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This combination enhances the light absorption in photocatalysts and thus greatly improves their photocatalytic performance. In this study, Ga2O3 photonic crystals with well-arranged skeleton structures were prepared via a dip-coating infiltration method. The positions of the electronic band absorption for Ga2O3 photonic crystals could be made to locate on the red edge, on the blue edge, and away from the edge of their photonic band gaps by changing the pore sizes of the samples, respectively.

Particularly, the electronic band absorption of the Ga2O3 photonic crystal with a pore size of nm was enhanced more than other samples by making it locate on the red edge of its photonic band gap, which was confirmed by the higher instantaneous photocurrent and photocatalytic activity for the degradation of various organic pollutants under ultraviolet light irradiation.

Furthermore, the degradation mechanism over Ga2O3 photonic crystals was discussed. The design of Ga2O3 photonic crystals presents a prospective application of photonic crystals in photocatalysis to address light harvesting and quantum efficiency problems through manipulating photons or constructing photonic crystal structure as groundwork.

The research activities performed in the framework of this project represent a major breakthrough in the demonstration of Photonic Crystals PhC as a competitive technology for LEDs with high light extraction efficiency. The information gained allows better understanding of the physical processes and the effect of the design parameters on the light directionality and extraction efficiency.

Those devices are based on embedded air-gap PhC - a novel technology concept developed in the framework of this project. They rely on a simple and planar fabrication process that is very interesting for industrial implementation due to its robustness and scalability. In fact, besides the additional patterning and regrowth steps, the process is identical as that for standard industrially used p-side-up LEDs. The final devices exhibit the same good electrical characteristics and high process yield as a series of test standard LEDs obtained in comparable conditions.

Finally, the technology of embedded air-gap patterns PhC has significant potential in other related fields such as: increasing the optical mode interaction with the active region in semiconductor lasers; increasing the coupling of the. Achieving energy efficiency during collective communications. Energy consumption has become a major design constraint in modern computing systems. With the advent of petaflops architectures, power- efficient software stacks have become imperative for scalability.

Techniques such as dynamic voltage and frequency scaling called DVFS and CPU clock modulation called throttling are often used to reduce the power consumption of the compute nodes. To avoid significant performance losses, these techniques should be used judiciously during parallel application execution. For example, its communication phases may be good candidates to apply the DVFS and CPU throttling without incurring a considerable performance loss.

In this work, two important collective communication operations, all-to-all and allgather, are investigated as to their augmentation with energy saving strategies on the per-call basis. The experiments prove the viability of such a fine-grain approach. They also validate a theoretical power consumption estimate for multicore nodes proposed here. A split-column photobioreactor SC-PBR , consisting of two bubble columns with different sizes, was developed to enhance the photon utilization efficiency in an astaxanthin production process from Haematococcus lacustris.

The results clearly show that the effective light regime of SC-PBR could enhance the production of astaxanthin. High heralding- efficiency of near-IR fiber coupled photon pairs for quantum technologies. We report on the development and use of a high heralding- efficiency , single-mode-fiber coupled telecom-band source of entangled photons for quantum technology applications.

We made use of these highly desirable entangled states to investigate several promising quantum technologies. Highly efficient heralded single- photon source for telecom wavelengths based on a PPLN waveguide. We present the realization of a highly efficient photon pair source based on spontaneous parametric downconversion SPDC in a periodically poled lithium niobate PPLN ridge waveguide.

The source is suitable for long distance quantum communication applications as the photon pairs are located at the centers of the telecommunication O- and C- band at nm and nm. A minimum value for g 2 0 of 0. High- efficient entanglement distillation from photon loss and decoherence. We illustrate an entanglement distillation protocol EDP for a mixed photon -ensemble which composed of four kinds of entangled states and vacuum states.

Exploiting the linear optics and local entanglement resource four-qubit entangled GHZ state , we design the nondemolition parity-checking and qubit amplifying PCQA setup for photonic polarization degree of freedom which are the key device of our scheme. With the PCQA setup, a high-fidelity entangled photon -pair system can be achieved against the transmission losses and the decoherence in noisy channels. And in the available purification range for our EDP, the fidelity of this ensemble can be improved to the maximal value through iterated operations.

Compared to the conventional entanglement purification schemes, our scheme largely reduces the initialization requirement of the distilled mixed quantum system, and overcomes the difficulties posed by inherent channel losses during photon transmission. All these advantages make this scheme more useful in the practical applications of long-distance quantum communication. Multiregion apodized photon sieve with enhanced efficiency and enlarged pinhole sizes.

A novel multiregion structure apodized photon sieve is proposed. The number of regions, the apodization window values, and pinhole sizes of each pinhole ring are all optimized to enhance the energy efficiency and enlarge the pinhole sizes.

The design theory and principle are thoroughly proposed and discussed. Two numerically designed apodized photon sieves with the same diameter are given as examples. Comparisons have shown that the multiregion apodized photon sieve has a Meanwhile, the two apodized photon sieves have the same form of normalized intensity distribution at the focal plane. This method could improve the flexibility of the design and the fabrication the apodized photon sieve.

Extracting rate coefficients from single-molecule photon trajectories and FRET efficiency histograms for a fast-folding protein. Two types of experiments and two different analyses were performed. In the second, the protein was immobilized by linkage to a surface, and photons were collected until one of the fluorophores bleached. Folding and unfolding rate coefficients and mean FRET efficiencies for the folded and unfolded subpopulations were obtained from a photon by photon analysis of the trajectories using a maximum likelihood method.

