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The stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW were found to be 10 and 0. Pyrolysis of waste tyres: A review. The most common reactors used are fixed-bed batch , screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed. The key influence on the product yield, and gas and oil composition, is the type of reactor used which in turn determines the temperature and heating rate.

Tyre pyrolysis oil is chemically very complex containing aliphatic, aromatic, hetero-atom and polar fractions. The fuel characteristics of the tyre oil shows that it is similar to a gas oil or light fuel oil and has been successfully combusted in test furnaces and engines. Upgrading tyre pyrolysis products to high value products has concentrated on char upgrading to higher quality carbon black and to activated carbon. The use of catalysts to upgrade the oil to a aromatic-rich chemical feedstock or the production of hydrogen from waste tyres has also been reported.

Examples of commercial and semi-commercial scale tyre pyrolysis systems show that small scale batch reactors and continuous rotary kiln reactors have been developed to commercial scale. A distinct chemical diversity was discovered in the interstitial glass in terms of silica content defined as low and high silica glass end members. Cu, Pb and Ba behave as incompatible elements since they have been markedly characterized as part of polymetallic alloys and insignificantly sulfides in the form of spherical metallic inclusions associated with tracer amounts of other elements such as Sb, Sn, Ni, Zn, Al, P and Si.

In contrast, an appreciable amount of Zn is retained by zinc-rich end members of spinel and partially by melilite and silica glass. Chromium exhibits similar behavior, and is considerably held by Cr-rich spinel. The intense incorporation of Zn and Cr into spinel indicates the very effective enrichment of these two elements into phases more environmentally resistant than glass.

There was no evidence, however, that Cu and Pb enter into the structure of the crystalline silicates or oxides that may lead to their easier leachability upon exposure to the environment. MSW management for waste minimization in Taiwan: The last two decades. Taiwan is the second most densely populated country in the world; its Taiwan's economy has grown rapidly during the last 20 years, resulting in a corresponding increase in the amount of municipal solid waste MSW.

This study describes and evaluates the municipal solid waste management system in Taiwan. The study's results indicate that the amount of MSW began to decline after , when the government enforced aggressive MSW management policies. The second most important factor was the policy of extended producer responsibility, which laid a foundation of recycling by producers and retailers and promoted public recycling.

Pyrolysis of waste tyres: a review. Approximately 1. However, there is growing interest in pyrolysis as a technology to treat tyres to produce valuable oil, char and gas products. Syngas obtained by microwave pyrolysis of household wastes as feedstock for polyhydroxyalkanoate production in Rhodospirillum rubrum. The massive production of urban and agricultural wastes has promoted a clear need for alternative processes of disposal and waste management.

The potential use of municipal solid wastes MSW as feedstock for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates PHA by a process known as syngas fermentation is considered herein as an attractive bio-economic strategy to reduce these wastes. In this work, we have evaluated the potential of Rhodospirillum rubrum as microbial cell factory for the synthesis of PHA from syngas produced by microwave pyrolysis of the MSW organic fraction from a European city Seville. Growth rate, uptake rate, biomass yield and PHA production from syngas in R.

The results revealed the strong robustness of this syngas fermentation where the purity of the syngas is not a critical constraint for PHA production. Microwave-induced pyrolysis is a tangible alternative to standard pyrolysis , because it can reduce cost in terms of energy and time as well as increase syngas production, providing a satisfactory PHA yield. The influence of composition and final pyrolysis temperature variations on global kinetics of combustion of segregated municipal solid waste.

The combustion of segregated municipal solid waste MSW and the resulted char from the pyrolysis process were investigated in this research. The segregated MSW that was collected and used can be divided into organic and inorganic waste materials. The organic materials were bamboo and banana leaves and the inorganic materials were Styrofoam and snack wrappings. The composition ratio of the waste was based on the percentage of weight of each sample.

The thermal behaviour of the segregated MSW was investigated by thermo gravimetric analysis. The activation energy of the raw materials is relatively lower than that of the char. The higher the final pyrolysis temperature, the lower the calorific value of char. The calorific value gradually increases with the amount of inorganic materials. Thermogravimetric characteristics of typical municipal solid waste fractions during co- pyrolysis. The interactions of nine typical municipal solid waste MSW fractions during pyrolysis were investigated using the thermogravimetric analyzer TGA.

To compare the mixture results with the calculation results of superposition of single fractions quantitatively, TG overlap ratio was introduced. There were strong interactions between orange peel and rice overlap ratio 0. The interactions of mixture experiments postponed the peak and lowered the peak value.

Intense interactions between PVC and rice, poplar wood, tissue paper, wool, terylene, and rubber powder during co- pyrolysis were observed, and the pyrolysis at low temperature was usually promoted. The residue yield was increased when PVC was blended with rice, poplar wood, tissue paper, or rubber powder; while the residue yield was decreased when PVC was blended with wool.

Pyrolysis of wastewater sludge and composted organic fines from municipal solid waste : laboratory reactor characterisation and product distribution. Sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants and organic fines from mechanical sorting of municipal solid waste MSW are two common widespread waste streams that are becoming increasingly difficult to utilise.

Changing perceptions of risk in food production has limited the appeal of sludge use on agricultural land, and outlets via landfilling are diminishing rapidly. These factors have led to interest in thermal conversion technologies whose aim is to recover energy and nutrients from waste while reducing health and environmental risks associated with material re-use.

Pyrolysis yields three output products: solid char, liquid oils and gas. Their relative distribution depends on process parameters which can be somewhat optimised depending on the end use of product. The potential of pyrolysis for the conversion of wastewater sludge SS and organic fines of MSW OF to a combustion gas and a carbon-rich char has been investigated. Pyrolysis of SS and OF was done using a laboratory fixed-bed reactor. Herein, the physical characterisation of the reactor is described, and results on pyrolysis yields are presented.

Feedstock and chars have been characterised using standard laboratory methods, and the composition of pyrolysis gases was analysed using micro gas chromatography. The corresponding lower heating value range of sampled gases were Incineration, pyrolysis and gasification of electronic waste.

