessed using the FreeSurfer software suite. Results: Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders showed reduced cortical thickness in widespread frontal, temporal, and parietal areas compared to both other groups.
The AVH group showed cortical thinning in the left paracentral gyrus, right insula, right fusiform gyrus, right inferior temporal gyrus and the left pars orbitalis compared to the healthy subjects. Conclusions: Individuals with auditory hallucinations in the absence of other psychotic symptoms and who function well and are unmedicated show a similar but less pronounced pattern of structural brain differences as patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, suggesting that cortical thinning is associated with the propensity for, or presence of, auditory verbal hallucinations.
Keywords: schizophrenia, non-clinical psychotic symptoms, cortical thickness, spectrum. Sommer, Nothing to Disclose; M. Begemann, Nothing to Disclose; R. Background: Mechanisms of natural reward in the mesolimbic DA pathway reinforce the behaviors that are necessary for survival. It has been postulated that cocaine-induced neuroadaptations hijack the dopaminergic pathways of natural reward, gradually impairing, learning and memory, executive function and self-control as a function of drug exposure.
However, the overlap of the networks of natural and drug rewards and the role of dopamine DA in these networks are largely unknown. PET and fMRI studies have shown that drug addiction impairs the limbic system and regions involved in attention, memory, salience, motivation, executive function, mood and interoception. Like drugs, foods increase striatal DA release and are potently rewarding.
Differently, food intake is determined not just by the pleasure of eating but also by the balance of energy and nutrients in the body. Thus we hypothesized that cocaine cues and food cues would activate brain networks that will show significant overlap and also differential patterns. All subjects had a positive urine toxicology screen for cocaine on screening days, indicating that they have used cocaine during the prior 72 h, but their urines were negative on scanning days.
We used two blocked fMRI tasks contrasting neutral- vs. One-way within-subjects ANOVA was used to test for common and differential activation patterns to neutral, cocaine and food cues. Voxelwise multiple regression analyses were used to assess the association between D2R levels in the striatum and fMRI responses across subjects. Results: Compared to neutral cues, cocaine cues produced fMRI responses in cerebellum, caudate and nucleus accumbens NAc , and food cues produced fMRI responses in somatosensory and gustatory cortices, insula, anterior thalamus and hypothalamus.
Food cues produced higher activation than cocaine cues in superior temporal, inferior frontal cortex and insula, and higher deactivation in DMN. Longer cocaine exposure was associated with lower activation in cerebellum. The fMRI responses to cocaine and food cues in somatosensory cortex, cerebellum and DMN increased in proportion to how much the subjects liked the cues and to their BMI.
Conclusions: The current study demonstrates for the first time common and distinct functional circuits involved in drug cocaine cues and natural food cues reward for men that actively abuse cocaine. Compared to neutral cues, cocaine and food cues increased activation in a common network that includes cerebellum, anterior insula, OFC, and inferior frontal and parietal cortices, as well as increased deactivation in NAc and DMN regions.
Stronger co-deactivation to cocaine and food cues than to neutral cues in the NAc is consistent with the inhibitory properties of DA in the striatum of primates and with the fact that all addictive drugs increase DA in NAc, and their behavioral rewarding effects are associated with increases in synaptic DA in NAc. Brain activation in posterior insula, and inferior frontal cortex and deactivation in posterior DMN regions were higher for food cues than for cocaine cues.
Tomasi, Nothing to Disclose; G. Wang, Nothing to Disclose; E. Caparelli, Nothing to Disclose; N. Volkow, Nothing to Disclose. Biomarkers of hyperarousal including amygdala hyper-reactivity and deficient amygdala habituation to repeated emotional stimuli are putative endophenotypes of BPD. The Met allele of the Val66Met SNP of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene BDNF increases amygdala reactivity and impairs extinction learning, a phenomenon closely related to habituation.
Methods: We used an imaging genetics framework to examine for the first time in BPD patients the impact of BDNF Val66Met genotypes on amygdala habituation to repeated emotional and neutral pictures. Non-Met carriers. Specifically, we conducted a diagnostic group HC vs. BPD vs. Conclusions: Using an imaging-genetics approach we characterize for the first time the genetic underpinnings of the deficit in amygdala habituation to emotional stimuli in BPD, which is restricted to those carrying the BDNF 66Met allele.