The ability of the method to describe the data in terms of a two-state model was checked by recoloring the photon trajectories with the extracted parameters and comparing the calculated FRET efficiency histograms with the measured histograms. Interestingly, apparently reliable rate coefficients could be extracted using the maximum likelihood method, even at low efficiencies were also obtained in an approximate procedure by simply fitting the FRET efficiency histograms, calculated by binning the donor and acceptor photons , with a sum of three-Gaussian functions.

The kinetics are exposed in these histograms by the growth of a FRET efficiency peak at values intermediate between the folded and unfolded peaks as the bin. Efficient and robust quantum random number generation by photon number detection.

Applegate, M. We present an efficient and robust quantum random number generator based upon high-rate room temperature photon number detection. We employ an electric field-modulated silicon avalanche photodiode, a type of device particularly suited to high-rate photon number detection with excellent photon number resolution to detect, without an applied dead-time, up to 4 photons from the optical pulses emitted by a laser.

By both measuring and modeling the response of the detector to the incident photons , we are able to determine the illumination conditions that achieve an optimal bit rate that we show is robust against variation in the photon flux. Coherent states achieve the Holevo capacity of a pure-loss channel when paired with an optimal measurement, but a physical realization of this measurement is as of yet unknown, and it is also likely to be of high complexity.

In this paper, we focus on the photon -counting measurement and study the photon and dimensional efficiencies attainable with modulations over classical- and nonclassical-state alphabets. We first review the state-of-the-art coherent on-off-keying OOK with a photoncounting measurement, illustrating its asymptotic inefficiency relative to the Holevo limit. We show that a commonly made Poisson approximation in thermal noise leads to unbounded photon information efficiencies , violating the conjectured Holevo limit.

We analyze two binary-modulation architectures that improve upon the dimensional versus photon efficiency tradeoff achievable with conventional OOK. We show that at high photon efficiency these architectures achieve an efficiency tradeoff that differs from the best possible tradeoff--determined by the Holevo capacity--by only a constant factor.

The first architecture we analyze is a coherent-state transmitter that relies on feedback from the receiver to control the transmitted energy. The second architecture uses a single- photon number-state source. MHz rate and efficient synchronous heralding of single photons at telecom wavelengths. We report on the realization of a synchronous source of heralded single photons at telecom wavelengths with MHz heralding rates and high heralding efficiency.

As high rates are fundamental for multi- photon experiments, we show that single telecom photons can be announced at 4. Furthermore, we experimentally observe that group velocity mismatch inside long crystals pumped in a pulsed mode affects the spectrum of the emitted photons and their fibre coupling efficiency. The length of the crystal in this source has been chosen as a trade off between high brightness and high coupling efficiency.

High-speed and high- efficiency travelling wave single- photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits. Ultrafast, high- efficiency single- photon detectors are among the most sought-after elements in modern quantum optics and quantum communication. However, imperfect modal matching and finite photon absorption rates have usually limited their maximum attainable detection efficiency.

Here we demonstrate superconducting nanowire detectors atop nanophotonic waveguides, which enable a drastic increase of the absorption length for incoming photons. We also observe remarkably low dark count rates without significant compromise of the on-chip detection efficiency. Exploiting this high temporal resolution, we demonstrate ballistic photon transport in silicon ring resonators. Our direct implementation of a high-performance single- photon detector on chip overcomes a major barrier in integrated quantum photonics.

Enhancing the photon -extraction efficiency of site-controlled quantum dots by deterministically fabricated microlenses. We report on the realization of scalable single- photon sources SPSs based on single site-controlled quantum dots SCQDs and deterministically fabricated microlenses. The fabrication process comprises the buried-stressor growth technique complemented with low-temperature in-situ electron-beam lithography for the integration of SCQDs into microlens structures with high yield and high alignment accuracy.

Historical review of lung counting efficiencies for low energy photon emitters. This publication reviews the measured efficiency and variability over time of a high purity planar germanium in vivo lung count system for multiple photon energies using increasingly thick overlays with the Lawrence Livermore Torso Phantom.

Furthermore, the measured variations in efficiency are compared with the current requirement for in vivo bioassay performance as defined by the American National Standards Institute Standard. Two- photon photodynamic therapy PDT is able to offer precise 3D manipulation of treatment volumes, providing a target level that is unattainable with current therapeutic techniques. The advancement of this technique is greatly hampered by the availability of photosensitizers with large two- photon absorption TPA cross section, high reactive-oxygen-species ROS generation efficiency , and bright two- photon fluorescence.

Here, an effective photosensitizer with aggregation-induced emission AIE characteristics is synthesized, characterized, and encapsulated into an amphiphilic block copolymer to form organic dots for two- photon PDT applications. The AIE dots possess large TPA cross section, high ROS generation efficiency , and excellent photostability and biocompatibility, which overcomes the limitations of many conventional two- photon photosensitizers.

Outstanding therapeutic performance of the AIE dots in two- photon PDT is demonstrated using in vitro cancer cell ablation and in vivo brain-blood-vessel closure as examples. KGaA, Weinheim. Efficient multi-mode to single-mode coupling in a photonic lantern. We demonstrate the fabrication of a high performance multi-mode MM to single-mode SM splitter or " photonic lantern", first described by Leon-Saval et al. Our photonic lantern is a solid all-glass version, and we show experimentally that this device can be used to achieve efficient and reversible coupling between a MM fiber and a number of SM fibers, when perfectly matched launch conditions into the MM fiber are ensured.