The most distinctive feature of electronic waste is complexity of components and their integration. This type of waste consists of polymeric materials and has high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. The purpose of thermal treatment of electronic waste is elimination of plastic components especially epoxy resins while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases in more or less original forms.

Additionally, the gaseous product of the process after cleaning may be used for energy recovery or as syngas. Greening MSW management systems by saving footprint: The contribution of the waste transportation. Municipal solid waste MSW management constitutes a highly challenging issue to cope with in order of moving towards more sustainable urban policies.

Despite new Standards call for recycling and reusing materials contained in the urban waste , several municipalities still use landfilling as a waste disposal method. Other than the environmental pressure exerted by these plants, waste transportation from the collection points to the landfill needs a specific attention to correctly assess the whole burden of the waste management systems. Results show that the effects produced by the involved transportation vehicles are not negligible, compared to those generated by the other segments of the waste management system.

This issue is further deepened by analysing the role of transportation in an upgraded waste management system that is represented by the newly designed waste management plan of Palermo. The computed saved ecological footprint is used here for suitably comparing the environmental performances of the MSW system in both scenarios. Finally, the suitability of the EF method to address not only complete waste management plans but also single segments of the waste management system, is also discussed.

Municipal solid waste MSW as a renewable source of energy: current and future practices in China. With rapid economic growth and massive urbanization, China faces the problem of municipal solid waste MSW disposal and the pressing need for development of alternative energy.

This article provides an overview of the WTE industry, discusses the major challenges in expanding WTE incineration in China, namely, high capital and operational costs, equipment corrosion, air pollutant emissions, and fly ash disposal. A perspective on MSW as a renewable energy source in China is also presented.

With the significant benefits of environmental quality, the reduction of greenhouse gas GHG emissions, and government policies and financial incentives as a renewable energy source, WTE incineration industry is expected to experience significant growth in the coming decade and make greater contribution to supplying renewable energy in China.

Copyright Elsevier Ltd. This information will be Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAH formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass.

In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Co- pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic analysis of organic food waste and plastic. In this work, typical organic food waste soybean protein SP and typical chlorine enriched plastic waste polyvinyl chloride PVC were chosen as principal MSW components and their interaction during co- pyrolysis was investigated.

Results indicate that the interaction accelerated the reaction during co- pyrolysis. Employing CO2 as reaction medium for in-situ suppression of the formation of benzene derivatives and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during pyrolysis of simulated municipal solid waste. This study proposes a strategic principle to enhance the thermal efficiency of pyrolysis of municipal solid waste MSW.

An environmentally sound energy recovery platform was established by suppressing the formation of harmful organic compounds evolved from pyrolysis of MSW. This particular influence of CO 2 on pyrolysis of the MSWs also led to the in-situ mitigation of harmful organic compounds e. All experimental findings in this study suggested the foreseeable environmental application of CO 2 to energy recovery from MSW together with disposal of MSW.

The study is aimed to evaluate the impact of impurities like food waste , paper, textile and especially soil on the pyrolysis of waste plastics. For this purpose, emissions, gas and liquid products from pyrolysis of waste plastics and impurities were studied, as well as the transfer of element N, Cl, S from the substrates to the pyrolysis products.

The presence of food residue, textile and paper leaded to higher gas emissions. Raster-based outranking method: a new approach for municipal solid waste landfill MSW siting. MSW landfill siting is a complicated process because it requires integration of several factors. For this purpose, first, 16 input data layers were prepared in GIS environment. Then, the exclusionary lands were eliminated and potentially suitable areas for the MSW disposal were identified.

The resulting land suitability was reported on a grading scale of from 1 to 5, which is the least to the most suitable area, respectively. Finally, three optimal sites were selected by taking into consideration the local conditions of 15 sites, which were candidates for MSW landfilling. Research findings show that the raster-based method yields effective results. Municipal solid waste MSW recycling performance, both nationally and in Florida, USA, has shown little improvement during the past decade.

This research examines variations in the MSW recycling program performance in Florida counties in an attempt to identify effective recycling programs. After reviewing trends in the MSW management literature, we conducted an empirical analysis using cross-sectional multiple regression analysis. The findings suggest that the convenience-based hypothesis was supported by showing that curbside recycling had a positive effect on MSW recycling performance.

Financial cost-saving incentive-based hypotheses were partially supported meaning that individual level incentives can influence recycling performance. Citizen environmental concern was found to positively affect the amount of county recycling, while education and political affiliation yielded no significant results. In conclusion, this article discusses the implications of the findings for both academic research and practice of MSW recycling programs.

Emission, distribution and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs during municipal solid waste MSW and coal co-combustion. The results showed that for all combustion experiments, flue gas occupied the highest proportion of total PAHs and fly ash contained more high-ring PAHs. The present study indicated that the reduction of the yield and toxicity of PAHs can be achieved by co-combustion of MSW and coal. Greenhouse gas emissions from MSW incineration in China: impacts of waste characteristics and energy recovery.

Within all process stages, the emission of fossil CO 2 from the combustion of MSW was the main contributor kg CO 2 -eq t -1 rw , while the substitution of electricity reduced the GHG emissions by kg CO 2 -eq t -1 rw. By affecting the fossil carbon content and the lower heating value of the waste , the contents of plastic and food waste in the MSW were the critical factors influencing GHG emissions of MSWI. Comparison of the GHG emissions in the six Chinese cities with those in European countries revealed that higher energy recovery efficiency in Europe induced much greater reductions in GHG emissions.

Recovering the excess heat after generation of electricity would be a good measure to convert MSWI in all the six cities evaluated herein into sinks of GHGs. Thermogravimetric and calorimetric characteristics during co- pyrolysis of municipal solid waste components. The thermogravimetric and calorimetric characteristics during pyrolysis of wood, paper, textile and polyethylene terephthalate PET plastic in municipal solid wastes MSW , and co- pyrolysis of biomass-derived and plastic components with and without torrefaction were investigated.

At the end of the active pyrolysis stage, the final mass of paper, wood, textile and PET was The PET plastic had much higher activation energy of There was a significant interaction between biomass and PET plastic during co- pyrolysis if the biomass fraction was dominant. The amount of heat required for the co- pyrolysis of the biomass and plastic mixture increased with the increase of plastic mass fraction in the mixture. Torrefaction at a proper temperature and time could improve the grindability of PET plastic.

