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To find out more about the Society, log on to www. Joint marketing agreements ensure that GSL Fellows may purchase these societies' publications at a discount. The Society's online bookshop accessible from www. To find out about joining the Society and benefiting from substantial discounts on publications of GSL and other societies worldwide, consult www.

For information about the Society's meetings, consult Events on www. To find out more about the Society's Corporate Affiliates Scheme, write to enquiries geolsoc. Published by The Geological Society from:. The publisher s make no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of the information contained in this book and canno t accept any legal responsibilit y for any errors. All rights reserved. No reproduction , copy or transmission of this publicatio n may be made without written permission.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British. ISBN 4. Distributio n. E-mail: bookstore aapg. E-mail: affiliat vsnl. E-mail: geokanda ma. DVD Contents. The Technical and Editorial Committee. Prefac e. Global petroleum systems i n space and time.

May, R. Kleist, E. Kneller, C. The GeoControversies debates. Virtual fieldtrips for petroleum geoscientists. McCaffrey, D. Hodgetts, J. Howell, D. Hunt, J. Imber, R. Jones, M. Colin Oakman core workshop. Hampson, J. Session: Europe. Europe overview. North Sea hydrocarbon systems: some aspects of our evolving insights into a classic hydrocarbon province.

Erratt, G. Thomas, N. Hartley, R. Musum, P. The search for a Carboniferous petroleum system beneath the Central North Se a. Channel structures formed by contour currents and fluid expulsion: significance for Late Neogene development. Source rock quality and maturity and oil types i n the NW Danish Central Graben: implications for petroleum. Petersen, H. Nytoft, H. Vosgerau, C. Andersen, J. From thrust-and-fold belt t o foreland: hydrocarbon occurrences i n Italy. Bertello, R.

Fantoni, R. Franciosi, V. Gatti, M. Upper Jurassic reservoir sandstones i n the Danish Central Graben: new insights on distribution and depositional environments Johannessen, K. Dybkjcer, C. Andersen, L. Kristensen, J. Architecture of an Upper Jurassic barrier island sandstone reservoir, Danish Central Graben: implications.

Johannessen, L. Nielsen, L. Nielsen, I. M0ller, M. Kieft, C. Jackson, G. Smith, A. McGrandle, J. Archer, S. Ward, S. Menad, I. Shahim, N. Grant, H. Rodriguez, G. Can stratigraphie plays change the petroleum exploration outlook of the Netherlands? Van Hulten. Field Development. Laggan; a mature understanding of an undeveloped discovery, more than 20 years old. Gordon, T. Younis, C.

Managing the start-up of a fractured oil reservoir: development of the Clair field, West of Shetland. Witt, S. Fowler, R. Kjelstadli, L. Draper, D. Overcoming multiple uncertainties i n a challenging gas development: Chis wick Field. The Ensign enigma: improving well deliverability in a tight gas reservoir.

Purvis, K. Overshott, J. Maximizing production and reserves from offshor e heavy oil fields using seismic and drilling technology:. Hampson, S. Locating the remaining oil i n the Nelson Field C. The Buzzard Field: anatomy of the reservoir from appraisal t o production. Ray, S. Pinnock, H. The Scott Field: revitalization of a mature. Gray, J. Urruty, L. Ben-Brahim, J. UK SNS. Brook, J. Wardell, S. Predicting production behaviour from deep HPHT Triassic reservoirs and the impact of sedimentary architecture.

Kape, O. Diaz De Souza, I. Bushnaq, M. Quin, P. Zweigel, E. Eldholm, O. Hansen, K. An ol d field i n a new landscape: the renaissance of Donan. Reekie, E. Davies, N. Hart, A. Mclnally, J. Todd, J. McAteer, L. A road map for the identification and recovery of by-passed pay.

Hampton, H. Role of the Chalk in development of deep overpressure in the Central North Se a. Swarbrick, R. Lahann, S. Investigating fault-sealing potential through fault relative seismic volume analysis J. Dutzer, H. Rushmere, M. Dyce, S. Applying time-lapse seismic methods to reservoir management and field development planning at South Arne,. Danish North Sea. Herwanger, C. Schi0tt, R. Frederiksen, F. If, O. Wold, H. Seismic imaging of variable water layer sound speed i n Rockall Trough, NE Atlantic and implications for seismic surveying i n deep water Jones, C.

Sutton, R. New aeromagnetic and gravity compilations from Norway and adjacent areas: methods and applications O. Olesen, M. Ebbing, J. Gellein, L. Gernigon, J. Koziel, T. Lauritsen, R. Andersen, F. Jakobsen, L. Pascal, M. Sand, D. Maynard, A.

Fraser, M. Allen, R. Tectonic history and petroleum geology of the Russian Arctic Shelves: an overview. Drachev, N. Assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources of the north and east margins of the Siberian craton north of the Arctic Circle.

Klett, C. Synchronous exhumation events around the Arctic including examples from Barents Se a. Offset and curvature of the Novaya Zemlya fold-and-thrust belt, Arctic Russia. Scott, J. Howard, L. Guo, R. Charging the giant gas fields of the NW Siberia basin. Fjellanger, A. Barboza, L. Burshtein, M. Session: North Africa and Middle East. Middle East and North Africa: overview. From Neoproterozoic t o Early Cenozoic: exploring the potential of older and deeper hydrocarbon plays across. North Africa and the Middle East.

Craig, D. Grigo, A. Rebora, G. Palaeohighs: their influenc e on the North African Palaeozoic petroleum systems. Eschard, F. Braik, D. Bekkouche, M. Ben Rahuma, G. Desaubliaux, R. Stratigraphie trapping potential i n the Carboniferous of North Africa: developing new play concepts based on integrated outcrop sedimentology and regional sequence stratigraphy. Morocco, Algeria, Libya. Lubeseder, J. Redfern, L. Integrated petroleum systems and play fairway analysis in a complex Palaeozoic basin: Ghadames-Illizi Basin,.

North Africa. Dixon, J. Moore, M. Bourne, E. Dunn, D. Haig, J. Hossack, N. Roberts, T. Biostratigraphy, chemostratigraphy and thermal maturity of the A1-NC exploration well in the Kufra Basin,. SE Libya. Liining, N. Miles, T. Pearce, E. Brooker, P.

Barnard, G. Exploring subtle exploration plays in the Gulf of Suez. Dancer, J. Collins, A. Beckly, K. Johnson, G. Campbell, G. The hydrocarbon prospectivity of the Egyptian North Red Se a basin. Gordon, B. Hansen, J. Scott, C. Hirst, R. Graham, T. Grow, A. Spedding, S. Fairhead, L. A regional overview of the exploration potential of the Middle East: a case stud y in the application of play. Appraisal and development of the Taq Taq field, Kurdistan region, Iraq.

Garland, I. Abalioglu, L. Akca, A. Cassidy, Y. Chiffoleau, L. Godail, M. Grace, H. Khalek, H. Legarre, H. Sedimentology, geochemistry and hydrocarbon potential of the Late Cretaceous Shiranish Formation i n the.

Euphrates Graben Syria. Ismail, H. Schulz, H. Wilkes, B. Horsfield, R. Dransfield, P. Session: Passive Margins. Passive margins: overview. Levell, J. Argent, A. Constraints on volcanism, igneous intrusion and stretching on the Rockall-Faroe continental margin. White, J. Properties and distribution of lower crustal bodies on the mid-Norwegian margin. Reynisson, J. Ebbing, E. Scotchman, G. Gilchrist, N. Kusznir, A. Structural architecture and nature of the continent-ocean transitional domain at the Camamu and.

Almada Basins NE Brazil within a conjugate margin setting. Blaich, J. Faleide, F. Tsikalas, R. Lilletveit, D. Chiossi, P. New compilation of top basement and basement thickness for the Norwegian continental shelf reveals the. Some emerging concepts in salt tectonics i n the deepwater Gulf of Mexico: intrusive plumes,. Jackson, M. Source-to-sink systems on passive margins: theory and practice with an example from the Norwegian continental margin Martinsen, T. Spmme, J.

Thurmond, W. Redfern, P. Shannon, B. Williams, S. Tyrrell, S. Leleu, I. Baudon, K. Hodgetts, X. Speksnijder, P. Tyrrell, A. Souders, P. Haughton, J. Cretaceous revisited: exploring the syn-rift play of the Faroe-Shetland Basin. Tarsen, T. Tuitt, J. Underbill, J.

Ritchie, H. Episodic uplif t and exhumation along North Atlantic passive margins: implications for. Japsen, P. Green, J. Bonow, E. Rasmussen, J. New methods of improving seismic data t o ai d understanding of passive margin evolution: a series of case. Hardy, E. Querendez, F. Biancotto, S. Jones, J. WATS it take t o image an oil field subsalt offshore Angola? Ekstrand, G. Hickman, R. Thomas, I.