The fabricated photonic lantern has a coupling loss for a MM to SM tapered transition of only 0. An analysis of mobile whole blood collection labor efficiency. Labor efficiency is desirable in mobile blood collection. There are few published data on labor efficiency. The variability in the labor efficiency of mobile whole blood collections was analyzed. We determined to improve our labor efficiency using lean manufacturing principles.

Workflow changes in mobile collections were implemented with the goal of minimizing labor expenditures. The labor efficiency in a 6-month period before the implementation of changes, and in months 1 to 6 and 7 to 12 after implementation was analyzed and compared. Labor efficiency in the 6-month period preceding implementation was 1.

In months 1 to 6, labor efficiency declined slightly to 0. In months 7 to 12, the mean labor efficiency returned to preimplementation levels of 1. The lean-based changes in workflow were subjectively favored by employees and donors. The labor efficiency of our mobile whole blood drives is strongly influenced by size. Larger drives are more efficient , with diminishing returns above 40 units collected.

Lean-based workflow changes were positively received by employees and donors. Efficient photonic reformatting of celestial light for diffraction-limited spectroscopy. MacLachlan, D. The spectral resolution of a dispersive astronomical spectrograph is limited by the trade-off between throughput and the width of the entrance slit.

Photonic guided wave transitions have been proposed as a route to bypass this trade-off, by enabling the efficient reformatting of incoherent seeing-limited light collected by the telescope into a linear array of single modes: a pseudo-slit which is highly multimode in one axis but diffraction-limited in the dispersion axis of the spectrograph. It is anticipated that the size of a single-object spectrograph fed with light in this manner would be essentially independent of the telescope aperture size.

We seek to address these aspects by integrating a multicore fibre photonic lantern with an ultrafast laser inscribed three-dimensional waveguide interconnect to spatially reformat the modes within the PSF into a diffraction-limited pseudo-slit. This result underscores the possibility that a fully optimized guided-wave device can be used with AO to provide efficient spectroscopy at high spectral resolution. An ideal intensity-modulated photon -counting channel can achieve unbounded photon information efficiencies PIEs.

However, a number of limitations of a physical system limit the practically achievable PIE. In this paper, we discuss several of these limitations and illustrate their impact on the channel. We show that, for the Poisson channel, noise does not strictly bound PIE, although there is an effective limit, as the dimensional information efficiency goes as e[overline] e PIE beyond a threshold PIE. Since the Holevo limit is bounded in the presence of noise, this illustrates that the Poisson approximation is invalid at large PIE for any number of noise modes.

We show that a finite transmitter extinction ratio bounds the achievable PIE to a maximum that is logarithmic in the extinction ratio. We show how detector jitter limits the ability to mitigate noise in the PPM signaling framework. We illustrate a method to model detector blocking when the number of detectors is large, and illustrate mitigation of blocking with spatial spreading and altering. Finally, we illustrate the design of a high photon efficiency system using state-of-the-art photo-detectors and taking all these effects into account.

Efficient modeling of photonic crystals with local Hermite polynomials. Developing compact algorithms for accurate electrodynamic calculations with minimal computational cost is an active area of research given the increasing complexity in the design of electromagnetic composite structures such as photonic crystals, metamaterials, optical interconnects, and on-chip routing. We show that electric and magnetic EM fields can be calculated using scalar Hermite interpolation polynomials as the numerical basis functions without having to invoke edge-based vector finite elements to suppress spurious solutions or to satisfy boundary conditions.

This approach offers several fundamental advantages as evidenced through band structure solutions for periodic systems and through waveguide analysis. The photonic band structure of a simple crystal is used as a benchmark comparison and the ability to capture the effects of spatially complex dielectric distributions is treated using a complex pattern with highly irregular features that would stress spatial transform limits.

This general method is applicable to a broad class of physical systems, e. Large-area, multi-pixel photon counters will be used for the electromagnetic Barrel Calorimeter of the GlueX experiment at Jefferson Lab. The 16 cells are summed electronically and the signals are amplified. A new fluorescence cell has been developed for the laser induced fluorescence LIF detection of formaldehyde.

The cell is used to sample a flow of air that contains trace concentrations of formaldehyde. The cell provides a hermetically sealed volume in which a flow of air containing formaldehyde can be illuminated by a laser. The cell includes the optics for transmitting the laser beam that is used to excite the formaldehyde and for collecting the resulting fluorescence.

The novelty of the cell is its small size and simple design that provides a more robust and cheaper alternative to the state of the art. Despite its simplicity, the cell provides the same sensitivity to detection as larger, more complicated cells. Collective communication allows efficient communication and synchronization among a collection of processes, unlike point-to-point communication that only involves a pair of communicating processes.

Achieving high performance for both kernels and full-scale applications running on a distributed memory system requires an efficient implementation of…. Waveguide integrated superconducting single- photon detectors with high internal quantum efficiency at telecom wavelengths. Superconducting nanowire single- photon detectors SNSPDs provide high efficiency for detecting individual photons while keeping dark counts and timing jitter minimal. Besides superior detection performance over a broad optical bandwidth, compatibility with an integrated optical platform is a crucial requirement for applications in emerging quantum photonic technologies.

Our detectors are fully scalable and interface directly with waveguide-based optical platforms. Here we present SNSPDs embedded in nanophotonic integrated circuits which achieve internal quantum efficiencies close to unity at nm wavelength. Efficiency of aerosol collection on wires exposed in the stratosphere. The theory of inertial impaction is briefly presented. Stratospheric aerosol research experiments were performed duplicating Wong et al.