The increase of torrefaction temperature and time did not affect the temperature where the maximum pyrolytic rates occurred for both biomass and plastic but decreased the maximum pyrolysis rate of biomass and increased the maximum pyrolysis. This study investigated GHG emissions during MSW landfilling in China under four existing scenarios and in terms of seven different categories: waste collection and transportation, landfill management, leachate treatment, fugitive CH4 FM emissions, substitution of electricity production, carbon sequestration and N2O and CO emissions.

This was due to the strictly anaerobic conditions in Scenario 1. Global sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the parameters associated with waste characteristics i. CH4 potential and carbon sequestered faction and LFG management i. LFG collection efficiency and CH4 oxidation efficiency were of great importance. A further learning on the MSW in China indicated that water content and dry matter content of food waste were the basic factors affecting GHG emissions.

Source separation of food waste , as well as increasing the incineration ratio of mixed collected MSW , could effectively mitigate the overall GHG emissions from landfilling in a specific city. While, the improvement in the LFG utilization measures had an insignificant impact as long as the LFG is recovered for energy generation.

Combustion of char from plastic wastes pyrolysis. A popular method to recycle plastic wastes is pyrolysis , where oil, gas and char can be produced. These products can be utilized as fuels because they are basically hydrocarbons. The research investigates char properties, including their performance as fuel briquettes.

Char properties, such as moisture, ash, volatile matter, and fixed carbon contents, are revealed from the proximate analysis, whereas calorific values were measured with a bomb calorimeter. Briquettes are made by mixing 4 g of char with 0. Briquettes are hollow cylinders with an outer and inner diameter of around 1. Five out of 13 char briquettes are not feasible because they melt during combustion.

Char 1 and 5 are excellent due to their highest energy release, whereas 10 show the worst performance. Effect of natural ageing on volume stability of MSW and wood waste incineration residues. Changes of mineralogical composition with the proceeding of the weathering treatment were also monitored by leaching tests. At the end of the 12 weeks of treatment, almost all the considered samples resulted to be usable without restrictions in road construction with reference to the test parameter volume stability.

Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management system--an Italian case study on the quality of MSW data. This paper analyses the way numerical data on Municipal Solid Waste MSW quantities are recorded, processed and then reported for six of the most meaningful Italian Districts and shows the difficulties found during the comparison of these Districts, starting from the lack of homogeneity and the fragmentation of the data indispensable to make this critical analysis.

These aspects are often ignored, but data certainty are the basis for serious MSW planning. An investigation was then necessary to identify new parameters in place of overall SSL. Moreover, these parameters are not only important for a waste management system performance measure, but are fundamental in order to design and check management plan and to identify possible actions to improve it. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management system - An Italian case study on the quality of MSW data.

Co- pyrolysis of polypropylene waste with Brazilian heavy oil. This study can be used as a reference in chemical recycling of plastics, specially associated with plastics co- pyrolysis. Both, thermal pyrolysis and pyrolysis in the presence of two catalytic materials basic MgO and acidic ZSM-5 zeolite was performed for all four types of polymers. Results have shown significant recovery of the monomers and valuable chemicals phenols in the case of PC and aromatic hydrocarbons in the case of HIPS , while catalysts seem to decrease the selectivity towards the monomers and enhance the selectivity towards other desirable compounds.

A design of experiment DOE based methodology was adopted in this study to investigate the effects of multiple factors and their interactions on the performance of a municipal solid waste MSW composting process. Experimental results validated the use of enzyme activities as proper indices during the course of composting. Maximum enzyme activities occurred during the active phase of decomposition. The results provided guidance to optimize a MSW composting system that will lead to increased decomposition rate and the production of more stable and mature compost.

Fate of bromine in pyrolysis of printed circuit board wastes. Behavior of Br in pyrolysis of the printed circuit board waste with valuable copper and oil recycling has been studied in the present work. Experimentally, pyrolysis of the printed circuit board waste generated approximately The cuts of the oils produced from pyrolysis of the printed circuit board waste into weighted boiling fraction were primarily light naphtha and heavy gas oil.

Approximately Essentially, no Cu-Br species was found. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste MSW and recycled plastics. Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas.

One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste MSW is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes.

In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique.

The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal but not complete improves the compacting process and results in higher heating value.

Analysis of the post-processing water uptake and compressive strength showed a correlation between density and stability to both mechanical stress and humid environment. Proximate analysis indicated heating values comparable to coal. The results showed that mechanical and moisture uptake stability were improved when the moisture and air contents were optimized. Moreover, the briquette. Life cycle assessment of pyrolysis , gasification and incineration waste -to-energy technologies: Theoretical analysis and case study of commercial plants.

Municipal solid waste MSW pyrolysis and gasification are in development, stimulated by a more sustainable waste -to-energy WtE option. Since comprehensive comparisons of the existing WtE technologies are fairly rare, this study aims to conduct a life cycle assessment LCA using two sets of data: theoretical analysis, and case studies of large-scale commercial plants. The benefits derive from an improved energy efficiency leading to less fossil-based energy consumption, and the reduced process emissions by syngas combustion.

Comparison among the four operating plants incineration, pyrolysis , gasification, gasification-melting confirms a preferable performance of the gasification plant attributed to syngas cleaning. The modern incineration is superior over pyrolysis and gasification-melting at present, due to the effectiveness of modern flue gas cleaning, use of combined heat and power CHP cycle, and ash recycling. The sensitivity analysis highlights a crucial role of the plant efficiency and pyrolysis char land utilization.

Potential development should incorporate into all process aspects to boost the energy efficiency, improve incoming waste quality, and achieve efficient residues management. Exploring social and infrastructural factors affecting open burning of municipal solid waste MSW in Indian cities: A comparative case study of three neighborhoods of Delhi.