Threadgold, D. Harrison, A. Los, T. Summers, C. Davison, S. Stasiuk, P. Intra-basalt units and base of the volcanic succession east of the Faroe Islands exemplified by. Ellefsen, L. Exploring for gas: the future for Angola.

Figueiredo, L. Binga, J. Session: Unconventional Hydrocarbons Resources. Unconventional oil and gas resources and the geological storage of carbon dioxide: overview. Bulk composition and phase behaviour of petroleum sourced by the Bakken Formation of the. Williston Basin. Kuhn, R. Shale gas i n Europe: a regional overview and current research activities H. Schulz, B. Sachsenhof er. UK data and analysis for shale gas prospectivity.

Smith, P. The Western Canada Foreland Basin: a basin-centred gas system. Boettcher, M. Thomas, M. Hrudey, D. Lewis, C. O'Brien, B. Oz, D. Tight gas exploration in the Pannonian Basin. Milota, I. Natural fractures i n some US shales and their importance for gas production.

Athabasca oil sands: reservoir characterization and its impact on thermal and mining opportunities. Resource potential of gas hydrates: recent contributions from international research and. King coal: restoring the monarchy by underground gasification coupled t o CCS. Younger, D. Geological storage of carbon dioxide: an emerging opportunity. Senior, J. History-matching flow simulations and time-lapse seismic data from the Sleipner C0 2 plume.

Differences between flow of injected C0 2 and hydrocarbon migration. Hermanrud, G. Teige, M. Iding, O. Elken, L. Preparing for a carbon constrained world; overview of the United States regional carbon sequestration partnerships programme and its Southwest Regional Partnership Esser, R.

Levey, B. McPherson, W. O'Dowd, J. Th e Technical and Editorial Committee. Steve Pickering Schlumberger, Gatwick. UK Convenor and Session Editor. Passive Margins. Tony Dore Statoil, Houston. Passive Margins and Unconventional Hydrocarbon Resource. Scot Fraser. BHP Billiton,. Houston, USA. Graham Goffey PA Resources. Virtual field trips.

James Maynard ExxonMobil International. Former Soviet Union and the Cireum-Arctic. Bryan Ritchie BP Houston. North Africa and Middle East. Session editors and other technical contributors:. Sergey Drachev, Steve Garren. Jo n Gluyas, Mark Lappin. Organising Committee:. An d with thanks to:. For help with the core workshop:. Former Soviet Union and the Cireum- Arctic. Grateful thanks are extended to the following companies for their generous sponsorship of the conference:.

Over the years, this conference series and the associated proceedings volumes, commonly known as the 'Barbicans', have provided an important reference to NW Europe exploration and production, from its early life as an emerging world class petroleum province, through to its current mature stage. The previous conference opened the door to embracing selected other areas of the world, while still maintaining the tradition of the former five preceding conferences.

The seventh conference, entitled: 'Petroleum Geology: from Mature Basins to New Frontiers', while also staying true to its roots, was a truly international conference, with sessions encompassing many of the petroleum provinces of the world, that is: Europe; Russia, the Former Soviet Union FSU and the circum Arctic; North Africa and the Middle East; and Passive Margins worldwide.

As the world seeks new energy sources, it was most appropriate to have a session dedicated entirely to unconventional hydrocarbon resources. Regular features such as a core workshop were present. In addition, innovative new features, such as the geocontroversies debates and virtual field trips, both of which are described below, enhanced what was already a well established conference format. We are confident that these proceedings volumes will continue to be the standard reference for successive generations of petroleum geoscientists.

The proceedings, in general, will follow the thematic format of the conference itself, and the majority of the papers presented in the conference appear as scientific contributions in the proceedings volumes. This preface attempts to provide an insight into the unifying themes of the conference.

The scene was set by a plenary address on 'Global Petroleum Systems' to place the various geographic-based sessions into their mega-regional plate perspective. The geocontroversies debates, mentioned above, were designed to address certain broader challenges facing society and the petroleum industry today, in contrast to the highly scientific nature of the presentations in the other sessions. The format of the geocontroversies debates was one whereby two expert protagonists presented their case: one for and one against a motion.

The three motions, one of which was presented on each of the three days of the conference, were entitled: 'This House believes that the North Se a is finished'; "This House believes that National Oil Companies NOCs are the futur e of the petroleum industry' ; and 'This House believes "Peak Oil" is no longer a concern'. Each debate was concluded with a poll in which the audience raised a yellow o r red card to indicate their support or opposi- tion to the motion.

The results were, respectively, that the North Sea is not finished; NOCs are the future of the petroleum industry; and that 'Peak Oil' is indeed with us! The debates were a great success, enjoyed by all, and set a benchmark for the future. The virtual field trips transcended all aspects of petroleum geoscience. Significant advances over recent years in geoscience data acquisition, visualization and analysis now permit the construction of detailed digital outcrop models.

In a visualization environment, these outcrop models can be viewed sequentially in 3D to simulate a geological field trip. While it is recognized that virtual field trips will not surpass the benefits of undertaking actual field work, they clearly have their place in the petroleum geoscientists' tool-kit.

Eight case studies are provided as video-clips on the accompanying DVD. More widespread use of these technologies, and associated new developments, are undoubtedly a future trend in petroleum geoscience, as the keen interest in this session demonstrated. The core workshop has been a successful regular feature of recent 'Barbican' conferences, enabling petroleum geoscientists to 'get their hands on the rocks'. This has, in large part, been due to the enthusiasm and dedication of Dr Colin Oakman.

It is most appropriate that this core workshop bears his name. Colin would have been duly proud. The core workshop focussed on reservoir sedimentology of the North Se a Basin and featured presentations by PhD students, academics and consultants that placed the reservoirs, as shown by the cores, into context. The cores illustrated a diverse range of 'classic' North Sea reservoirs.

Cores were presented from the alluvial and fluvial elastics and carbonate turbidites of the Carboniferous of the southern North Sea. The central North Sea was represented by cores from Triassic aeolian and fluvial elastics, Jurassic Fulmar Formation shoreface sandstones and Cretaceous deepwater fan deposits. The northern North Sea was represented by cores from the deltaic sequences of the Jurassic Brent group.

Europe, in particular the North Sea, has been the cornerstone of the 'Barbican' conferences over the past 35 years, as summarized in the Europe section of these proceedings volumes. This conference confirmed that a high interest in Europe continues, manifesting itsel f as the most extensive session of the conference. This is depicted in the proceedings by the themes of exploration, field development and production, and new techniques in exploration and exploitation.

The key issues addressed include small pool and high-pressure, high-temperature explora- tion, late-stage field exploitation, and field redevelopment. In addition, the North Se a has, for many years, provided copious high-quality, multidisciplinary subsurface datasets that permit tracking of plays and fields from discovery through to late life and, in some cases, rehabilitation; it is truly a world class 'laboratory' for future exploration and production activities around the world.

This aspect is comple- mented by the pioneering of emerging technologies that also have applicability around the world. The exploration theme has papers, regional, local and of a detailed case-study nature, that describe current exploration activity for small, deep pool, and complex structural and stratigraphie prospects in mature and frontier plays.

The detailed integration of seismic, well and analogue-derived technologies to better understand structural evolution and sequence stratigraphic-based depositional systems are illustrated by case examples. The field development and production theme contains papers that describe the petroleum industry's responses to the chal- lenges of low-permeability reservoirs and reservoir prediction.

Finally, the theme on new techniques in exploration and exploitation contains papers that emphasize the need for integration across the spectrum of geoscience and petroleum engineering disciplines. Papers pertaining to recent advances in petrophysics, 3D and 4D seismic applications, and the targeting of drilling and completion technologies within integrated reservoir models complete this most rewarding section in the proceedings.

For those readers searching for Atlantic margin papers in this section, these are placed more appropriately in the Passive Margins section. In this regard, we would encourage readers to look throughout the proceedings, as their particular subject of interest may be in a different section. The Russia, FSU and circum-Arctic session covered vast, diverse regions, with some complex petroleum systems, ranging in age from the Neoproterozoic to the Cenozoic.

These regions have attracted considerable interest from the petroleum industry over the past 20 years. The offshore Arctic, in particular, is perceived as a possible future world-class petroleum province with the likelihood of some new giant fields. It has, however, significant technological challenges in addition to important environmental considerations and its remoteness from markets.

The series of regional papers addresses the geology of the Arctic basins, including their tectonic origin, and proposes models for their genetic evolution. In contrast, at a field scale, this section hosts two field development papers from the north Caspian Basin: the giant Karachaganak and Kashagan fields. The North Africa and Middle East session is also strongly represented by papers addressing the regional geology.

However, in this region, the emphasis was on the search for new older and deeper plays in known areas, and conventional plays in the frontiers. The impact of recent advances in seismic technology, in providing a step-change improvement in our understanding of basins, and their possible deeper potential, was demonstrated by papers from the comparatively well known Gulf of Suez and northern Red Se a areas. Moving to a field scale, a case study of the appraisal of the Taq Taq field in northeast Iraq provides insights into the technological approaches used to model fracture systems.