The use of the curve of inertial parameters vs particle collection efficiency , derived from Wong et al. The results show that stratospheric aerosol particles of all sizes are collectible by wire impaction technique. Influence of multidroplet size distribution on icing collection efficiency. Calculation of collection efficiencies of two-dimensional airfoils for a monodispersed droplet icing cloud and a multidispersed droplet is carried out.

The results of the study show considerably improved agreement with experiment when multidroplet size distributions are employed. The study then investigates the effect of collection efficiency on airborne particle droplet size sampling instruments. The biased effect introduced due to sampling from different collection volumes is predicted. Reliable generation of single photons is of key importance for fundamental physical experiments and to demonstrate quantum protocols.

Waveguide-based photon -pair sources have shown great promise in this regard due to their large spectral tunability, high generation rates, and long temporal coherence of the photon wave packet. However, integrating such sources with fiber-optic networks often results in a strong degradation of performance. The source combines this outstanding performance in heralding efficiency with a compact, stable, and easy-to-use "plug-and-play" package: one simply connects a laser to the input and detectors to the output, and the source is ready to use.

This high performance can be achieved even outside the lab without the need for alignment which makes the source extremely useful for any experiment or demonstration needing heralded single photons. Chatzianagnostou, E. Bringing photonics and electronics into a common integration platform can unleash unprecedented performance capabilities in data communication and sensing applications. Plasmonics were proposed as the key technology that can merge ultra-fast photonics and low-dimension electronics due to their metallic nature and their unique ability to guide light at sub-wavelength scales.

However, inherent high losses of plasmonics in conjunction with the use of CMOS incompatible metals like gold and silver which are broadly utilized in plasmonic applications impede their broad utilization in Photonic Integrated Circuits PICs. To overcome those limitations and fully exploit the profound benefits of plasmonics, they have to be developed along two technology directives. In this context, a hybrid plasmo- photonic structure utilizing the CMOS-compatible metals Aluminum Al and Copper Cu is proposed to efficiently transfer light between a low-loss Si3N4 photonic waveguide and a hybrid plasmonic slot waveguide.

Specifically, a Si3N4 strip waveguide photonic part is located below a metallic slot plasmonic part forming a hybrid structure. This configuration, if properly designed, can support modes that exhibit quasi even or odd symmetry allowing power exchange between the two parts. Photo-electrochemical water splitting is a very promising and environmentally friendly route for the conversion of solar energy into hydrogen.

However, the solar-to-H2 conversion efficiency is still very low due to rapid bulk recombination of charge carriers. Here, a photonic nano-architecture is developed to improve charge carrier generation and separation by manipulating and confining light absorption in a visible-light-active photoanode constructed from BiVO4 photonic crystal and plasmonic nanostructures.

Synergistic effects of photonic crystal stop bands and plasmonic absorption are observed to operate in this photonic nanostructure. Within the scaffold of an inverse opal photonic crystal, the surface plasmon resonance is significantly enhanced by the photonic Bragg resonance. Nanophotonic photoanodes show AM 1. Plasmonic enhancement in BiVO4 photonic crystals for efficient water splitting. Distribution of entangled quantum states over significant distances is important to the development of future quantum technologies such as long-distance cryptography, networks of atomic clocks, distributed quantum computing, etc.

Long-lived quantum memories and single photons are building blocks for systems capable of realizing such applications. The ability to store and retrieve quantum information while filtering unwanted light signals is critical to the operation of quantum memories based on neutral-atom ensembles.

We report on an efficient frequency filter which uses a glass cell filled with 85Rb vapor to attenuate noise photons by an order of magnitude with little loss to the single photons associated with the operation of our cold 87Rb quantum memory. An Ar buffer gas is required to differentiate between signal and noise photons or similar statement.

Our simple, passive filter requires no optical pumping or external frequency references and provides an additional 18 dB attenuation of our pump laser for every 1 dB loss of the single photon signal. The realization of on-chip quantum networks ideally requires lossless interfaces between photons and solid-state quantum emitters. We propose and demonstrate on-chip arrays of metallo-dielectric antennas MDA that are tailored toward efficient and broadband light collection from individual embedded carbon nanotube quantum emitters by trapping air gaps on chip that form cavity modes.

Scalable implementation is realized by employing polymer layer dry-transfer techniques that avoid solvent incompatibility issues, as well as a planar design that avoids solid-immersion lenses. The demonstrated MDA arrays are directly compatible with other quantum systems, particularly 2D materials, toward enabling efficient on-chip quantum light sources or spin- photon interfaces requiring unity light collection , both at cryogenic or room temperature. Increasing the efficiency of organic solar cells by photonic and electrostatic-field enhancements.

Organic photovoltaic OPV technology is an attractive solar-electric conversion paradigm due to the promise of low cost roll-to-roll production and amenability to flexible substrates. OPV cells suffer from low charge carrier mobilities of polymers, leading to recombination losses, higher series resistances and lower fill-factors. Thus, it is imperative to develop fabrication methodologies that can enable efficient optical absorption in films thinner than optical absorption length. Active layers conformally deposited on light-trapping, microscale textured, grating-type surfaces is one possible approach to achieve this objective.

For verifying this theoretical result and improving the efficiency of OPVs by light trapping, OPVs were fabricated on grating-type textured substrates possessing t pitch and -coat PV active-layer on these textured substrates led to over filling of the valleys and shunts at the crest, which severely affected the performance of the resultant PV devices.