Keywords: BDNF, amygdala, habituation, borderline personality disorder, emotion regulation. Perez-Rodriguez, Nothing to Disclose; A. New, Nothing to Disclose; K. Goldstein, Nothing to Disclose; Q. Yuan, Nothing to Disclose; Z. Zhou, Nothing to Disclose; C. Hodgkinson, Nothing to Disclose; D.
Goldman, Nothing to Disclose; L. Siever, Nothing to Disclose; E. Hazlett, Nothing to Disclose. Background: Access to large-scale longitudinal structural neuroimaging data has fundamentally altered our understanding of cortical maturation and organization en route to human adulthood, with consequences for basic science, medicine and law.
In striking contrast to the rapid accrual and refinement of cortical insights, basic anatomical development of subcortical structures such as the basal ganglia and thalamus still remains very poorly described—despite the fact that these evolutionarily ancient structures are intimate working partners of the cortical sheet and critical to diverse developmentally emergent skills and disorders.
Methods: Here, we address this disparity by applying novel methods for analysis of subcortical volume and shape to over structural magnetic resonance imaging brain scans from typically developing males and females aged 5 to 25 years. These trajectories show a relative delayed in males, and peak later than the trajectory of cortical volume change in both sexes.
Changes in global subcortical volume hide profound regional heterochronicity: prefrontally-connected striatal, pallidal and thalamic facets form islands of areal contraction within an otherwise generalized surface area expansion with age. We also identify hotspots of sexually dimorphic shape change in each of the three structures examined—with relevance for sex-biased mental disorders emerging in youth.
Finally, by blending structural covariance analysis with genomic methods for module detection, we create an entirely data-driven parcellation of the subcortical surface for wider use. The macroscopic organization captured by this parcellation respects microscopic distinctions engrained within our histology-based method for image analysis.
Conclusions: These data provide a spatiotemporal model of the human subcortex that is comparable in detail to models that have long been available for the cortex—setting the stage for a more holistic consideration of developmental processes sculpting the human brain through childhood, adolescence and early adulthood.
Raznahan, Nothing to Disclose; S. Phillip, Nothing to Disclose; C. Liv, Nothing to Disclose; D. Greenstein, Nothing to Disclose; J. Lerch, Nothing to Disclose; M. Chakravarty, Nothing to Disclose; J. Giedd, Nothing to Disclose. Background: Deficits in face emotion processing have been proposed as a candidate endophenotype for bipolar disorder BD. Face labeling deficits are present in BD patients regardless of mood state, psychotropic medication, or comorbidity status.
Moreover, impairments are found in unaffected children at familial risk Brotman et al. Meta-analyses in BD suggest limbic hyperactivation and prefrontal cortex PFC hypoactivation during face emotion paradigms Delvecchio et al. Most recently, work has demonstrated similar dysfunction in the neural circuitry mediating face processing in both pediatric BD patients and youth at familial risk Olsavsky et al.
Consistent with this, amygdala and prefrontal cortex dysfunction have been suggested as pathophysiological risk markers for BD Ladouceur et al. Few studies, however, have examined the neural correlates to subtle changes in emotional expressions in BD youth. In one study, relative to healthy comparison youth, BD patients failed to modulate the amygdala and frontal cortex in response to increasing anger intensity on the face Thomas et al. Research has yet to examine neural responsiveness to subtle changes in face emotion in youth at familial risk.
In this study, we compare neural activation in pediatric BD, youth at familial risk, and age-matched healthy comparison children on a parametrically designed face emotion processing task. Behaviorally, we anticipated that pediatric BD and at risk youth would demonstrate abnormal face emotion ratings. In addition, we hypothesized that, in response to increasing anger on the face, both BD and youth at risk would exhibit similar abnormal linear trends in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex compared to healthy youth.
Methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI data were acquired from 64 participants 8—18 years old , including 20 pediatric BD patients, 15 unaffected children at familial risk, and 29 healthy comparison youth. At risk children with a mood disorder were excluded from the study; youth with ADHD or an anxiety disorder were included.
In this abstract, we focus on data from the angry face condition. Group x rating condition x intensity level repeated measures ANOVAs were performed on rating and reaction time data. Results: Groups did not differ on age, IQ, or sex distribution. There were no differences in reaction time across groups. From the whole-brain analysis, there were two clusters showing a significant group x rating condition interaction: inferior frontal gyrus IFG, BA 46 and anterior cingulate cortex ACC, BA Conclusions: Similar to previous behavioral results, both BD and at risk youth demonstrated abnormal face emotion ratings Brotman et al.