Open municipal solid waste MSW -burning is a major source of particulate matter emissions in developing world cities. Despite a legal ban, MSW -burning is observed ubiquitously in Indian cities with little being known about the factors shaping it. This study seeks to uncover social and infrastructural factors that affect MSW -burning at the neighborhood level. We couple physical assessments of the infrastructure provision and the MSW -burning incidences in three different neighborhoods of varying socio-economic status in Delhi, with an accompanying study of the social actors interviews of waste handlers and households to explore the extent to which, and potential reasons why, MSW -burning occurs.

However, two high-income areas neighborhoods with functional infrastructure service also showed statistical differences in MSW -burning incidences. Our interviews revealed that, while the waste handlers were aware of the health risks associated with MSW -burning, it was not a high priority in the context of the other difficulties they faced.

The awareness of the legal ban on MSW -burning was low among both waste handlers and households. In addition to providing infrastructure for waste pickup, informal restrictions from residents and neighborhood associations can play a significant role in restricting MSW -burning at the neighborhood scale.

A more efficient management of MSW requires a combined effort that involves interplay of both social and infrastructural systems. Vacuum pyrolysis of waste tires with basic additives. Granules of waste tires were pyrolyzed under vacuum 3. It was obvious that with or without basic additives, pyrolysis oil yield increased gradually to a maximum and subsequently decreased with a temperature increase from degrees C to degrees C, irrespective of the addition of basic additives to the reactor.

The composition analysis of pyrolytic naphtha i. However, no improvement in pyrolysis was observed with Na2CO3 addition. Pyrolytic char had a surface area comparable to commercial carbon black, but its proportion of ash above Chemical pyrolysis of E- waste plastics: Char characterization. This work studied the disposal of the non-metallic fraction from waste printed circuit board NMF-WPCB via the chemical pretreatments followed by pyrolysis.

As a main heavy metal, the metallic Cu could be significantly removed by Subsequently, the organic-Br in the brominated flame retardants BFRs plastics could be converted into HBr by pyrolysis. The alkali pretreatment was benefit for the Br fixation in the solid char. The Br fixation efficiency could reach up to Pyrolysis process for the treatment of food waste.

After the pyrolysis process a mass balance of the resulting products, off-line analysis of the pyrolysis gas and evaluation of solid and liquid products were carried out. The gas from the pyrolysis experiments was captured discontinuously into Tedlar gas sampling bags and the selected components were analyzed by gas chromatography methane, ethene, ethane, propane, propene, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The heating values of the solid and liquid residues indicate the possibility of its further use for energy recovery.

Influence of mineral matter on pyrolysis of palm oil wastes. The influence of mineral matter on pyrolysis of biomass including pure biomass components, synthesized biomass, and natural biomass was investigated using a thermogravimetric analyzer TGA.

Pyrolysis appears to be a promising recycling process since it could convert the disposed polymers to hydrocarbon based fuels or various useful chemicals. Production and characterization refuse derived fuel RDF from high organic and moisture contents of municipal solid waste MSW. Many cities in developing countries is facing a serious problems to dealing with huge municipal solid waste MSW generated. The main approach to manage MSW is causes environmental impact associated with the leachate and landfill gas emissions.

On the other hand, the energy available also limited by rapid growth of population and economic development due to shortage of the natural resource. The RDF was produced with various organic waste content. Then, the RDF was subjected to laboratory analysis to determine its characteristic including the calorific value.

This results indicated that the RDF can be use to substitute coal in main burning process and calcinations of cement industry. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste MSW. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of wet weight could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste , VSCs were reduced Fuels from pyrolysis of waste plastic.

A large quantity of carbon containing materials, such as waste plastic, used tires, food waste , and biomass end up in landfills. These materials represent a rich energy source that is currently untapped or underutilized. Pyrolysis of a waste from the grinding of scrap tyres. The fibres that are used to reinforce tyres can be recovered as a waste in the process of grinding of scrap tyres.

In this paper beneficiation through pyrolysis is studied since the fibres are made up of polymers with a small amount of rubber because the latter is difficult to separate. The three products - gas, oil and char - obtained from the pyrolysis were investigated. The composition of the gas was analyzed by means of gas chromatography.

The oil was studied by gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. The char porous structure was determined by N 2 adsorption. In addition, the topography of the chars was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy SEM. The products resulting from the pyrolysis of the fibres were compared with those obtained from scrap rubber. Pyrolysis kinetics behavior of solid tire wastes available in Bangladesh.

The three tire wastes exhibited similar behaviors in that, when heating rate was increased, the initial reaction temperature decreased but the reaction range and reaction rate increased. The overall rate equation for the three tire wastes has been modeled satisfactorily by one simplified equation from which the kinetic parameters of unreacted materials based on the Arrhenius form can be determined. DTA curves for all of the samples show that the degradation reactions are three main exotherms and one endotherm.

Microwave pyrolysis of multilayer plastic waste LDPE using zeolite catalyst. To overcome the problem of garbage, especially plastic waste , environmental experts and scholars from various disciplines have conducted various studies and actions. One way to degrade the multilayer packaging plastic waste LDPE Low Density Poliethylene with microwave pyrolysis process by using natural zeolite catalysts.

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of temperature and time of microwave pyrolysis process by using natural zeolite catalyst to degrade the plastic waste LDPE and compare them. Pyrolysis process was done by using a closed glass reactor with a capacity of ml, operated at a pressure of 1 atm and flowed nitrogen 0. Plastic waste was LDPE, and natural zeolite was used as its catalyst.

Thermal degradation of pyrolysis of waste circuit boards was investigated by high-resolution pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry PyGC-MS and thermogravimetry TG. In helium atmosphere, the products of FR-4 waste printed circuit board were pyrolyzed at , , , , and degrees degrees C, separately, and the pyrolysis products were identified by online MS.

The results indicated that the pyrolysis products of the FR-4 waste circuit board were three kinds of substances, such as the low boiling point products, phenol, bisphenol and their related products. Moreover, under degrees degrees C, only observed less pyrolysis products. As the increase of pyrolysis temperature, the relative content of the low boiling point products increased. In the range of degrees degrees C, the qualitative analysis and character were similar, and the relative contents of phenol and bisphenol were higher.