The session on Passive Margins was highly popular with delegates. Passive Margins have been the mainstay of global exploration success and fast-track field development over the past 25 years. A generation of petroleum geoscientists have now spent a significant part of their careers explor- ing Passive Margins using methodologies mostly based on direct hydrocarbon indicators.

It is welcoming now to see a more holistic approach to our understanding of Passive Margins, this being a key feature of the conference and proceedings. New insights are presented and old dogmas questioned. The evolution of Passive Margins is examined using exciting new information on the deeper structure of continental margins. New models are being developed that propose, for example, multiphase rifting events and a better understanding of the role and implications of volcanics. This diverse nature of Passive Margin geodynamics has resulted in different views regarding genetic basin evolution and architecture.

This impacts our understanding of thermal history and subsequently the predicted level of maturation of source rocks. Further examples of a more holistic approach include discussion and integration of 'source to sink' concepts that address geomorphology, drainage systems, sediment supply and the influence of palaeoclimate. A principal benefit of these new approaches is a better understanding of the potential of a variety of play types, for example, deltaic depocentres.

Technology will continue to play a vital role. Papers were presented that demonstrate that improved seismic imaging techniques are having a profound effect in our understanding of the pre-salt plays offshore Angola. Will the latter mirror the conjugate margin offshore Brazil, the scene of many exciting, world class discoveries in recent years?

The comprehensive Atlantic Margin section addresses new results in understanding the sub-volcanic geology of this extensive region. We are confident that further applications of these new approaches will breathe further life into Passive Margins worldwide and unlock new, deeper play potential. Since the last conference in , there has been a significant increase in interest in unconventional hydrocarbon resources to address, in part, the world's futur e energy needs.

This has been particularly apparent in North America. It therefore appeared appropriate for this con- ference to address this important topic, and to assign a separate session devoted exclusively to unconventional oil and gas resources. These resources include oil sands, oil shale, shale gas, basin-centred gas, coal bed methane and gas hydrates.

Unconventional oil and gas resources are commonly described as continuous o r regionally pervasive and, although in-place volume estimates may be large, overall recovery is relatively low. These accumulations certainly challenge the paradigms associated with conventional resources, for example trap delineation is often problematic; reservoirs are developed in rocks formerly considered as sources and seals; and many unconventional oil and gas resources lack hydrocarbon-water contacts.

Pioneering research and technological innovation is underway. Many initiatives are focussed on North America, although other areas of the world are emerging. Aspects of this research are highlighted and complemented by some initial studies in Europe. A spectrum of different examples from various parts of the world were presented. Hungary; and the heavy oil deposits of the Athabasca Oil Sands in Canada. The geological storage of carbon dioxide is rapidly gaining recognition as an important potential method for reducing carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions in the near future.

These developments are driven by concerns to address climate change. However, these technol- ogies are expected to also have future application to the petroleum industry and other parts of the energy sector. Recent findings from current commercial carbon capture and storage projects in the North Sea and North Africa are presented, and are complemented by major research programmes in North America. The 'Seventh Petroleum Geology Conference; from Mature Basins to New Frontiers', and these proceedings, owed their success to the effort s of many dedicated individuals over a considerable period of time.

We take this opportunity to thank each of them for their contri- butions, energy and enthusiasm, which have resulted in a complex job well done. We fully recognize that this success has been achieved at the same time as other competing demands for their skills and expertise.

The willingness of many companies to release proprietary datasets and concepts, a hallmark of an up-to-date conference and scientific publication, is also gratefully acknowledged. We believe that the highest scientific standards have been attained in line with the tradition of the 'Barbican' conferences and proceedings of the past.

In particular, we thank all members of the PGC VII Board, Organizing Committee, and Technical Committee, the latter as convenors for the conference, and subsequently as authors, referees and editors for the proceedings volumes. It has been an honour and a privilege to work with them.

We also thank all our sponsor companies and universities for their support, whether this has been through direct funding, o r indirectly through the provision of their staffs' valuable time. Finally, we thank the staff of The Geological Society Publishing House for preparation of a publication that will stand the test of time.

We hope and trust that you, the reader, will enjoy the proceedings and use them extensively as a scientific standard reference, both as a book on your bookshelf and digitally on your desktop, in the global search for, and exploitation of. Bernie Vining and Stephen. Global petroleum systems in space and time. MAY, 1 R. Box ,. TX ,. Abstract: Each of the Earth's approximately sedimentary basins is a unique result of geologic, hydrologie, atmospheric and biologic processes.

The interaction of these processes results in complex histories that are palaeo- geographically linked within tectonic provinces. Process-based genetic analysis provides the fundamental frame- work for predicting the distribution and character of petroleum systems. New technologies enable die exploitation of this predictability and are themselves the origin of new ideas and improved systems understanding. Petroleum geoscience embraces both forward modelling of processes as well as observation, calibration and inverse model- ling.

This approach of forward and inverse modelling promotes a general scientific methodology of simulation, prediction, testing and learning that allows us to describe the genetics of sedimentary basins. Genetic analysis can be applied to the spectrum of resource types from hydrocarbon to groundwater to mineral systems and across the range of scales from regional to play to prospect. Like die study of evolution through the fossil record, fundamental characteristics of petroleum systems can be recovered from the patterns of their distribution widiin the framework provided by plate motion, palaeogeography and palaeoclimate.

These fundamental drivers control regional tectonics, subsidence,fillhistory and deformation that result in the phenotypic expression of indi- vidual basins and their fluid systems. Genetic analysis results in a taxonomic hierarchy that facilitates prediction and guides resource exploration.

Although genetic analysis provides a framework for understanding the distri- bution and nature of petroleum systems, that framework itself is insufficient to address the challenges now facing the petroleum industry. New technologies are required to enable exploration in frontier settings, to identify new opportunities in mature basins, to maximize recovery from existing fields, and to unlock the potential of unconventional resources. Future success in all of these areas is fundamentally dependent on our ability to conceptualize new ideas.

Keywords: basin, petroleum system, palaeogeography, plate reconstruction, play element, genetic, tectonics, hydrocarbon. The objectives of this paper are threefold. Firstly, to provide a perspective on global petroleum systems including the global experience base and genetic thinking at a variety of scales from plates to pores.

Secondly, to address the role of technology both in supporting identification of new opportunities and in maximizing value of existing assets, and thirdly to introduce the themes of the 7th Petroleum Geology Conference. Our industry is currently facing a number of challenges. The impact of such dramatic price fluctuation is clearly reflected in the news headlines.

During the summer of , many companies were announcing major new projects in what had been economically challenged opportu- nities such as Canadian tar sands. In the past few months, many of these same companies have announced decisions to delay o r defer these same projects. The asset portfolio of many major international oil companies is evolving through the inclusion of new asset types and a changing dis- tribution of asset classes. To some degree, this has always been the case in our industry.

For example, the same comments were made when the industry evolved from dominantly onshore in the s- s to including significant offshore operations in the s. The move into very deep water in offshore West Africa. Gulf of Mexico and elsewhere in the s is another example.

Now, as exploration for conventional hydrocarbons becomes increasingly challenged, the asset portfolio includes more and more hydrocarbon resources associated with what a decade ago were largely considered economically and technically unattractive opportunities. The primary objective for most exploration activities is profitable acquisition of the best quality resources available. Recognizing both the difficulty in prediction of the price environ- ment and the long-term nature of our projects, our industry has always relied on the development of new technology to make these resources profitable.

Technology itself, however, presents an increasingly demanding challenge. Although Moore's law related to the expo- nential increase in the number of transistors placed on an integrated circuit is the most commonly cited example, many technologies exhibit this behaviour. Examples in our industry include LNG train capacity, heavy oil recovery, and controlled source electro- magnetic imaging performance.

The pace of technology develop- ment demands that companies are actively engaged in technology innovation just to keep up with the rapidly changing technology landscape. A large number of organizations within our industry are now facing a demographic challenge that has been referred to as the 'crew change'.

The experience profile of these organizations includes a large population of staff nearing retirement age, followed by an underrepresented population of 32 year olds, and then a population of young staff with limited experience. This has led to significant activity associated with efforts to capture and transfer knowledge within organizations.

Our industry has always faced challenges such as these and will continue to be faced with new challenges in the future. Success in. DOI: Published by the Geological Society, London. From a business perspective, these principles might include such things as profitable volumes growth, operations integ- rity, effective knowledge transfer and commitment to research and development.

In addition to these extrinsic challenges, we are continually faced with the intrinsic challenges associated with sedimentary basins and their petroleum systems. All basins are unique. They represent complex systems with long histories involving multiple agents, numerous non-linear processes, feedback and emergent behaviour. Our ability to image, sample and measure these systems is limited, yet business success is dependent on our ability to predict the distribution and characteristics of these systems and, most importantly, how they will produce.