Thus, it is established that although the optical design is important for OPV performance but the potential of light trapping can only be effectively tapped if the textures are amenable for realizing a conformal active layer. It is discovered that if the height of the underlying topographical features is reduced to sub-micron regime e. Another factor that severely limits the performance of OPVs is. Digital voice recording: An efficient alternative for data collection. Study designs are usually constrained by logistical and budgetary considerations that can affect the depth and breadth of the research.

Little attention has been paid to increasing the efficiency of data recording. Digital voice recording and translation may offer improved efficiency of field personnel. Using this technology, we increased our data collection by Efficient light harvesting is essential for the realization of high energy conversion efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells DSCs.

State-of-the-art mesoporous TiO2 photoanodes fall short for collection of long-wavelength visible light photons , and thus there have been efforts on introduction of scattering nanoparticles. Moreover, dependence of spectral scattering properties of wrinkled particles on interwrinkle distances, which was originated from difference in overall refractive indices, was observed. The efficiency of many solar energy conversion technologies is limited by their poor response to low-energy solar photons.

One way for overcoming this limitation is to develop materials and methods that can efficiently convert low-energy photons into high-energy ones. Here we show that thermal radiation is an attractive route for photon energy upconversion, with efficiencies higher than those of state-of-the-art energy transfer upconversion under continuous wave laser excitation. By examining various oxide samples doped with lanthanide or transition metal ions, we draw guidelines that materials with high melting points, low thermal conductivities and strong absorption to infrared light deliver high upconversion efficiencies.

The feasibility of our upconversion approach is further demonstrated under concentrated sunlight excitation and continuous wave nm laser excitation, where the upconverted white light is absorbed by Si solar cells to generate electricity and drive optical and electrical devices. It is pivotal to achieve efficient triplet-triplet annihilation based photon upconversion TTA-UC in the solid-state for enhancing potentials of renewable energy production devices.

However, the UC efficiency of solid materials is largely limited by low fluorescence quantum yields that originate from the aggregation of TTA-UC chromophores, and also by severe back energy transfer from the acceptor singlet state to the singlet state of the triplet donor in the condensed state. In this work, to overcome these issues, we introduce a highly fluorescent singlet energy collector as the third component of donor-doped acceptor crystalline films, in which dual energy migration, i.

To demonstrate this scheme, a highly fluorescent singlet energy collector was added as the third component of donor-doped acceptor crystalline films. An anthracene-based acceptor containing alkyl chains and a carboxylic moiety is mixed with the triplet donor Pt II octaethylporphyrin PtOEP and the energy collector 2,5,8,tetra- tert-butylperylene TTBP in solution, and spin-coating of the mixed solution gives acceptor films of nanofibrous crystals homogeneously doped with PtOEP and TTBP.

Thanks to this high diffusivity, only 0. Furthermore, since the donor PtOEP and the collector TTBP are separately isolated in the nanofibrous acceptor crystals, the singlet back energy transfer from the collector to the donor is effectively avoided. Such efficient singlet energy collection and inhibited back energy transfer processes result in a large increase of UC efficiency up to 9.

Incorporating photon recycling into the analytical drift-diffusion model of high efficiency solar cells. The analytical drift-diffusion formalism is able to accurately simulate a wide range of solar cell architectures and was recently extended to include those with back surface reflectors. However, as solar cells approach the limits of material quality, photon recycling effects become increasingly important in predicting the behavior of these cells.

In particular, the minority carrier diffusion length is significantly affected by the photon recycling, with consequences for the solar cell performance. We present a novel scheme for deterministic secure quantum communication DSQC over collective rotating noisy channel. Four special two-qubit states are found can constitute a noise-free subspaces, and so are utilized as quantum information carriers. In this scheme, the information carriers transmite over the quantum channel only one time, which can effectively reduce the influence of other noise existing in quantum channel.

The information receiver need only perform two single- photon collective measurements to decode the secret messages, which can make the present scheme more convenient in practical application. It will be showed that our scheme has a relatively high information capacity and intrisic efficiency. Foremostly, the decoy photon pair checking technique and the order rearrangement of photon pairs technique guarantee that the present scheme is unconditionally secure. This work presents a Computational Fluid Dynamics calculation to predict and to evaluate the effects of temperature, operating pressure and inlet velocity on the collection efficiency of gas cyclones.

This paper also reviews four empirical models for the prediction of cyclone collection efficiency , namely Lapple [1], Koch and Licht [2], Li and Wang [3], and Iozia and Leith [4]. All the predictions proved to be satisfactory when compared with the presented experimental data. The CFD simulations predict the cyclone cut-off size for all operating conditions with a deviation of 3. Specifically, results obtained from the computer modelling exercise have demonstrated that CFD model is the best method of modelling the cyclones collection efficiency.

Improving the counting efficiency in time-correlated single photon counting experiments by dead-time optimization. This drawback is related to the limited counting capability of the TCSPC technique, due to pile-up and counting loss effects. Splitting the light into several detectors connected to independent TCSPC modules proportionally increases the counting capability.

Of course, multi-module operation also increases the system cost and can cause space and power supply problems. We present a fast active quenching circuit for single- photon avalanche diodes which features a minimum dead time of We also introduce a new Time-to-Amplitude Converter TAC able to attain extra-short dead time thanks to the combination of a scalable array of monolithically integrated TACs and a sequential router.

Preliminary measurements on the F-TAC are presented and discussed. Improvement of antigen detection efficiency with the use of two-dimensional photonic crystal as a substrate. Multiplex detection of different antigens in human serum in order to reveal diseases at the early stage is of interest nowadays.