The influence of pyrolysis temperature on pyrolyzate yields was studied. On the basis of the pyrolyzate profile and the dependence of pyrolyzate yields on pyrolysis temperature, the thermal degradation mechanism of brominated epoxy resin was proposed.

Under increasing pressure to minimize potential environmental burdens and costs for municipal solid waste MSW management, state and local governments often must modify programs and adopt more efficient integrated MSW management strategies that reflect dynamic shifts in MSW mana Incineration and pyrolysis vs. Constructional complexity of items and their integration are the most distinctive features of electronic wastes.

These wastes consist of mineral and polymeric materials and have high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. Elimination of polymeric components especially epoxy resins while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases is the purpose of thermal treatment of electronic wastes. In the case of gasification, gaseous product of the process may be, after cleaning, used for energy recovery or chemical synthesis. If not melted, metals from solid products of thermal treatment of electronic waste could be recovered by hydrometallurgical processing.

Three basic, high temperature ways of electronic waste processing, i. Application of pyrolysis to recycling organics from waste tantalum capacitors. Tantalum capacitors TCs are widely used in electronic appliances. WTCs, rich in valuable tantalum, are considered as high quality tantalum resources for recycling. However, environmental pollution will be caused if the organics of WTCs were not properly disposed.

Therefore, effectively recycling the organics of WTCs is significant for recovering the valuable parts. This study proposed an argon Ar pyrolysis process to recycle the organics from WTCs. The organic decomposition kinetic was first analyzed by thermogravimetry. The organics were effectively decomposed and converted to oils mainly contained phenol homologs and benzene homologs and gases some hydrocarbon.

These pyrolysis products could be reutilized as energy sources. Moreover, based on the products and bond energy theory, the pyrolysis mechanisms of the organics were also discussed. Finally, a reasonable technological process for products utilization was presented. This study contributes to the efficient recycling the organics before valuable material recovery from WTCs. Investigations on the recycling of oyster shells and bone waste treatment using the plasma pyrolysis technique are presented in this paper.

A arc based plasma torch operated at 25 kW was employed for the experiments. Fresh oyster shells were recycled using the plasma torch to convert them to a useful product such as CaO. Bone waste was treated to remove the infectious organic part and to vitrify the inorganic part. The time required for treatment in both cases was significantly short.

Significant reduction in the weight of the samples was observed in both cases. Biochemical, hydrological and mechanical behaviors of high food waste content MSW landfill: Preliminary findings from a large-scale experiment. A large-scale bioreactor experiment lasting for 2years was presented in this paper to investigate the biochemical, hydrological and mechanical behaviors of high food waste content HFWC MSW.

The experimental cell was 5m in length, 5m in width and 7. In the experiment, a surcharge loading of In this paper, the measurements of leachate quantity, leachate level, leachate biochemistry, gas composition, waste temperature, earth pressure and waste settlement were presented, and the following observations were made: 1 Leachate drawdown led to a gain of self-weight effective stress.

The compression strain tended to increase linearly with an increase of leachate draining rate during that two months. Pilot scale high solids anaerobic digestion of steam autoclaved municipal solid waste MSW pulp. Steam autoclaving is an efficient method for the separation and recovery of nearly all organics from MSW , yet a reliable alternative outlet for the large volume of organics produced has not yet been successfully demonstrated.

The material produced by the autoclave contains a high concentration of s A novel approach of solid waste management via aromatization using multiphase catalytic pyrolysis of waste polyethylene. A new and innovative approach was adopted to increase the yield of aromatics like, benzene, toluene and xylene BTX in the catalytic pyrolysis of waste polyethylene PE.

The BTX content was significantly increased due to effective interaction between catalystZSM-5 and target molecules i. Catalytic pyrolysis were performed in three different phases within the reactor batch by batch systematically, keeping the catalyst in A type- vapor phase, B type- liquid phase and C type- vapor and liquid phase multiphase , respectively. Total aromatics BTX of 6. Value added liquid products from waste biomass pyrolysis using pretreatments.

Douglas fir wood, a forestry waste , was attempted to be converted into value added products by pretreatments followed by pyrolysis. Four different types of pretreatments were employed, namely, hot water treatment, torrefaction, sulphuric acid and ammonium phosphate doping.

The acid and salt pretreatments were responsible for drastic reduction in the lignin oligomers and enhancement of water content in the pyrolytic liquid. Although, the content of fermentable sugars remained similar across all the pretreatments, the yield of levoglucosan increased. Pretreatment of the biomass with acid yielded the highest amount of levoglucosan in the bio-oil The acid and salt pretreatments also elevated the amount of acetic acid in the bio-oils.

Addition of acid and salt to the biomass altered the interaction of cellulose-lignin in the pyrolysis regime. Application of pretreatments should be based on the intended end use of the liquid product having a desired chemical composition. Catalytic pyrolysis of car tire waste using expanded perlite. In this study, the non-catalytic and catalytic pyrolysis experiments were conducted on the sample of tire waste using expanded perlite as an additive material to determine especially the effect of temperature and catalyst-to-tire ratio on the products yields and the compositions and qualities of pyrolytic oils NCPO and CPO.

Then, the catalytic pyrolysis studies were carried out at catalyst-to-tire ratio range of 0. The characterization results revealed that the pyrolytic oils which were complex mixtures of C 5 -C 15 organic compounds predominantly aromatic compounds and also the CPO compared to the NCPO was more similar to conventional fuels in view of the certain fuel properties.

Investigating impact of waste reuse on the sustainability of municipal solid waste MSW incineration industry using emergy approach: A case study from Sichuan province, China. China has become the largest generator of municipal solid waste MSW in the world with its rapid urbanization, population growth and raising living standard. Among diverse solid waste disposal technologies, MSW incineration has been becoming an attractive choice.

In terms of systematic point, an integrated MSW incineration system should include an incineration subsystem and a bottom ash BA disposal subsystem. This paper employed an extend emergy assessment method with several improved indicators, which considers the emissions' impact, to evaluate the comprehensive performances of an integrated MSW incineration system.