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Macready and F. Thompson eds. Sigismund Nielsen eds. The Society of Context.

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HAMTEC INVESTMENTS IN THE PHILIPPINES

Rodriguez, G. Can stratigraphie plays change the petroleum exploration outlook of the Netherlands? Van Hulten. Field Development. Laggan; a mature understanding of an undeveloped discovery, more than 20 years old. Gordon, T. Younis, C. Managing the start-up of a fractured oil reservoir: development of the Clair field, West of Shetland. Witt, S. Fowler, R. Kjelstadli, L. Draper, D. Overcoming multiple uncertainties i n a challenging gas development: Chis wick Field.

The Ensign enigma: improving well deliverability in a tight gas reservoir. Purvis, K. Overshott, J. Maximizing production and reserves from offshor e heavy oil fields using seismic and drilling technology:. Hampson, S. Locating the remaining oil i n the Nelson Field C. The Buzzard Field: anatomy of the reservoir from appraisal t o production.

Ray, S. Pinnock, H. The Scott Field: revitalization of a mature. Gray, J. Urruty, L. Ben-Brahim, J. UK SNS. Brook, J. Wardell, S. Predicting production behaviour from deep HPHT Triassic reservoirs and the impact of sedimentary architecture.

Kape, O. Diaz De Souza, I. Bushnaq, M. Quin, P. Zweigel, E. Eldholm, O. Hansen, K. An ol d field i n a new landscape: the renaissance of Donan. Reekie, E. Davies, N. Hart, A. Mclnally, J. Todd, J. McAteer, L. A road map for the identification and recovery of by-passed pay.

Hampton, H. Role of the Chalk in development of deep overpressure in the Central North Se a. Swarbrick, R. Lahann, S. Investigating fault-sealing potential through fault relative seismic volume analysis J. Dutzer, H. Rushmere, M. Dyce, S. Applying time-lapse seismic methods to reservoir management and field development planning at South Arne,. Danish North Sea. Herwanger, C. Schi0tt, R. Frederiksen, F. If, O. Wold, H. Seismic imaging of variable water layer sound speed i n Rockall Trough, NE Atlantic and implications for seismic surveying i n deep water Jones, C.

Sutton, R. New aeromagnetic and gravity compilations from Norway and adjacent areas: methods and applications O. Olesen, M. Ebbing, J. Gellein, L. Gernigon, J. Koziel, T. Lauritsen, R. Andersen, F. Jakobsen, L. Pascal, M. Sand, D. Maynard, A. Fraser, M. Allen, R. Tectonic history and petroleum geology of the Russian Arctic Shelves: an overview.

Drachev, N. Assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources of the north and east margins of the Siberian craton north of the Arctic Circle. Klett, C. Synchronous exhumation events around the Arctic including examples from Barents Se a.

Offset and curvature of the Novaya Zemlya fold-and-thrust belt, Arctic Russia. Scott, J. Howard, L. Guo, R. Charging the giant gas fields of the NW Siberia basin. Fjellanger, A. Barboza, L. Burshtein, M. Session: North Africa and Middle East. Middle East and North Africa: overview. From Neoproterozoic t o Early Cenozoic: exploring the potential of older and deeper hydrocarbon plays across.

North Africa and the Middle East. Craig, D. Grigo, A. Rebora, G. Palaeohighs: their influenc e on the North African Palaeozoic petroleum systems. Eschard, F. Braik, D. Bekkouche, M. Ben Rahuma, G. Desaubliaux, R. Stratigraphie trapping potential i n the Carboniferous of North Africa: developing new play concepts based on integrated outcrop sedimentology and regional sequence stratigraphy. Morocco, Algeria, Libya. Lubeseder, J. Redfern, L. Integrated petroleum systems and play fairway analysis in a complex Palaeozoic basin: Ghadames-Illizi Basin,.

North Africa. Dixon, J. Moore, M. Bourne, E. Dunn, D. Haig, J. Hossack, N. Roberts, T. Biostratigraphy, chemostratigraphy and thermal maturity of the A1-NC exploration well in the Kufra Basin,. SE Libya. Liining, N. Miles, T. Pearce, E. Brooker, P. Barnard, G. Exploring subtle exploration plays in the Gulf of Suez. Dancer, J. Collins, A. Beckly, K.

Johnson, G. Campbell, G. The hydrocarbon prospectivity of the Egyptian North Red Se a basin. Gordon, B. Hansen, J. Scott, C. Hirst, R. Graham, T. Grow, A. Spedding, S. Fairhead, L. A regional overview of the exploration potential of the Middle East: a case stud y in the application of play. Appraisal and development of the Taq Taq field, Kurdistan region, Iraq. Garland, I. Abalioglu, L. Akca, A. Cassidy, Y.

Chiffoleau, L. Godail, M. Grace, H. Khalek, H. Legarre, H. Sedimentology, geochemistry and hydrocarbon potential of the Late Cretaceous Shiranish Formation i n the. Euphrates Graben Syria. Ismail, H. Schulz, H. Wilkes, B. Horsfield, R. Dransfield, P. Session: Passive Margins. Passive margins: overview. Levell, J. Argent, A. Constraints on volcanism, igneous intrusion and stretching on the Rockall-Faroe continental margin.

White, J. Properties and distribution of lower crustal bodies on the mid-Norwegian margin. Reynisson, J. Ebbing, E. Scotchman, G. Gilchrist, N. Kusznir, A. Structural architecture and nature of the continent-ocean transitional domain at the Camamu and. Almada Basins NE Brazil within a conjugate margin setting. Blaich, J. Faleide, F. Tsikalas, R. Lilletveit, D. Chiossi, P. New compilation of top basement and basement thickness for the Norwegian continental shelf reveals the.

Some emerging concepts in salt tectonics i n the deepwater Gulf of Mexico: intrusive plumes,. Jackson, M. Source-to-sink systems on passive margins: theory and practice with an example from the Norwegian continental margin Martinsen, T. Spmme, J. Thurmond, W. Redfern, P. Shannon, B. Williams, S. Tyrrell, S. Leleu, I. Baudon, K.

Hodgetts, X. Speksnijder, P. Tyrrell, A. Souders, P. Haughton, J. Cretaceous revisited: exploring the syn-rift play of the Faroe-Shetland Basin. Tarsen, T. Tuitt, J. Underbill, J. Ritchie, H. Episodic uplif t and exhumation along North Atlantic passive margins: implications for. Japsen, P. Green, J. Bonow, E. Rasmussen, J.

New methods of improving seismic data t o ai d understanding of passive margin evolution: a series of case. Hardy, E. Querendez, F. Biancotto, S. Jones, J. WATS it take t o image an oil field subsalt offshore Angola? Ekstrand, G. Hickman, R. Thomas, I. Threadgold, D. Harrison, A. Los, T. Summers, C. Davison, S. Stasiuk, P. Intra-basalt units and base of the volcanic succession east of the Faroe Islands exemplified by. Ellefsen, L. Exploring for gas: the future for Angola. Figueiredo, L. Binga, J.

Session: Unconventional Hydrocarbons Resources. Unconventional oil and gas resources and the geological storage of carbon dioxide: overview. Bulk composition and phase behaviour of petroleum sourced by the Bakken Formation of the. Williston Basin. Kuhn, R. Shale gas i n Europe: a regional overview and current research activities H.

Schulz, B. Sachsenhof er. UK data and analysis for shale gas prospectivity. Smith, P. The Western Canada Foreland Basin: a basin-centred gas system. Boettcher, M. Thomas, M. Hrudey, D. Lewis, C. O'Brien, B. Oz, D. Tight gas exploration in the Pannonian Basin. Milota, I. Natural fractures i n some US shales and their importance for gas production. Athabasca oil sands: reservoir characterization and its impact on thermal and mining opportunities.

Resource potential of gas hydrates: recent contributions from international research and. King coal: restoring the monarchy by underground gasification coupled t o CCS. Younger, D. Geological storage of carbon dioxide: an emerging opportunity.

Senior, J. History-matching flow simulations and time-lapse seismic data from the Sleipner C0 2 plume. Differences between flow of injected C0 2 and hydrocarbon migration. Hermanrud, G. Teige, M. Iding, O. Elken, L.

Preparing for a carbon constrained world; overview of the United States regional carbon sequestration partnerships programme and its Southwest Regional Partnership Esser, R. Levey, B. McPherson, W. O'Dowd, J. Th e Technical and Editorial Committee. Steve Pickering Schlumberger, Gatwick. UK Convenor and Session Editor. Passive Margins. Tony Dore Statoil, Houston. Passive Margins and Unconventional Hydrocarbon Resource. Scot Fraser. BHP Billiton,. Houston, USA.