Consistent with prior work showing amygdala and PFC dysfunction Ladouceur et al. Dysfunctional modulation of the amygdala and IFG in BD and youth at risk may be a candidate pathophysiological endophenotypic marker for BD, and may underlie social cognition and face emotion labeling deficits seen in BD and at risk youth. Work is needed to examine the relationship between amygdala hyperactivity and PFC hypoactivity and dysfunctional modulation.
Future studies should include larger samples and a longitudinal design to determine whether the neural deficits associated with face processing predict the onset of BD in youth at risk for the illness. With further study, risk stratification and preventive interventions could be used to potentially mitigate the development and prevalence of BD.
Keywords: fMRI, bipolar disorder, youth at familial risk, face emotion. Brotman, Nothing to Disclose; C. Deveney, Nothing to Disclose; L. Thomas, Nothing to Disclose; K. Hinton, Nothing to Disclose; J. Yi, Nothing to Disclose; D. Pine, Nothing to Disclose; E.
Leibenluft, Nothing to Disclose. Background: Chronic alcohol dependence has been associated with disturbed behavior, brain atrophy and a low plasma concentration of the polyunsaturated fatty acid PUFA , docosahexaenoic acid DHA, n-3 , particularly if liver disease is present. In addition, 33Xe clearance, SPECT single photon emission computed tomography and PET positron emission tomography imaging studies have reported that regional cerebral blood flow rCBF or that the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose rCMRglc is decreased in chronic alcoholics after withdrawal.
In animal models, excessive alcohol consumption is reported to reduce brain DHA concentration, suggesting disturbed brain DHA metabolism. We hypothesized that brain DHA metabolism also is abnormal in chronic alcoholics, and that changes in brain DHA metabolism in alcoholics compared with controls would be accompanied by changes in rCBF. Age of onset of heavy drinking in the alcoholics was Plasma unesterified DHA concentration also was quantified.
Higher rCBF in alcoholics also suggests increased energy consumption. Each of these changes may reflect a hypermetabolic state related to alcohol withdrawal, or a general brain metabolic change in chronic alcoholics independently of withdrawal. Ref: . Umhau et al. Lipid Research — Keywords: chronic alcoholism, positron emission tomography, cerebral blood flow, docosahexaenoic acid, brain.
Umhau, Nothing to Disclose; W. Zhou, Nothing to Disclose; S. Thada, Nothing to Disclose; P. Herscovitch, Nothing to Disclose; N. Hibbeln, Nothing to Disclose; j. Hirvonen, Nothing to Disclose; S. Rapoport, Nothing to Disclose. Background: Autism Spectrum Disorder ASD has been associated with a complex pattern of increases and decreases in resting-state functional connectivity. The developmental disconnection hypothesis of ASD poses that shorter connections become overly well established with development in this disorder, at the cost of long-range connections.
Many resting-state networks can already be identified in young children, but they are under developmental influences. Here, we investigated resting-state connectivity in relatively young boys with ASD and typically developing children. We hypothesized that ASD would be associated with reduced connectivity between networks, and increased connectivity within networks, in line with the developmental disconnection hypothesis.
Methods: We acquired resting-state fMRI from 27 boys with ASD and 29 age-matched typically developing boys between 6 and 16 years of age. Using independent component analysis, we identified 14 resting-state networks of interest. Group differences for within- and between network connectivity were tested using Monte-Carlo permutation tests, with age as covariate. Permutation tests were also performed in a sub-group of 24 individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder to test for correlations with scores on the Repetitive Behavior Scale-revised RSB-R.
Results were FWE-corrected for multiple comparisons, using threshold-free cluster enhancement. Results: We found no between-group differences in within-network connectivity. However, we did find reduced functional connectivity between two higher-order cognitive networks in ASD. Furthermore, we found that increased connectivity within the default mode network correlated with age in ASD, whereas it did not in typically developing children.
In 24 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, RBS-R scores were positively correlated with increased connectivity within a cerebellar and executive network. Post-hoc analyses showed the highest correlations for insistence on sameness and ritualistic behavior. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the global architecture of functional networks is intact in ASD, as many major networks can already be detected in relatively young boys with ASD.
However, there are subtle differences in between-network connectivity, as well as subtle developmental changes. These findings are in line with developmental disconnection hypothesis of ASD, as the differences are mostly found in between-network connectivity.