One existing incineration plant in Yibin City, Sichuan Province, China, as a case study, is evaluated using the proposed method. The study results reveal that the ratio of positive output is 1. Therefore, reuse of BA can enhance the sustainability level of this integrated system greatly. Comparatively, scenario B has the best comprehensive performance among the three scenarios. Finally, some targeted recommendations are put forward for decision-making.

Published by Elsevier Ltd. Pyrolysis of virgin and waste polypropylene and its mixtures with waste polyethylene and polystyrene. A comparison of waste and virgin polypropylene PP plastics under slow pyrolysis conditions is presented. Moreover, mixtures of waste PP with wastes of polyethylene PE and polystyrene PS were pyrolyzed under the same operating conditions.

Not only the impact of waste on degradation products but also impacts of the variations in the mixing ratio were investigated. The thermogravimetric weight loss curves and their derivatives of virgin and waste PP showed differences due to the impurities which are dirt and food residues. The liquid yield distribution concerning the aliphatic, mono-aromatic and poly-aromatic compounds varies as the ratio of PP waste increases in the waste plastic mixtures.

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 12, Numerically indexed bibliography. This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW , materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

Volume 11, Alphabetically indexed bibliography. This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW , materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

Analytical study of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in leachate treatment process of municipal solid waste MSW landfill sites. Influent and processed water were sampled at different points in the leachate treatment facilities of five municipal solid waste MSW landfill sites. The concentrations of APs were as low as those in surface waters, and no OTs were detected detection limit: 0. BPA was considerably degraded by aeration, except when the water temperature was low and the total organic carbon TOC was high.

The objective function to be minimized in each plan is the sum of the annualized capital investment and annual operating cost of all transportation, treatment and final disposal operations involved, taking into consideration the possible income from the sale of products and any other financial incentives or disincentives that may exist. For each plan formulated, the system generates several reports that define the plan, analyze its cost elements and yield an indicative profile of selected types of installations, as well as data files that facilitate the geographic representation of the optimal solution in maps through the use of GIS.

A number of these reports compare the technical and economic data from all scenarios considered at the study area, municipality and installation level constituting in effect sensitivity analysis. The generation of alternative plans offers local authorities the opportunity of choice and the results of the sensitivity analysis allow them to choose wisely and with consensus.

The paper presents also an application of this software system in the capital Region of Attica in Greece, for the purpose of developing an optimal waste transportation system in line with its approved waste management plan. The formulated plan was. The results indicate that utilization of all available Equine Reh Microwave assisted pyrolysis of halogenated plastics recovered from waste computers.

A large amount of various different liquid fractions up to The liquid fractions showed low density and viscosity, together with a high concentration of useful chemicals such as styrene up to The catalytic pyrolysis of food waste by microwave heating. This study describes a series of experiments that tested the use of microwave pyrolysis for treating food waste. Economic assessment of flash co- pyrolysis of short rotation coppice and biopolymer waste streams.

The disposal problem associated with phytoextraction of farmland polluted with heavy metals by means of willow requires a biomass conversion technique which meets both ecological and economical needs. Combustion and gasification of willow require special and costly flue gas treatment to avoid re-emission of the metals in the atmosphere, whereas flash pyrolysis mainly results in the production of almost metal free bio-oil with a relatively high water content.

Flash co- pyrolysis of biomass and waste of biopolymers synergistically improves the characteristics of the pyrolysis process: e. In all cases economic opportunities of flash co- pyrolysis of biomass with biopolymer waste are improved compared to flash pyrolysis of pure willow.

Of all the biopolymers under investigation, polyhydroxybutyrate PHB is the most promising, followed by Eastar, Biopearls, potato starch, polylactic acid PLA , corn starch and Solanyl in order of decreasing profits. Taking into account uncertainties, flash co- pyrolysis is expected to be cheaper than composting biopolymer waste streams, except for corn starch.

If uncertainty increases, composting also becomes more interesting than flash co- pyrolysis for waste of Solanyl. Only when the system of green current certificates is dismissed, composting clearly is a much cheaper processing technique for disposing of biopolymer waste. Co-cracking of real MSW into bio-oil over natural kaolin. Municipal solid waste MSW is a potential material that can be converted into bio-oil through thermal degradation process or pyrolysis.

The efficiency and productivity of pyrolysis can be increased with the use of natural catalyst like kaolin. The addition of catalyst also reduces the overall cost of conversion process. During the process 0. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS was used to analyse the chemical composition of bio fuel. It is found that bio-oil production increases substantially with the use of catalyst. It is observed that the production of bio-oil is The hydrocarbon range distribution of oil produced through pyrolysis reveals that gasoline and diesel fuel C5-C20 are its main constituents.

The functional group detected in bio-oil by GC-MS analysis is similar to that of diesel in which paraffin and olefin are major mass species. Pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste comprising polyethyleneterephthalate and polyethylene to sequentially recover. Quality improvement of pyrolysis oil from waste rubber by adding sawdust. This work was aimed at improving the pyrolysis oil quality of waste rubber by adding larch sawdust. The results indicated that the efficiency of pyrolysis was increased and the residual carbon was reduced as the percentage of sawdust increased.

The adding of sawdust significantly improved the pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs and nitrogen and sulfur compounds contents, resulting in an improvement in the combustion efficiency of the pyrolysis oil. Fundamental characteristics of input waste of small MSW incinerators in Korea. Waste incineration in a small incinerator is a simple and convenient way of treating waste discharged from small areas or from large facilities and buildings such as business centers, marketplaces, factories, and military units.

Find more information on the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated. The valorization of urban solid waste compost MSW in two different composting conditions different aeration and humidity has been studied we work with the hypothesis that the composting process can have a significant influence on a subsequent pyrolysis process. The influence of composting on subsequent pyrolysis of the material was assessed by examining the kinetics of the process, maximizing hydrogen production and minimizing the activation energy.

Using the Kissinger—Akahira—Sunose method, the activation energy values are found to be in the range of The analysis of the gases produced from the pyrolysis process revealed that hydrogen increases in concentration as composting time advances until intermediate time. In this form, the composting process could be a suitable previous treatment for improving the pyrolysis process. In fact, decreasing aeration and moisture in the MSW composting process led to the production of an increased amount of hydrogen 8.