Graham Goffey PA Resources. Virtual field trips. James Maynard ExxonMobil International. Former Soviet Union and the Cireum-Arctic. Bryan Ritchie BP Houston. North Africa and Middle East. Session editors and other technical contributors:. Sergey Drachev, Steve Garren. Jo n Gluyas, Mark Lappin. Organising Committee:. An d with thanks to:. For help with the core workshop:. Former Soviet Union and the Cireum- Arctic. Grateful thanks are extended to the following companies for their generous sponsorship of the conference:.

Over the years, this conference series and the associated proceedings volumes, commonly known as the 'Barbicans', have provided an important reference to NW Europe exploration and production, from its early life as an emerging world class petroleum province, through to its current mature stage. The previous conference opened the door to embracing selected other areas of the world, while still maintaining the tradition of the former five preceding conferences.

The seventh conference, entitled: 'Petroleum Geology: from Mature Basins to New Frontiers', while also staying true to its roots, was a truly international conference, with sessions encompassing many of the petroleum provinces of the world, that is: Europe; Russia, the Former Soviet Union FSU and the circum Arctic; North Africa and the Middle East; and Passive Margins worldwide.

As the world seeks new energy sources, it was most appropriate to have a session dedicated entirely to unconventional hydrocarbon resources. Regular features such as a core workshop were present. In addition, innovative new features, such as the geocontroversies debates and virtual field trips, both of which are described below, enhanced what was already a well established conference format.

We are confident that these proceedings volumes will continue to be the standard reference for successive generations of petroleum geoscientists. The proceedings, in general, will follow the thematic format of the conference itself, and the majority of the papers presented in the conference appear as scientific contributions in the proceedings volumes. This preface attempts to provide an insight into the unifying themes of the conference. The scene was set by a plenary address on 'Global Petroleum Systems' to place the various geographic-based sessions into their mega-regional plate perspective.

The geocontroversies debates, mentioned above, were designed to address certain broader challenges facing society and the petroleum industry today, in contrast to the highly scientific nature of the presentations in the other sessions. The format of the geocontroversies debates was one whereby two expert protagonists presented their case: one for and one against a motion.

The three motions, one of which was presented on each of the three days of the conference, were entitled: 'This House believes that the North Se a is finished'; "This House believes that National Oil Companies NOCs are the futur e of the petroleum industry' ; and 'This House believes "Peak Oil" is no longer a concern'. Each debate was concluded with a poll in which the audience raised a yellow o r red card to indicate their support or opposi- tion to the motion. The results were, respectively, that the North Sea is not finished; NOCs are the future of the petroleum industry; and that 'Peak Oil' is indeed with us!

The debates were a great success, enjoyed by all, and set a benchmark for the future. The virtual field trips transcended all aspects of petroleum geoscience. Significant advances over recent years in geoscience data acquisition, visualization and analysis now permit the construction of detailed digital outcrop models.

In a visualization environment, these outcrop models can be viewed sequentially in 3D to simulate a geological field trip. While it is recognized that virtual field trips will not surpass the benefits of undertaking actual field work, they clearly have their place in the petroleum geoscientists' tool-kit. Eight case studies are provided as video-clips on the accompanying DVD. More widespread use of these technologies, and associated new developments, are undoubtedly a future trend in petroleum geoscience, as the keen interest in this session demonstrated.

The core workshop has been a successful regular feature of recent 'Barbican' conferences, enabling petroleum geoscientists to 'get their hands on the rocks'. This has, in large part, been due to the enthusiasm and dedication of Dr Colin Oakman.

It is most appropriate that this core workshop bears his name. Colin would have been duly proud. The core workshop focussed on reservoir sedimentology of the North Se a Basin and featured presentations by PhD students, academics and consultants that placed the reservoirs, as shown by the cores, into context. The cores illustrated a diverse range of 'classic' North Sea reservoirs.

Cores were presented from the alluvial and fluvial elastics and carbonate turbidites of the Carboniferous of the southern North Sea. The central North Sea was represented by cores from Triassic aeolian and fluvial elastics, Jurassic Fulmar Formation shoreface sandstones and Cretaceous deepwater fan deposits. The northern North Sea was represented by cores from the deltaic sequences of the Jurassic Brent group.

Europe, in particular the North Sea, has been the cornerstone of the 'Barbican' conferences over the past 35 years, as summarized in the Europe section of these proceedings volumes. This conference confirmed that a high interest in Europe continues, manifesting itsel f as the most extensive session of the conference. This is depicted in the proceedings by the themes of exploration, field development and production, and new techniques in exploration and exploitation.

The key issues addressed include small pool and high-pressure, high-temperature explora- tion, late-stage field exploitation, and field redevelopment. In addition, the North Se a has, for many years, provided copious high-quality, multidisciplinary subsurface datasets that permit tracking of plays and fields from discovery through to late life and, in some cases, rehabilitation; it is truly a world class 'laboratory' for future exploration and production activities around the world.

This aspect is comple- mented by the pioneering of emerging technologies that also have applicability around the world. The exploration theme has papers, regional, local and of a detailed case-study nature, that describe current exploration activity for small, deep pool, and complex structural and stratigraphie prospects in mature and frontier plays. The detailed integration of seismic, well and analogue-derived technologies to better understand structural evolution and sequence stratigraphic-based depositional systems are illustrated by case examples.

The field development and production theme contains papers that describe the petroleum industry's responses to the chal- lenges of low-permeability reservoirs and reservoir prediction. Finally, the theme on new techniques in exploration and exploitation contains papers that emphasize the need for integration across the spectrum of geoscience and petroleum engineering disciplines. Papers pertaining to recent advances in petrophysics, 3D and 4D seismic applications, and the targeting of drilling and completion technologies within integrated reservoir models complete this most rewarding section in the proceedings.

For those readers searching for Atlantic margin papers in this section, these are placed more appropriately in the Passive Margins section. In this regard, we would encourage readers to look throughout the proceedings, as their particular subject of interest may be in a different section. The Russia, FSU and circum-Arctic session covered vast, diverse regions, with some complex petroleum systems, ranging in age from the Neoproterozoic to the Cenozoic.

These regions have attracted considerable interest from the petroleum industry over the past 20 years. The offshore Arctic, in particular, is perceived as a possible future world-class petroleum province with the likelihood of some new giant fields. It has, however, significant technological challenges in addition to important environmental considerations and its remoteness from markets. The series of regional papers addresses the geology of the Arctic basins, including their tectonic origin, and proposes models for their genetic evolution.

In contrast, at a field scale, this section hosts two field development papers from the north Caspian Basin: the giant Karachaganak and Kashagan fields. The North Africa and Middle East session is also strongly represented by papers addressing the regional geology. However, in this region, the emphasis was on the search for new older and deeper plays in known areas, and conventional plays in the frontiers.

The impact of recent advances in seismic technology, in providing a step-change improvement in our understanding of basins, and their possible deeper potential, was demonstrated by papers from the comparatively well known Gulf of Suez and northern Red Se a areas. Moving to a field scale, a case study of the appraisal of the Taq Taq field in northeast Iraq provides insights into the technological approaches used to model fracture systems.

The session on Passive Margins was highly popular with delegates. Passive Margins have been the mainstay of global exploration success and fast-track field development over the past 25 years. A generation of petroleum geoscientists have now spent a significant part of their careers explor- ing Passive Margins using methodologies mostly based on direct hydrocarbon indicators.

It is welcoming now to see a more holistic approach to our understanding of Passive Margins, this being a key feature of the conference and proceedings. New insights are presented and old dogmas questioned. The evolution of Passive Margins is examined using exciting new information on the deeper structure of continental margins.

New models are being developed that propose, for example, multiphase rifting events and a better understanding of the role and implications of volcanics. This diverse nature of Passive Margin geodynamics has resulted in different views regarding genetic basin evolution and architecture. This impacts our understanding of thermal history and subsequently the predicted level of maturation of source rocks. Further examples of a more holistic approach include discussion and integration of 'source to sink' concepts that address geomorphology, drainage systems, sediment supply and the influence of palaeoclimate.

A principal benefit of these new approaches is a better understanding of the potential of a variety of play types, for example, deltaic depocentres. Technology will continue to play a vital role. Papers were presented that demonstrate that improved seismic imaging techniques are having a profound effect in our understanding of the pre-salt plays offshore Angola.

Will the latter mirror the conjugate margin offshore Brazil, the scene of many exciting, world class discoveries in recent years? The comprehensive Atlantic Margin section addresses new results in understanding the sub-volcanic geology of this extensive region. We are confident that further applications of these new approaches will breathe further life into Passive Margins worldwide and unlock new, deeper play potential.

Since the last conference in , there has been a significant increase in interest in unconventional hydrocarbon resources to address, in part, the world's futur e energy needs. This has been particularly apparent in North America. It therefore appeared appropriate for this con- ference to address this important topic, and to assign a separate session devoted exclusively to unconventional oil and gas resources. These resources include oil sands, oil shale, shale gas, basin-centred gas, coal bed methane and gas hydrates.