Furthermore, this may be related to behavioral symptoms for children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder, as severity of restricted and repetitive behavior was related to -state connectivity in a cerebellar and executive network. Bos, Nothing to Disclose; T. Smits, Nothing to Disclose; J. Rombouts, Nothing to Disclose; S. Durston, Nothing to Disclose. Background: Body dysmorphic disorder BDD is characterized by preoccupation with misperceived defects of appearance, causing significant distress and disability.
Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI , neurocognitive, and psychophysical studies in BDD suggest abnormalities in information processing characterized by greater local relative to global processing for appearance-related and non-appearance related stimuli. Recent white matter structural analyses have found abnormal network organization and abnormal connectivity patterns.
However, to date there have been no studies of functional brain connectivity in BDD. The purpose of this study is to investigate functional brain connectivity in the visual system related to processing of non-appearance related stimuli in individuals with BDD compared to healthy controls. We used partial correlation analysis and graph theory to provide a quantitative assessment of functional brain network organization in the visual system during a visual processing task. Based on findings from a previous structural network analysis, we hypothesized that individuals with BDD would have greater mean clustering coefficient, abnormal edge betweenness centrality between occipital poles, and lower node degree and betweenness centrality of dorsal visual stream regions cuneus and lateral occipital cortex, superior.
Based on previous studies, we also hypothesized lower node degree in lower- and higher-order visual processing regions including the intracalcarine cortex, lingual gyrus, temporal occipital fusiform cortex, temporal fusiform cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, cuneus, and precuneus. FSL provided the tools for preprocessing, registration, and analysis. Anatomical nodes in the visual system 22 were selected using the Harvard Oxford cortical and subcortical atlas. We regressed out motion parameters, and white matter and CSF activation, but not global signal.
Activation time series for each node, averaged across voxels, were used to create a 22x22 partial correlation weighted connectivity matrix. As hypothesized, there were lower node degrees in dorsal visual stream nodes, including the left cuneus and the left superior lateral occipital cortex. There was no abnormality in edge betweenness centrality between the right and left occipital poles. In addition, as part of an exploratory analysis, we found significantly lower node betweenness centrality in the left inferior lateral occipital cortex, and greater local efficiency in the left precuneous.
Conclusions: This is the first study to investigate functional network connectivity using graph theory metrics in individuals with BDD. We found abnormalities in BDD for specific nodes critically important in visual processing, as well as global abnormalities in clustering coefficient. These results, combined with recent findings of abnormalities in structural connectivity, suggest a pattern of aberrant functional integration as well as structural network abnormalies in BDD.
Such abnormalities in functional connectivity in visual systems may have implications in understanding perceptual disturbances in this disorder. Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder, network analysis, fMRI, graph theory, functional connectivity. Disclosures: T. Moody, Nothing to Disclose; J. Brown, Nothing to Disclose; A. Leow, Part 2: I have received compensation, in excess of 10k per year since , through clinical work as an outpatient psychiatrist from community psychiatry in California.
Zhan, Nothing to Disclose; J. Feusner, Nothing to Disclose. Background: Structural and functional abnormalities in fronto-striatal circuits involving orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum are reported in OCD. The hippocampus along with other medial temporal lobe structures, is also involved in spatial navigation and learning.
Thus, we used a novel, translational fMRI task to examine the functioning of the neural circuits that support reward-based spatial learning in unmedicated adults with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder OCD. This task is a directly analogous to the radial arm maze experiments used to define the neuroanatomical and neurochemical bases of learning systems in rodents e. Methods: We compared fMRI BOLD response in 33 adults with OCD to 33 healthy, age-matched control HC participants during performance of a reward-based learning task that required learning to use extra maze cues to navigate a virtual 8-arm radial maze to find hidden rewards.
Results: Behavioral performance on the task did not differ between groups and both groups activated temporoparietal during spatial navigation in the learning condition. However, only OCD participants activated left hippocampus during navigation and in response to receiving expected rewards in that condition. In contrast, activation of left hippocampus and amygdala in HC participants was associated with receiving unexpected rewards in the control condition.
Activation of bilateral ventral striatum in HC participants was associated with not receiving expected rewards in the learning condition, and the OCD participants with the most severe symptoms activated bilateral ventral striatum the least during this condition.
Left amygdala activation was associated with the anticipation of rewards in the learning condition in OCD group, but in the control condition in the HC group. Conclusions: When processing rewards on a translational reward-based learning fMRI task, OCD participants displayed aberrant recruitment of mesolimbic areas amygdala and hippocampus and ventral striatum. Consistent with our previous findings from a separate sample of healthy individuals Marsh et al , Neuropsychologia , , HC participants activated this system in response to the violation of reward expectations during task performance.