These effects were also observed before the end of the composting process in the form of maximum hydrogen production and minimum activation energy after 20 days. Figure 1. Experimental TGA and DTG curves of the pyrolysis process of the samples collected from the composting process reactor 1: 0. Figure 2. Experimental TGA and DTG curves of the pyrolysis process of the samples collected from the composting process reactor 2: 0. Figure 3. More by Alberto Palma. More by Victor M.

More by Mercedes Ruiz-Montoya. More by Javier Mauricio Loaiza. More by Manuel J. Cite this: ACS Omega , 5 , 33 , — ACS AuthorChoice. Article Views Altmetric -. Abstract High Resolution Image. Both population growth and increased economic development have led to an increase in global energy demand and environmental degradation. Also, climate change, related to the use of greenhouse gases from fossil fuels, has stimulated the production of energy from renewable sources instead of fossil fuels.

MSW combustion for the energy recovery has some well-known problems: high moisture that they possess and atmospheric contamination by heavy metals and products of incomplete combustion, dioxines, etc. In this sense, various studies have demonstrated the viability of compost as an energy source. For the above reasons, pyrolysis is considered an effective method for obtaining bioenergy and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Biochar is a valorizable product with uses in agriculture for improving carbon sequestration capacity and the physicochemical characteristics of soil. Decreased activation energy is known to increase the energy efficiency of a pyrolytic process. In fact, activation energy is the minimum amount of energy required for the molecular bonds involved in a reaction to be broken.

As a result, low activation energy results in a faster, easier to start reaction. It is not easy to identify the operating conditions that will decrease the activation energy of pyrolysis because the process initially involves the decomposition of the compounds with the weakest linear chains such as hemicelluloses, which require only 90— kJ mol —1 20 of activation energy.

The random cleavage of such linear chains increases the proportion of cellulose present in the material and hence the activation energy by 90— kJ mol —1 according to Ma et al. There are other unexplored, highly interesting ways of using pyrolysis gases including hydrogen production. Thermogravimetric analysis TGA has proved to be an effective choice for elucidating the kinetics of a pyrolysis process and determining its activation energy.

The different techniques used as model-fitting and model-free techniques, which include or not the identification of the reaction model, with small differences in the fit parameters of the models, allow us to estimate kinetic parameters, based on the data obtained from the TGA. Therefore, for each selected conversion, an independent activation energy can be calculated. These models, for compost, with multiple chemical compounds, for each conversion different compounds may be degrading and therefore different kinetic parameters can be calculated.

To calculate the potential generated hydrogen quantities, a laboratory-scale reactor was used. A great advantage of using this method is that the thermal degradation mechanism is not required. Also, the analysis of the gases emitted during the pyrolysis process is essential to know the impact of the process on the environment and its potential as a source of bioenergy. The aim of this work was to assess the effectiveness of composting municipal solid waste MSW for its subsequent valorization by pyrolysis.

This entailed examining the influence of the composting variables on the activation energy of the pyrolysis process and the production of hydrogen as main valorizable gas. Results and Discussion. Two composting processes were conducted, as described in Section 4. Different temperature profiles in the composting process have been caused by the variation in composting conditions data not shown.

During the last phase of the composting process, the temperature profile was similar in both reactors. After 40 days of composting, the temperature of the reactors tended to equalize with the ambient temperature. The significant characterization of MSW is shown in Table 1. As expected, due to the degradation of organic matter during composting, the organic matter content was reduced during the process in all mixtures.

Table 1. Significant differences in degradation have been found because process conditions affect the amount of organic matter degraded and the temperature profile. The values of biodegradability constant of 0. In this way, higher biodegradability values have been observed under R2 composting conditions. Higher biodegradability means an improvement in organic matter mineralization, and therefore, there was a higher stability of the final components under R2 conditions.

Table 2 gives the elemental analysis of the compost samples. This composition was reported in a previous work. Table 2. As noted earlier, pyrolyzing MSW-derived compost is thought to be a more energetically and environmentally efficient process than burning the compost. Also, it is expected to allow a stable material such as compost, which is difficult to market but must be exploited or properly disposed of according to European laws, to be valorized.

It is known that the organic fraction of compost, similar to biomass, is composed mainly of three organic components: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin or derivatives. High Resolution Image. The four regions have been found for the two reactors. Also, according to Yang et al. According to Van de Velden et al. This is due to the mineralization and its corresponding losses on the different organic matter fractions that occurred during the composting process.

The inorganic constituents promote secondary reactions that cause the breakdown of higher molecular compounds to smaller ones. On the other hand, no significant difference either in temperature peaks or in maximum weight loss rate has been found between processes with different reaction conditions R1 and R2. Although the increased degree of biodegradation obtained under the set R2 of operating conditions i.

Also, because composting costs are largely dictated by aeration, 34 R1 is more economical than R2. The evolution of E a , calculated according to eq 4 , for the process conditions studied and according to the composting time days 1, 10, 20, and 40 and its coefficients of determination R 2 are shown in Table 3. Table 3. In this table, regression results in R 2 were adequate in the range of 0. In this way, although a high R2 is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for the assumption that the weight loss can be described by a single activation energy at a particular conversion, the hypothesis that pyrolysis of compost could be modeled under a first-order reaction could be properly established.

Obviously, different activation energies can be observed among the studied conversions. This may be due to the successive breakdown and volatilization of compost components of different reactivities, as suggested by Figures 1 and 2. Activation energy depended to a greater extent on the number of days of composting, probably because the progress of the composting process changed the strength of the molecular structure.

It can be due to the high hemicellulose content in the compost. In this manner, in both reactors, E a values in the compost at the end of the process day 40 have been lower than those at the beginning day 1. This may be due to the higher cellulose content at the beginning of the composting process than that found after 40 days of composting. As mentioned above, activation energy depended to a greater extent on the number of days of composting, but cellulose component degradation could mark the value of its activation energy.