Unconventional oil and gas resources are commonly described as continuous o r regionally pervasive and, although in-place volume estimates may be large, overall recovery is relatively low. These accumulations certainly challenge the paradigms associated with conventional resources, for example trap delineation is often problematic; reservoirs are developed in rocks formerly considered as sources and seals; and many unconventional oil and gas resources lack hydrocarbon-water contacts.

Pioneering research and technological innovation is underway. Many initiatives are focussed on North America, although other areas of the world are emerging. Aspects of this research are highlighted and complemented by some initial studies in Europe. A spectrum of different examples from various parts of the world were presented. Hungary; and the heavy oil deposits of the Athabasca Oil Sands in Canada. The geological storage of carbon dioxide is rapidly gaining recognition as an important potential method for reducing carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions in the near future.

These developments are driven by concerns to address climate change. However, these technol- ogies are expected to also have future application to the petroleum industry and other parts of the energy sector. Recent findings from current commercial carbon capture and storage projects in the North Sea and North Africa are presented, and are complemented by major research programmes in North America.

The 'Seventh Petroleum Geology Conference; from Mature Basins to New Frontiers', and these proceedings, owed their success to the effort s of many dedicated individuals over a considerable period of time. We take this opportunity to thank each of them for their contri- butions, energy and enthusiasm, which have resulted in a complex job well done. We fully recognize that this success has been achieved at the same time as other competing demands for their skills and expertise.

The willingness of many companies to release proprietary datasets and concepts, a hallmark of an up-to-date conference and scientific publication, is also gratefully acknowledged. We believe that the highest scientific standards have been attained in line with the tradition of the 'Barbican' conferences and proceedings of the past. In particular, we thank all members of the PGC VII Board, Organizing Committee, and Technical Committee, the latter as convenors for the conference, and subsequently as authors, referees and editors for the proceedings volumes.

It has been an honour and a privilege to work with them. We also thank all our sponsor companies and universities for their support, whether this has been through direct funding, o r indirectly through the provision of their staffs' valuable time. Finally, we thank the staff of The Geological Society Publishing House for preparation of a publication that will stand the test of time. We hope and trust that you, the reader, will enjoy the proceedings and use them extensively as a scientific standard reference, both as a book on your bookshelf and digitally on your desktop, in the global search for, and exploitation of.

Bernie Vining and Stephen. Global petroleum systems in space and time. MAY, 1 R. Box ,. TX ,. Abstract: Each of the Earth's approximately sedimentary basins is a unique result of geologic, hydrologie, atmospheric and biologic processes. The interaction of these processes results in complex histories that are palaeo- geographically linked within tectonic provinces. Process-based genetic analysis provides the fundamental frame- work for predicting the distribution and character of petroleum systems.

New technologies enable die exploitation of this predictability and are themselves the origin of new ideas and improved systems understanding. Petroleum geoscience embraces both forward modelling of processes as well as observation, calibration and inverse model- ling.

This approach of forward and inverse modelling promotes a general scientific methodology of simulation, prediction, testing and learning that allows us to describe the genetics of sedimentary basins. Genetic analysis can be applied to the spectrum of resource types from hydrocarbon to groundwater to mineral systems and across the range of scales from regional to play to prospect. Like die study of evolution through the fossil record, fundamental characteristics of petroleum systems can be recovered from the patterns of their distribution widiin the framework provided by plate motion, palaeogeography and palaeoclimate.

These fundamental drivers control regional tectonics, subsidence,fillhistory and deformation that result in the phenotypic expression of indi- vidual basins and their fluid systems. Genetic analysis results in a taxonomic hierarchy that facilitates prediction and guides resource exploration. Although genetic analysis provides a framework for understanding the distri- bution and nature of petroleum systems, that framework itself is insufficient to address the challenges now facing the petroleum industry.

New technologies are required to enable exploration in frontier settings, to identify new opportunities in mature basins, to maximize recovery from existing fields, and to unlock the potential of unconventional resources. Future success in all of these areas is fundamentally dependent on our ability to conceptualize new ideas. Keywords: basin, petroleum system, palaeogeography, plate reconstruction, play element, genetic, tectonics, hydrocarbon.

The objectives of this paper are threefold. Firstly, to provide a perspective on global petroleum systems including the global experience base and genetic thinking at a variety of scales from plates to pores. Secondly, to address the role of technology both in supporting identification of new opportunities and in maximizing value of existing assets, and thirdly to introduce the themes of the 7th Petroleum Geology Conference. Our industry is currently facing a number of challenges.

The impact of such dramatic price fluctuation is clearly reflected in the news headlines. During the summer of , many companies were announcing major new projects in what had been economically challenged opportu- nities such as Canadian tar sands. In the past few months, many of these same companies have announced decisions to delay o r defer these same projects. The asset portfolio of many major international oil companies is evolving through the inclusion of new asset types and a changing dis- tribution of asset classes.

To some degree, this has always been the case in our industry. For example, the same comments were made when the industry evolved from dominantly onshore in the s- s to including significant offshore operations in the s. The move into very deep water in offshore West Africa. Gulf of Mexico and elsewhere in the s is another example. Now, as exploration for conventional hydrocarbons becomes increasingly challenged, the asset portfolio includes more and more hydrocarbon resources associated with what a decade ago were largely considered economically and technically unattractive opportunities.

The primary objective for most exploration activities is profitable acquisition of the best quality resources available. Recognizing both the difficulty in prediction of the price environ- ment and the long-term nature of our projects, our industry has always relied on the development of new technology to make these resources profitable.

Technology itself, however, presents an increasingly demanding challenge. Although Moore's law related to the expo- nential increase in the number of transistors placed on an integrated circuit is the most commonly cited example, many technologies exhibit this behaviour.

Examples in our industry include LNG train capacity, heavy oil recovery, and controlled source electro- magnetic imaging performance. The pace of technology develop- ment demands that companies are actively engaged in technology innovation just to keep up with the rapidly changing technology landscape.

A large number of organizations within our industry are now facing a demographic challenge that has been referred to as the 'crew change'. The experience profile of these organizations includes a large population of staff nearing retirement age, followed by an underrepresented population of 32 year olds, and then a population of young staff with limited experience.

This has led to significant activity associated with efforts to capture and transfer knowledge within organizations. Our industry has always faced challenges such as these and will continue to be faced with new challenges in the future. Success in.

DOI: Published by the Geological Society, London. From a business perspective, these principles might include such things as profitable volumes growth, operations integ- rity, effective knowledge transfer and commitment to research and development.

In addition to these extrinsic challenges, we are continually faced with the intrinsic challenges associated with sedimentary basins and their petroleum systems. All basins are unique. They represent complex systems with long histories involving multiple agents, numerous non-linear processes, feedback and emergent behaviour. Our ability to image, sample and measure these systems is limited, yet business success is dependent on our ability to predict the distribution and characteristics of these systems and, most importantly, how they will produce.

In addition, especially in basins where we have our most mature knowledge through a history of exploration and production, the realization is increasingly common that future opportunities will be more subtle. Our ability to identify opportunities associated with new hydrocarbon resources as well as to maximize the value of existing resources also relies on fundamental principles such as genetic basin analysis and improvements in technology capability.

Genetic basin analysis. Genetic basin analysis has a long and colourful history. The Rover Boys are representative of an early phase of genetic analysis. They developed an impressive understanding of global geology and hydrocarbon potential based on their wide- spread travels and fundamental field observations. Describing the history of the Rover Boys, Dave Kingston wrote: 'By the mid- s, the best-looking onshore basins worldwide had been exam- ined and surface field work had given way to a new frontier - the.

The roving days were. Although the quote from Dave Kingston carries more than a hint of sadness, the Rover Boys would reinvent themselves through a series of global studies groups and projects that were fun- damentally based on genetic analysis.

A report by Dave Kingston and others from on basin classification identified a series of 'prime genetic parameters' including basement composition oceanic o r continental , the type of past plate movement involved in basin formation divergent, convergent , the present day plate position, the number of structural or subsidence events and the number of changes in the latter.

This eventually became the King- ston basin classification that was published in 3 and used by many geologists for a number of years Kingston et al. Similarly, some organizations within our industry were very early adopters of plate tectonic theory and quickly translated it into implications for understanding and predicting basin history. For example, in Temple and Nelson wrote a report entitled 'Origin and Evolution of the Continental Margins' that concluded:.

The type. This was ! Within just a few years of the emergence of the plate tectonic paradigm, it was becoming common practice within regional studies groups to generate plate reconstructions as base maps for palaeogeography and to convolve that framework with models of subsidence and eustasy to predict the accommodation history,. This was genetic basin analysis being used as a framework to understand petroleum systems in space and time. Interestingly, even early on, the approach often addressed the entire Phanerozoic as recognition of inheritance associated with basin evolution and included more than just the region of interest as recognition of the necessity to look broadly within genetically related tectonostra- tigraphic provinces.