These findings are also consistent with neurophysiological findings from rodents, showing that dopaminergic midbrain neurons fire in response to unpredicted rewards. In contrast to the HC group, unmedicated OCD participants activated left amygdala when anticipating and left hippocampus when processing expected rather than unexpected rewards.
These findings suggest that the dopaminergic innervation of this circuit during reward processing may be dysfunctional in OCD, and suggest that future studies could use the radial-arm maze paradigm to manipulate and probe the functioning of this circuit in animal models of OCD. Marsh, Nothing to Disclose; Y.
Huo, Nothing to Disclose; G. Lui, Nothing to Disclose; M. Packard, Nothing to Disclose; G. Tau, Nothing to Disclose; X. Hao, Nothing to Disclose; B. Peterson, Nothing to Disclose; Z. Wang, Nothing to Disclose; H. Simpson, Nothing to Disclose. Background: Though previous studies have reported deficits in the grey matter volume of schizophrenia patients, it remains unclear whether these deficits occur at the onset of the disease before treatment and whether they are progressive over the untreated disease duration.
Furthermore, the grey matter volume of a cortical region represents the combination of its cortical thickness and the surface area; these features are believed to be influenced by different genetic factors. We hypothesised that 1 regional reductions in cortical thickness would be observed in early stages of schizophrenia and 2 changes in cortical thickness would be related to the clinical severity as well as the untreated duration of the disease.
Methods: This study was approved by the local ethical committee and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Vertex-based 2-sample ttest was applied to investigate cortical thickness differences between the patient group and the healthy control group with age and sex as covariance. Besides, correlation analysis between significant differences of cortical thickness in patient group and scale scores was performed to reveal the potential association between the anatomical deficits and clinical symptoms.
The average cortical thickness of the regions with reduced cortical thickness, i. Furthermore, these anatomical changes were related to the clinical symptoms observed in schizophrenia but not to the untreated illness duration. This finding suggests that these anatomical deficits may be associated with aberrant neurodevelopmental processes and may be relatively stable in very early stages of the disease.
However, it remains unclear whether these deficits are progressive in patients with longer untreated courses of schizophrenia. Lui, Nothing to Disclose; Y. Xiao, Nothing to Disclose; L. Yao, Nothing to Disclose; Y. He, Nothing to Disclose; Q. Gong, Nothing to Disclose. Background: Significant controversy surrounds the use of estrogen-based hormone therapy HT among postmenopausal women and associated effects on the brain and risk of cognitive decline.
These investigations are limited by cross-sectional evaluations and heterogeneity of sample characteristics and types of estrogen preparations. There is strong evidence of differential regional atrophy within the hippocampus in aging individuals with and without dementia or mild cognitive impairment, with the CA1 subfield showing particular sensitivity.
However, no studies to date have considered the potential effects of HT cross-sectionally nor longitudinally with respect to hippocampal subfields. Methods: The present study assessed total and subfield hippocampal volumes in 54 postmenopausal women at-risk for Alzheimer's disease AD , all users of HT either conjugated equine estrogen CEE or estradiol before or within 1-year of menopause.
A priori risk factors for AD were first-degree family history of AD, known carriership of apolipoprotein epsilon-4 APOE4 , or personal history of major depressive disorder. Subjects underwent brain imaging and cognitive testing at baseline and after 2 years of randomized continuation or discontinuation of existing HT.
Clinical and demographic characteristics did not differ by use of CEE or estradiol, or by specific a priori risk factors. Baseline total hippocampal and hippocampal subfield volumes did not differ between women HT randomization groups nor by type of estrogen. In repeated-measures general linear modeling, total hippocampal volume was not observed to change significantly over the two-year observation period, nor were there any differences in change by HT randomization or type of estrogen.
However, analysis of changes in hippocampal subfields showed a significant interaction was observed for type of estrogen and the right CA1 subfield, as well as a trend interaction with HT randomization, such that the right CA1 subfield was seen to decline in both women who continued and discontinued CEE, increase in women who continued estradiol, and remain relatively unchanged in women who discontinued estradiol. No interactions or main effects of HT randomization or type of estradiol were observed in the remaining hippocampal subfields.