There are a lot of biosensors, which use the fluorescent labels for specific detection of analytes. For instance, common method for detection of antigens in human serum samples is enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA. One of the most effective ways to improve the sensitivity of this detection method is the use of a substrate that could enhance the fluorescent signal and make it easier to collect.

Two-dimensional 2D photonic crystals are very suitable structures for these purposes because of the ability to enhance the luminescent signal, control the light propagation and perform the analysis directly on its surface. In our study we have calculated optimal parameters for 2D-dimensional photonic crystal consisting of the array of silicon nano-rods, fabricated such photonic crystal on a silicon substrate using reactive ion etching and showed the possibility of its efficient application as a substrate for ELISA detection of human cancer antigens.

In this thesis I present experimental demonstrations of room-temperature, single- photon sources with definite linear and circular polarizations. Definite photon polarization increases the efficiency of quantum communication systems. In contrast with cryogenic-temperature single- photon sources based on epitaxial quantum dots requiring expensive MBE and nanofabrication, my method utilizes a mature liquid crystal technology, which I made consistent with single-emitter fluorescence microscopy.

The structures I have prepared are planar-aligned cholesteric liquid crystals forming 1-D photonic bandgaps for circularly-polarized light, which were used to achieve definite circularly-polarized fluorescence of single emitters doped in this environment. I also used planar-aligned nematic liquid crystals to align single molecules with linear dipole moments and achieved definite linearly-polarized fluorescence.

I used single nanocrystal quantum dots, single nanodiamond color-centers, rare-earth-doped nanocrystals, and single terrylene and DiIC18 3 dye molecules as emitters. Distributed Bragg reflectors form another type of microcavity that can be used to realize a single- photon source. I characterized the fluorescence from nanocrystal quantum dots doped in the defect layers of such microcavites, both organic and inorganic.

Finally, to demonstrate the single- photon properties of single-emitter-doped cholesteric and nematic liquid crystal structures and distributed Bragg reflector microcavities, I present observations of. Bioinspired photonic structures by the reflector layer of firefly lantern for highly efficient chemiluminescence.

Fireflies have drawn considerable attention for thousands of years due to their highly efficient bioluminescence, which is important for fundamental research and photonic applications. However, there are few reports on the reflector layer RL of firefly lantern, which contributes to the bright luminescence.

Inspired by the firefly lantern, artificial films with high reflectance in the visible region were fabricated using hollow silica microparticles mimicking the structure of the RL. Additionally, the bioinspired structures provided an efficient RL for the chemiluminescence system and could substantially enhance the initial chemiluminescence intensity. The work not only provides new insight into the bright bioluminescence of fireflies, but also is importance for the design of photonic materials for theranostics, detection, and imaging.

Detection efficiency calculation for photons , electrons and positrons in a well detector. Part I: Analytical model. An analytical model is presented to calculate the total detection efficiency of a well-type radiation detector for photons , electrons and positrons emitted from a radioactive source at an arbitrary position inside the well.

The model is well suited to treat a typical set-up with a point source or cylindrical source and vial inside a NaI well detector, with or without lead shield surrounding it. It allows for fast absolute or relative total efficiency calibrations for a wide variety of geometrical configurations and also provides accurate input for the calculation of coincidence summing effects.

Efficient transportation of nano-sized particles along slotted photonic crystal waveguide. We design a slotted photonic crystal waveguide S-PhCW and numerically propose that it can efficiently transport polystyrene particle with diameter as small as 50 nm in a nm slot. Excellent optical confinement and slow light effect provided by the photonic crystal structure greatly enhance the optical force exerted on the particle.

The S-PhCW can thus transport the particle with optical propulsion force as strong as 5. Therefore, the S-PhCW transports particles not only efficiently but also stably. We anticipate this waveguide structure will be beneficial for the future lab-on-chip development. We present the first collective evidence that Fermi-detected jets of high kinetic power L sub kin are dominated by inverse Compton emission from upscattered external photons.

This increase is consistent with beaming expectations for external Compton EC emission, but not for synchrotron self Compton SSC emission. For the lowest power jets L sub kin photon fields. Coupled with the evidence that jet power is linked to the jet speed, this finding suggests that external photon fields become the dominant source of seed photons in the jet comoving frame only for the faster and therefore more powerful jets.

Optical density and photonic efficiency of silica-supported TiO2 photocatalysts. Over the last years, many research groups have developed supported TiO2-based materials in order to improve the engineering applications of photocatalytic technologies. However, not many attempts have been made to evaluate the optical behavior of these materials. This work focuses on the study of the photonic efficiencies of silica-supported TiO2 photocatalysts following the photodegradation of dichloroacetic acid DCA as model compound.

Catalysts with different types of silica support and titania loadings were tested and their activity was found to be in correlation with the results of the clusters size distribution of the TiO2 nanocrystals. The photonic efficiency of the supported photocatalysts depends extremely on the optical density of the solid suspensions. Influence of the textural properties of the support and the titania loading on the optical density as well as on the photonic efficiency of the materials are discussed.

The dependence of the absorption of radiation by the suspension on the catalyst concentration is also analyzed. Clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that indoor air quality has substantial impact on the health of building occupants [1]. Possible sources of indoor air contamination include hazardous gases as well as particulate matters PMs [2].