During the s and s, major advances were made in petroleum systems analysis that, when linked with genetic basin analysis, provided the foundation for modern approaches to under- standing and predicting the time-space distribution of petroleum systems. For example, Waples drawing from the earlier work of Lopatin described the time-temperature behaviour of conversion of kerogen into liquid hydrocarbon and showed how this could be predicted from burial history.

Genetic basin analysis : overview. Now, genetic analysis embraces a full systems approach that addresses the fundamental processes associated with how basins form, fill and evolve Fig. This evolution includes both the rock and fluid systems and the goal is to identify the simple patterns that underlie fundamental relationships that in turn provide pre- dictability.

The process of genetic analysis causes one to move from a collection of observations such as simply listing the ages of play elements on a single chart to a systems-level understanding of the dependencies, feedback loops and inherent non-linearity. This increased ability to utilize complexity provides increased insight and ability to be predictive. In addition to these aspects, genetic basin analysis also provides a framework for knowledge capture, which has been described as one of the key challenges facing our industry today and over the decade.

The fundamental process relationships provide an architecture for both understanding and predicting the behaviour of basins and their associated petroleum systems. They also imply a structure for knowledge organization that is reflected in the hierarchy from tectonostratigraphic provinces, to terranes, to basins, to basin phases, to second and higher order accommodation cycles. Data and knowledge organized this way logically supports the notion of an integrated Earth model, reinforces the lessons learned through genetic analysis, and therefore transfers data, knowledge and understanding Loutit All basins are unique yet the processes that control how basin form, fill, deform and evolve fluids are common and predictable.

These processes are ordered in a natural hierarchy that ranges from plate motion to pore and grain evolution. Plate interaction and interplate events drive intraplate deformation. Intraplate deformation creates both mountains and basins and provides a large-scale control on accommodation history.

Intraplate defor- mation also controls the timing and style of some trap types and orogenic fluid movement. Accommodation space for sediment accumulation is modified by sea-level and climate process and influences the depositional systems and stratal geometry as expressed through local palaeogeography. Stratal geometry and. Genelic basin analysis is a full-systems approach based on the fundamental processes of how basins form, fill and evolve, including bolh rock and fluid systems in order to make prediclions about the distribution and character of global petroleum systems in space and lime.

Post- depositional evolution associated with process such as burial, com- paction, fluid expulsion and deformation can modify the previously developed elements and control IIC migration Fig. This hierarchy of process provides the fundamental underpin- ning of genetic analysis and is supported by an evolving suite of concepts, methods and tools.

These include software for modelling plate motion, lithospheric deformation, subsidence, palaeogeogra- phy. These also include concepts and methods related to how basement architecture can provide controls on subsequent defor- mational behaviour, or how production, preservation and dilution control the distribution of organic-rich sediment in space and time.

These also include analytical tools such as petroleum. The value of genetic basin analysis is enhanced through advanced visualization and informatics technology and though a commitment to knowledge capture and knowledge organ- ization as described previously.

As a basin forms and fills it is influenced by a variety of Earth processes and 'inherits' characteristics from all stages of its devel- opment. Even though all basins are unique due to the complex combination of these inherited characteristics, the Earth processes are common and therefore predictable. They possess characteristics that permit recognition with incomplete loca l data because of their predic- tability from global and regional patterns.

Fluid flow. Intraplate deformation. Trap style. X architectur e. Advanced visualization. Knowledge capitalization. Hierarchy of processes associated with genetic basin analysis. Fundamental controls. Plate tectonic. Derivative controls. Play elements.

Basin audit. Oenelic analysis summary chart. The viability of petroleum systems is a result of the combinations through time and space of these fundamental processes. A genetic analysis summary chart as shown in Figure 3 is one tool for cap- turing data and knowledge to assess and predict play element distribution, quality and hydrocarbon potential.

This chart is orga- nized to reflect the hierarchy of processes represented through fundamental controls such as plate tectonic environment, intraplate deformation and palaeoclimate. In this view, the latter are treated as an audit of the predictions from genetic analysis. Building a summary chart in this way from left to right forces the mindset of genetic analysis and involves investigation of inter- actions between processes, feedback, non-linearity and emergent behaviours.

This is a fundamental difference between genetic analysis and petroleum systems analysis as described by other authors where the summary chart is a series of columns for play elements against time e. Taking the analogy with genetics a step further, the basin o r pet- roleum system genotype is expressed through the temporal convo- lution of processes such as palacolatitudc v. The phenotype. For example, the Gippsland Basin offshore Australia is a basin with relatively simple genetics, and the creaming curve was nearly vertical in the late s as the large structures with good top seal were all drilled over a short period of time.

The main plays in the basin were tested and developed in a relatively efficient manner with about total wells for a cumulative in-place volume of about seven billion oil equivalent barrels GOEB. This is in sharp contrast to the Gulf of Mexico, wit h a creaming curve that climbed more or less steadily from to This is a basin with a complex genetic history, including mul- tiple basin phases, a complex distribution of stacked play elements and salt tectonics.

The continued exploration success in this basin has been enabled by numerous technology advances in both the geoscience and engineering domains. Generally, one would have to pass through at least two intervening spaces, Houses usually a vestibule and a corridor, to reach the main The houses at Palaikastro show several clear trends.

We room FIG. House N. Often the stairway was identify main rooms in houses by size, ornamentation offered as a choice from the corridor, at the same spatial and finds. At Palaikastro these are often located away depth as the main room itself.

Plan of south-eastern portion of excavated remains at Palaikastro Roussolakkos. Some houses had storerooms which were more easily cases of a single or double set of rooms, often with reached from the vestibule, and hence the street, than benches, which may have been storerooms and which from the main room itself see Thaler for this only communicate with the street.

One example, feature generally in Neopalatial houses. Block O, to —3, The distribution of Town Palaikastro Halls, one each in Blocks B, D, G and S, in It is unclear to what extent the layout of the town is each case probably accompanied by a lustral basin due to actual town-planning as opposed to controlled certain in B and G; in D reoccupation in LM III has agglutination.

We do not know what the town may have obscured the earlier remains, and S was only partially looked like in MM II, or indeed in EM, though the preserved and excavated supports this idea. Building remains of a large structure dated to MM II below Block 6, with the only Minoan Hall yet known from the site, X suggest that Main Street did not exist yet in its later would present an earlier version of this organisational form, or did not extend that far it was found to the pattern, as the hall went out of use early in LM IA, west in a trial between Blocks D and M; Hatzaki in before the Palaikastro Halls were built.

MacGillivray, Sackett et al. Though no hall was found, Block E produced regularly found below the later buildings, but only from evidence for extensive food preparation on a scale limited tests and whether, for example, building lots appropriate for at least an entire block, including one were fully occupied remains unknown.

A wine-press was also found, just inside the the boundary of the streets, but also ornament the streets doorway visible on the left in FIG. In fact, given the uniformity of the not only utilitarian; the agrimi rhyton Bosanquet et al. It is likely that the streets of Palaikastro were as noteworthy to their contemporaries as they are to visitors and archaeologists today, and their maintenance over such a stretch of time indicates their importance to whatever sort of civic pride was shared by the inhabitants.

As mentioned above, the presence of blocks along Main Street is the most immediate and striking feature of housing distribution at Palaikastro, and although Whitelaw suggests simply that buildings grow smaller and less elite the further they are from Main Street, this is not exactly the case.

As noted, there are smaller units within the blocks. Building 1 the furthest excavated building to the north , Block X 1—17 the furthest excavated building to the east , and House N the furthest fully excavated building to the west are all large; Building 1 and Block X 1—17 both had extensive ashlar.

Block K, at the far west of the old excavations not on plan was described as having larger than normal rooms, and contained bronzes Bosanquet et al. Side street D—G, looking towards Main Street For one thing, the location of the actual centre of backfilled reproduced with permission of the British Palaikastro is not certain. It was thought to be along School at Athens.

In fact the centre may have been to the south and taking place inside the houses, with the two interfacing east of Block X, where recent geophysical work has through the transitional spaces, vestibules and indicated substantial building remains. Wherever Also, if these blocks were units organised around the ultimate central locus of the public activity sphere extended families or clan groups or subdivided as was, what is significant at Palaikastro is that the street families grew in a matri- or patrilocal system we might system, or much of it anyway, belonged to this public expect to find such large structures more widely sphere.

This is in sharp contrast to towns such as Zakros, distributed; in fact it would be almost required by that Petras, Pseira, Mochlos and Gournia. The entire defined by Whitelaw , 26 fig. In so far between residences. Only the road connecting the palace as we believe the excavated sample, while elite, is not with the harbour stands out and this road is lined with with a few exceptions public, we must identify what industrial rather than residential buildings.