Further analysis showed a significant interaction between baseline MMSE and the right total hippocampus, right CA1, and right subiculum. No interactions or main effects were noted for duration of HT use, concurrent use of progestin, or for any of the a priori risk factors. Conclusions: These findings extend collective understanding of the effects of HT initiated early in menopause, and support previous beneficial findings for estradiol-based HT on the aging female brain.
Similar to previous studies on hippocampal subfields in aging populations, the CA1 subfield emerged as most predictive of deleterious decline. These data are the first demonstrating the sensitivity of the CA1 subfield to different types of estrogen-based HT. Further, the current findings of lower MMSE scores at baseline being predictive of greater total and regional hippocampal decline are consistent with numerous previous studies.
However, no studies to data have differentially evaluated hippocampal volume change by type of estrogen HT. There is consensus in the field that differences in findings on the effects of HT on hippocampal volume may largely be driven by variation in study samples and cross-sectional studies, with cumulative understanding remaining unequivocal without well-controlled randomized trials with longitudinal neuroimaging.
The current results offer a significant advancement toward the goal of improved understanding of the effects of HT on hippocampal volume in postmenopausal women. Additional longitudinal studies with multiple time points may further delineate differential brain effects by estrogen preparation type, and the predictive value of hippocampal biomarkers for AD risk among older women.
Keywords: hippocampal volume, hormone therapy, estrogen, menopause, CA1 subfield. Kenna, Nothing to Disclose; K. Sheau, Nothing to Disclose; T. Wroolie, Nothing to Disclose; R. Kelley, Nothing to Disclose; K. Williams, Nothing to Disclose; A. Reiss, Nothing to Disclose; N. Rasgon, Nothing to Disclose. Background: Diminished synthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin 5-HT has been linked todisturbed impulse control in aversive contexts such as decreased punishment inducedinhibition.
The present study investigated the underlying neural correlates of punishmentinduced inhibition in young healthy adult females. Methods: Eighteen healthy women aged 20 to 31 years participated in a double-blind,within-subject repeated measures study, with two separate days of assessment. On a further dayparticipants received a tryptophan-balanced amino acid load BAL serving as a controlcondition.
Results: Neural activation underlying No-Go trials in punished conditions after BAL versusATD administration and achieved depletion magnitude correlated positively in the ventral andsubgenual anterior cingulate cortex ACC. Conclusions: The present findings indicate lower neural sensitivity to punishment after shorttermdepletion of 5-HT in brain areas related to emotion regulation such as the subgenualACC with rising depletion magnitude, and also in brain areas related to executive control here the OFC and dorsal ACC with rising trait impulsivity.
These preliminary data suggest aserotonergic modulation of relevant brain regions that are engaged in top-down controlledneurocircuitries related to impulsive behavior and punishment processing.
Installation complete. Further Updates? Should you find any bugs or tiling issue, please do send me some feedback either in the starmade multiverse forums here , or the starmade project forums here. For more information, screen shots or even other art works, you can visit my personal blog at tomberridge. Other files you may be interested in.. Grand Terrarian Fleet Draygon - Capital Ship Star Wars Ship Pack- R Files Recently Uploaded 1 user s are online in the past 15 minutes 0 members, 1 guests, 0 anonymous users.
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I avoid x after I had a bad experience one time. Soo, I hadn't backed up my world for over a week, and decided to try a x pack The not backing up thing is important. Even after switching back to a default texture pack, I couldn't get over 0 fps. No, I'm not exaggerating the numbers, because once I got close I would use the kill all mobs command every 10 blocks. I kept track and it ended up being about mobs killed by the time I reached my base.
So yea, never going to touch x again. Not sure why exactly the game decided to commit suicide, I have no problems of x This is minecraft. Why would u want 2 deal with uneven terrain? More topics from this board Best version? Tech Support 1 Answer Why are my villagers disappearing? General 5 Answers It's stuck on the Mojang screen? Tech Support 2 Answers Stopping enemies spawning in my house?
Build 7 Answers Where are screenshots saved? Tech Support 5 Answers. Ask A Question. Browse More Questions. Keep me logged in on this device. Forgot your username or password? User Info: Nano Kitsune Nano Kitsune 8 years ago 1 I can run base packs without an issue, but once I up it to base texture packs I get random Minecraft-is-out-of-memory crashes.
I have a bit OS and 8 gigs of ram although I don't think MC uses all of it is this normal behavior for obscenely huge packs? Can anyone here run base packs without crashing? If so, what are your specs? Aku: You can fly?! Jack: No.