Experimental studies show that the size distribution of PMs in indoor air ranges from tens of nanometers to a few hundreds of micrometers [3]. Computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed by using FLUENT to optimize the structure of the proposed system toward high particle collection efficiency and satisfactory pressure drop. Self-assembled hierarchical nanostructures for high- efficiency porous photonic crystals. The nanoscale modulation of material properties such as porosity and morphology is used in the natural world to mold the flow of light and to obtain structural colors.

The ability to mimic these strategies while adding technological functionality has the potential to open up a broad array of applications. Porous photonic crystals are one such technological candidate, but have typically underachieved in terms of available materials, structural and optical quality, compatibility with different substrates e. We report here an alternative fabrication method based on the bottom-up self-assembly of elementary building blocks from the gas phase into high surface area photonic hierarchical nanostructures at room temperature.

Periodic refractive index modulation is achieved by stacking layers with different nanoarchitectures. High- efficiency porous Bragg reflectors are successfully fabricated with sub-micrometer thick films on glass, silicon, and flexible substrates. As a burgeoning branch of quantum cryptography, quantum key agreement is a kind of key establishing processes where the security and fairness of the established common key should be guaranteed simultaneously.

However, the difficulty on designing a qualified quantum key agreement protocol increases significantly with the increase of the number of the involved participants. Thus far, only few of the existing multiparty quantum key agreement MQKA protocols can really achieve security and fairness. Nevertheless, these qualified MQKA protocols are either too inefficient or too impractical. In this paper, an MQKA protocol is proposed with single photons in travelling mode.

Since only one eavesdropping detection is needed in the proposed protocol, the qubit efficiency and measurement efficiency of it are higher than those of the existing ones in theory. Compared with the protocols which make use of the entangled states or multi-particle measurements, the proposed protocol is more feasible with the current technologies.

Security and fairness analysis shows that the proposed protocol is not only immune to the attacks from external eavesdroppers, but also free from the attacks from internal betrayers. Modeling the frequency-dependent detective quantum efficiency of photon -counting x-ray detectors. To find a simple model for the frequency-dependent detective quantum efficiency DQE of photon -counting detectors in the low flux limit. Formula for the spatial cross-talk, the noise power spectrum and the DQE of a photon -counting detector working at a given threshold are derived.

Parameters are probabilities for types of events like single counts in the central pixel, double counts in the central pixel and a neighboring pixel or single count in a neighboring pixel only. A simple charge cloud model using Gaussian clouds of fixed width is used for the propagation of the electric charge generated by the primary interactions.

Both stages are combined in a Monte Carlo simulation randomizing the location of impact which finally produces the required probabilities. The parameters of the charge cloud model are fitted to the spectral response to a polychromatic spectrum measured with our prototype detector. Based on the Monte Carlo model, the DQE of photon -counting detectors as a function of spatial frequency is calculated for various pixel sizes, photon energies, and thresholds.

Estimates for the probabilities can be derived from a simple model of the detector physics. High power tapered lasers with optimized photonic crystal structure for low divergence and high efficiency. High power tapered lasers are designed and fabricated.

A one-dimensional photonic crystal structure in the vertical direction is adopted to narrow the far field divergence. The thickness of the defect layer and the photonic crystal layers are optimized by analyzing the optical field theoretically. For tapered lasers, the continuous-wave power is 7.

High beam qualities are also obtained with a vertical M2 value of 1. As the current increases, the lateral M2 value increases gradually while the vertical M2 value remains around 2. Efficient heralding of O-band passively spatial-multiplexed photons for noise-tolerant quantum key distribution. When implementing O-band quantum key distribution on optical fiber transmission lines carrying C-band data traffic, noise photons that arise from spontaneous Raman scattering or insufficient filtering of the classical data channels could cause the quantum bit-error rate to exceed the security threshold.

In this case, a photon heralding scheme may be used to reject the uncorrelated noise photons in order to restore the quantum bit-error rate to a low level. However, the secure key rate would suffer unless one uses a heralded photon source with sufficiently high heralding rate and heralding efficiency. In this work we demonstrate a heralded photon source that has a heralding efficiency that is as high as One disadvantage of a typical heralded photon source is that the long deadtime of the heralding detector results in a significant drop in the heralding rate.

To counter this problem, we propose a passively spatial-multiplexed configuration at the heralding arm. We transmit the O-band photons over 10 km of noisy optical fiber to observe the relation between quantum bit-error rate and noise-degraded second-order correlation function of the transmitted photons. The effects of afterpulsing when we shorten the deadtime of the heralding detectors are also observed and discussed.

Photonic efficiency of the photodegradation of paracetamol in water by the photo-Fenton process. An experimental study of the homogeneous Fenton and photo-Fenton degradation of 4-amidophenol paracetamol, PCT is presented. For all the operation conditions evaluated, PCT degradation is efficiently attained by both Fenton and photo-Fenton processes. Also, photonic efficiencies of PCT degradation and mineralization are determined under different experimental conditions, characterizing the influence of hydrogen peroxide H2O2 and Fe II on both contaminant degradation and sample mineralization.

The maximum photonic degradation efficiencies for 5 and 10 mg L -1 Fe II were 3. For higher concentrations of oxidant, H2O2 acts as a "scavenger" radical, competing in pollutant degradation and reducing the reaction rate. Moreover, in order to quantify the consumption of the oxidizing agent, the specific consumption of the hydrogen peroxide was also evaluated.

For all operating conditions of both hydrogen peroxide and Fe II concentration, the consumption values obtained for Fenton process were always higher than the corresponding values observed for photo-Fenton. This implies a less efficient use of the oxidizing agent for dark conditions. Slow-light-enhanced energy efficiency for graphene microheaters on silicon photonic crystal waveguides.