Such non-resident interaction has been Synthesis: house and town linked to growth, innovation and the building of strong trans-spatial i. This may also facilitate and encourage movement through the town. In any case the street system itself becomes a discrete spatial entity. The variation in spatial organisation seen in the houses The character and appearance of this street system are and town centres at Palaikastro and Zakros is echoed the result of a considerable expenditure of energy and by divergent patterns of settlement in the region.

The were maintained over a considerable length of time. This arrangement, with a central building near Sanders , 60—1 discusses various categories of the top or most visible point of a hill, surrounded by spatial boundaries, including smell and audibility zones. It may be that the main which imitation or emulation, and examine what sort buildings at each of these satellite settlements are of concerns or realities elite behaviour tends to reflect.

Such funda- ideological basis for defining the society itself. Social mental differences in the structural and organisational production is concerned with functional, economic principles of sites in close geographic proximity have practicalities — primarily production and distribution been noted before; McEnroe , —8 , for example, of food, shelter and other necessities.

Social sees significant variation in local architectural styles reproduction is concerned with belief systems, elite between the towns of Pseira and Gournia, and Driessen styles, myths and cosmologies. Interestingly, aspects of material culture in Bronze Age Crete that show the greatest similarities tend to Synthesis: divergence as strategy be concerned with social reproduction, while those which show variation tend to be involved There are many possible reasons for such divergence, with social production.

Palaikastro was Uniformity in the categories of social reproduction simply richer and economic focus. Perhaps areas with and social production can be seen as measures or an agricultural economic base are more likely to use indexes of centralised authority. In particular, ashlar masonry or have larger or more elaborately built standardisation of modes of social production signals private homes, but with a more widely distributed deep organisational penetration by such a centralised settlement pattern, like Petras, while port towns tend authority.

The strong local character of modes of social to be nucleated, with smaller, simpler houses, like production in the sites under consideration suggests Zakros, Pseira or Gournia, and towns like Palaikastro that there was no foundational or lasting island-wide which have a more mixed economic base show signs of organisational penetration, and hence no foundational both.

The presence of large mansions at Palaikastro or lasting island-wide centralised authority. Whatever the causes, these variations are best seen The sites under consideration manifest local agency as different strategies being enacted at each site, having in spatial organisation, but those agents symbolically to do with both the application and exploitation of demonstrate and draw power from participation in a resources. That these strategies are being enacted at each larger, centralised ideology.

Divergence in resource site by some kind of local elite, as opposed to being exploitation and distribution is the result of differing imposed from outside, is suggested by the extent and strategies of social production, enacted by the deep-rootedness of variation.

For example, Palaikastro mechanism of a linked system of social reproduction. Is it simply, as often assumed, that elite behaviour massive structure partially revealed below Block X 1— reflects the means by which they establish and retain The Siteia basin seems to have had defensive power? Or does it have more to with the transmission concerns driving settlement locations from at least MM of that status?

IA, if not before Tsipopoulou , These variations resulting from local agency must be seen against the backdrop of Minoan material Elite behaviour culture, which itself demonstrates a coherent sense of Recent studies of leadership and succession in elite island-wide cultural identity primarily focused on contexts Pina-Cabral and Pederoso de Lima manifestations of status. Seals, for example, were similar in form or foundation of that status. Inscribed seals are few in number, confined to time and energy, and is linked not to their actual MM II—III, and apparently did not bear names or titles.

To imagine that king-lists, land sale arable land, law or custom usually provides for familial documents, myths, etc. In these societies credibility, since virtually all literate cultures which kept elite self-representational activities will be conservative such lists and stories on perishable materials also used and focus on tradition and continuity. If we had survival and advancement in the present, as this depends no papyrus from Egypt, we would be in no doubt of on the ability to manipulate labour, and to extract and the political system, the importance of the pharaoh, the distribute the produce of the land, but because tradition, relationship of various elites to the pharaoh or the gods, in the sense of familial inheritance of land rights, is and we would still have been able to translate the essential for the transmission of elite status.

Such a pirate meaning and were perhaps in some cases narrative. If ethic can perhaps be seen in the Shaft Grave culture of seals one thinks particularly of the gold rings did mainland Greece. The communication or manifestation of elite status If elite status was transmitted via membership of a can be read in the iconography, particularly seal motifs group identified through a closed system of and frescoes, but also in decorative styles on pots, and communication even if the entire society could read other artefacts and even in certain architectural forms.

In practice, that can be said about them after approximately these elements might play a role, but the transmission years of work is that they remain mysterious. More of status, of succession, in other words, would be precisely, they remain mysterious to outsiders. This is expressed and legitimised as membership itself or usually accepted as a negative result in modern study, position within this elite group.

Some form of initiatory rather than as an actual attribute of the material itself. Communal and ceremonial families, there is no sign of competition, of one group responsibilities such as feasting or participation in trying to have a larger or more ostentatious hall. The initiatory rites would be paramount for the actual same can be said of the buildings themselves, which demonstration of elite status, and since it is likely that fall into fairly tight size groupings see Driessen and a large proportion of society if not all was included in MacGillivray , xxvii; Cunningham , 82; this socio-cultural group defined by some level of Whitelaw , 20—1, —7; despite variations in size participation, including observers , membership in the calculations, the pattern of size groups is clear.

This core elite would have to be transmitted by reaching a is perhaps even more evident when considering the higher stage of knowledge, rights and obligations. These comparative sizes of whole blocks FIG. Gournia, stages would of course need to be defined and the while having far smaller houses, likewise shows a passage through them ceremonially marked. He has found much of specific elite individuals, families or factions, and the evidence, particularly in hairstyles, for initiatory stages focus on community and communal functions in the and rites but see also Harrison ; although primarily iconography.

Though some either by citizenship in a highly organised and competition is no doubt inevitable in human societies, bureaucratically controlled state, or by relationship or in Minoan Crete competition may have been dependence to a hereditary, family-based system of deliberately obscured.

Similar trends in social behaviour nobility branching down and out from a central are well known in Greece from ancient times to the monarch. There is also no sign of an occupation-based recent past the Classical concept of choregia, as well caste system that could provide such cohesion. Further- as the apotropaic avoidance of ostentation particularly more, as initiation generally serves to extract the strong in villages , and may be partly a result individual from familial ties and responsibilities and then of environmental factors and the need for cooperation reinsert that individual into a system of social ties and at the village level.

Even in periods communal tombs seem not to have been strictly family- with more variation in drinking vessels for example based; if they were, they did not announce the fact. However, smaller versions of such proportions. Even if we are missing the few metal or spaces are known, whether or not they could actually stone drinking vessels that might indicate some kind of be considered public; more probably they were confined hierarchy, these were decorated in the same styles and to a particular faction or group.

These are the various with the same motifs as the ceramic vessels. But the effect and implications of allowing or the instances where the LM I buildings were sufficiently endowing such similarity between ceramic and metal preserved suggests that they are local variations on the vessels has not been considered. It would be easy to Minoan Hall Driessen and had some important make metal vessels in unique forms and with unique ritual purpose. If these blocks or mansions represent different egalitarian, rather that the elite needed to express their elite sub-groups or factions, or even if the main houses status in these ways so as to ensure control of succession.

Plan of Palaikastro Roussolakkos with Blocks shaded in. IA period. The establishment and maintenance of amount of construction. What is more significant is the public works and spaces such as the street grid at number of changes that affect the use of a given building Palaikastro would then be possible without a strong plot, and the lack of continuity of building—more often centralised political authority, even at the local level.

Land ownership In addition to the aforementioned building pro- or rights to yields might well be channelled through an gramme, the architectural styles of two new buildings, ideologically-based system of privileges and obligations, Building 1 and Block X 51—66, while resembling each and not explicitly recorded.

What of land ownership, or rights to building lots, Furthermore, it is during this period either late in LM within a town centre? Our best evidence comes from IA or, more likely, LM IB that the Palaikastro Halls, a instances of new construction or reconstruction that local elite innovation, are built, and the one Minoan deviates from previous use of the building plot.

While Hall so far known from the site goes out of use. It is what evidence we have from Palaikastro suggests general possible that such a building programme represents a continuity from MM II to MM III, the latter part of shift in both the basis of and strategies for the the Neopalatial period, particularly the end of LM IA perpetuation of elite status — perhaps the rise of a and LM IB seems to have been a time of much new new elite, or new ways for the old elite to demonstrate building and changes in layout; although, as noted above, their position.

Such a shift has been suggested recently the streets maintain continuity. This would fit quite well with the spatial layout of the houses and Palaikastro in LM I town as formulated above, which is itself indicative of a newly complex social matrix which perhaps Following a devastating seismic event at the end of MM necessitated or was embodied by the proliferation of IIIB Knappett and Cunningham and continuing transitional spaces; as Hillier has suggested , 22 , until the final LM IB fire destruction, we see at such spaces are where trans-spatial boundaries, such Palaikastro a series of changes in the built environment.

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