Asger; Dong, Jianji; Ding, Yunhong. Slow light has been widely utilized to obtain enhanced nonlinearities, enhanced spontaneous emissions and increased phase shifts owing to its ability to promote light—matter interactions. By incorporating a graphene on a slow-light silicon photonic crystal waveguide, here we experimentally demonstrate an energy- efficient graphene microheater with a tuning efficiency of 1.

The corresponding figure of merit of the device is 2. The influence of the length and shape of the graphene heater to the tuning efficiency is further investigated, providing valuable guidelines for enhancing the tuning efficiency of the graphene microheater. Improved power and efficiency for tapered lasers with optimized photonic crystal structures. High power and high beam quality laser sources are required in numerous applications such as nonlinear frequency conversion, optical pumping of solid-state and fiber lasers, material processing and others.

Tapered lasers can provide a high output power while keeping a high beam quality. However, the conventional tapered lasers suffer from a large vertical beam divergence. We have demonstrated 2-mm long tapered lasers with photonic crystal structures. A high beam quality and a narrow vertical divergence are achieved. In this paper, we optimized the photonic crystal structure and fabricated a 4-mm long tapered laser to further increase the output power and the wall-plug efficiency.

Compared with our precious wafer, the optimized structure has a lower doping level to reduce the internal loss. The period of the photonic crystal structure and the thickness of the upper cladding are also reduced. The device has a 1-mm long ridge-waveguide section and a 3-mm long tapered section. An output power of 7.

The threshold current is around mA and the slope efficiency is 0. In pulsed mode, the output power is The far-field divergence with full width at half maximum is 6. High beam qualities are demonstrated by beam quality factor M2 of 1. New generation of one-dimensional photonic crystal cavities as robust high- efficient frequency converter. An effective method is proposed to design finite one-dimensional photonic crystal cavities PhCCs as robust high- efficient frequency converter.

For this purpose, we consider two groups of PhCCs which are constructed by stacking m nonlinear LiNbO3 and n linear air layers with variable thicknesses. In the first group, the number of linear layers is less than the nonlinear layers by one and in the second group by two. The conversion efficiency is calculated as a function of the arrangement and thicknesses of the linear and nonlinear layers by benefiting from nonlinear transfer matrix method.

Our numerical simulations show that for each group of PhCCs, there is a structural formula by which the configurations with the highest efficiency can be constructed for any values of m and n i. The conversion efficiencies of these designed PhCCs are more than 5 orders of magnitude higher than the perfect ones which satisfy photonic bandgap edge and quasi-phase matching.

The major physical mechanisms of the enhancement are quasi-phase matching effect, cavity effect induced by dispersive mirrors, and double resonance for the pump and the harmonic fields in defect state. We believe that this method is very beneficial to the design of high- efficient compact optical frequency converters.

Photonic technologies-based computational systems are projected to be able to offer order-of-magnitude improvements in processing speed, due to their intrinsic architectural parallelism and ultrahigh switching speeds; these architectures also minimize connectors, thereby enhancing reliability, and preclude EMP vulnerability. The use of optoelectronic ICs would also extend weapons capabilities in such areas as automated target recognition, systems-state monitoring, and detection avoidance.

Fiber-optics technologies have an information-carrying capacity fully five orders of magnitude greater than copper-wire-based systems; energy loss in transmission is two orders of magnitude lower, and error rates one order of magnitude lower. Attention is being given to ZrF glasses for optical fibers with unprecedentedly low scattering levels. Saturation current and collection efficiency for ionization chambers in pulsed beams.

Careful measurements of chamber current against polarizing voltage in the extreme near-saturation region reveal a current rising faster than that predicted by the linear relationship. This excess current combined with conventional "two-voltage" technique for determination of collection efficiency may result in an up to 0. The measured excess current is attributed to charge multiplication in the chamber air volume and to radiation-induced conductivity in the stem of the chamber stem effect.

These effects may be accounted for by an exponential term used in conjunction with Boag's equation for collection efficiency in pulsed beams. The semiempirical model follows the experimental data well and accounts for both the charge recombination as well as for the charge multiplication effects and the chamber stem effect. Time-resolved singlet-oxygen luminescence detection with an efficient and practical semiconductor single- photon detector.

In clinical applications, such as PhotoDynamic Therapy, direct singlet-oxygen detection through its luminescence in the near-infrared range nm has been a challenging task due to its low emission probability and the lack of suitable single- photon detectors.

Here, we propose a practical setup based on a negative-feedback avalanche diode detector that is a viable alternative to the current state-of-the art for different clinical scenarios, especially where geometric collection efficiency is limited e.

The proposed setup is characterized with Rose Bengal as a standard photosensitizer and it is used to measure the singlet-oxygen quantum yield of a new set of photosensitizers for site-selective photodynamic therapy. High- efficiency power transfer for silicon-based photonic devices. We demonstrate an efficient coupling of guided light of nm from a standard single-mode optical fiber to a silicon waveguide using the finite-difference time-domain method and propose a fabrication method of tapered optical fibers for efficient power transfer to silicon-based photonic integrated circuits.

Adiabatically-varying fiber core diameters with a small tapering angle can be obtained using the tube etching method with hydrofluoric acid and standard single-mode fibers covered by plastic jackets. The proposed method for adiabatic fiber tapering can be applied in quantum optics, silicon-based photonic integrated circuits, and nanophotonics. For newbies it can be very challenging maneuvering throu …. Nathan Nathan Photon L.

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