The increase in ash content is the result of mineral concentration and destructive mineralization of lignocellulosic matters as the composting process progresses. As the pyrolysis reaction advances, progressively, the more recalcitrant compounds with higher E a values are decomposed. After only 20 days, which shortens the usual composting times, a product that can be used for suitable pyrolysis can be obtained because the activation energy for pyrolysis as calculated from the TGA results has decreased to a low figure.

As stated above, pyrolysis allows MSW compost to be valorized with potential economic advantages over on-site burning of the waste for energy production. The aim was not only to boost hydrogen production by pyrolysis but also to decrease the activation energy of the process to increase its energy efficiency.

Figure 3 shows the variation of hydrogen production with the pyrolysis activation energy. In this sense, H 2 concentration evolution in the gas obtained under both composting processes for medium day 20 and high day 40 composting time with respect to initial composting time is found and, in fact, represents a significant increase. At the beginning of the composting process, hemicellulosic compounds are degraded. This causes a relative increase in cellulose and lignin concentrations.

It is known 38 that these compounds have the main responsibility in hydrogen generation during pyrolysis. In Figure 3 , in general, a negative relationship between the concentration of H 2 and E a can be noted with an exception for the 40 day compost. It is an important conclusion of our work that the suitable characteristics of a raw material, to be susceptible to pyrolysis, could be obtained with the minimum activation energy required for pyrolysis and high H 2 values in the resulting gas when the composting process was carried out at low aeration and moisture conditions and 20 days intermediate of the full process.

According to conditions in Section 2. The obtained H 2 concentrations are similar to the obtained values in another study by biomass pyrolysis. The development of the MSW pyrolysis process is strongly dependent on the conditions of the previous composting process. While an aeration rate of 0. TGA curves showed the four typical pyrolysis zones and revealed similar peaks of decomposition under both composting process conditions. No significant differences were found between the composting conditions.

However, the analysis of the gases produced from the pyrolysis process revealed that hydrogen increases in concentration as composting time advances until intermediate time. In this form, to improve pyrolysis conditions, composting could be applied as an appropriate pretreatment process.

These effects were also observed before the end of the composting process as maximum hydrogen production and minimum activation energy after 20 days. Materials and Methods. Two composting processes with different aeration and moisture content were studied in composting reactors of liters. Polyurethane foam to avoid heat loss to cover the outside of the reactor was used.

Aeration was added by compressed air and dispersed through a perforated plate at the bottom of the reactor. During the different phases of composting, water losses were measured and compensated daily to maintain the initial design conditions during the experiment. Tests in reactors were carried out in duplicate. The reactors were filled to their half 40 kg MSW to ensure suitable headspace. Samples g were taken at different locations and at different depths in the reactors.

Samples MSW were sieved and residues such as plastics, metals, stones, and glass were separated manually and weighed. Elemental composition was determined according to Milne et al. This reactor consisted of a quartz tube 10 mm diameter and cm length in a temperature-controlled furnace. The sample approximately 1 g was introduced by means of a horizontal actuator. The permanent gases were collected in 1 L Tedlar bags Supelco, Bellefonte, PA , which were placed at the end of the process line.

The maximum of hydrogen was found between 3 and 5 min of the process. Barcelona, Spain. Response factors were obtained for each of the standards in a five-point calibration curve and compared to the response factors from the samples. In its mathematical expression, the KAS method is derived from eq 1. After that, the Coats—Redfern approximation, 44 as displayed in eq 3 , was used. The conversion degrees, for E a estimations, can be selected in the differential mass loss thermograms the maximums.

The authors declare no competing financial interest. Author Information. Victor M. Manuel J. Energy Inst. Elsevier Ltd. The pyrolysis-catalytic steam reforming of six agricultural biomass waste samples as well as the three main components of biomass was investigated in a two stage fixed bed reactor.

Pyrolysis of the biomass took place in the first stage followed by catalytic steam reforming of the evolved pyrolysis gases in the second stage catalytic reactor. The waste biomass samples were, rice husk, coconut shell, sugarcane bagasse, palm kernel shell, cotton stalk and wheat straw and the biomass components were, cellulose, hemicellulose xylan and lignin.

The catalyst used for steam reforming was a 10 wt. In addn. The TGA results showed distinct peaks for the individual biomass components, which were also evident in the biomass waste samples reflecting the existence of the main biomass components in the biomass wastes. The results for the two-stage pyrolysis-catalytic steam reforming showed that introduction of steam and catalyst into the pyrolysis-catalytic steam reforming process significantly increased gas yield and syngas prodn.

For instance, hydrogen compn. Lignin produced the most hydrogen compared to cellulose and hemicellulose at The highest residual char prodn. Elsevier Science B. The structure of this group of compds. The current status on dioxin limits imposed in various countries and by various organizations is presented.

A detailed anal. Methods ii and iii are based on heterogeneously catalyzed reactions. Some researchers are considering possible homogeneous thermal reaction formation of dioxin. This review demonstrates that with the advanced modern MSW combustion systems, option i is a most unlikely route and also methods ii and iii are quite feasible.

Based on thermodn. Since even the most advanced MSW combustion systems do not produce complete combustion, predominantly because of inadequate feed prepn. These 'de novo precursors' could be carried through the combustion unit adsorbed or absorbed on particulate material such as soot and dust, but also these precursors could be formed during the cooling process by heterogeneous catalytic reactions and go on to form dioxins.

The max. This knowledge of formation rates and mechanisms provides the basis of designing combustion systems. A two stage approach is adopted; firstly, system design to achieve complete combustion and minimize formation; secondly, end-of-pipe treatment systems to remove dioxins. In the first case, combustion temp.

Elsevier B. Monitoring the efficiency of the biofiltration system was carried out using a photoionization analyzer, a com. Removal efficiency of the system was strongly dependent upon the moisture content of the packing materials. The e-nose detected a characteristic background emission odor fingerprint of each type of biofilter. Results suggest that e-nose's will become a more powerful tool for monitoring VOCs in biofiltration and composting processes in the future.

The Practical Handbook of Compost Engineering , 1 st ed. Google Scholar There is no corresponding record for this reference. Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev. Currently, the use of biomass as an energy source has received a tremendous amt. Moreover, when compared to fossil fuels, biomass fuels possess negligible sulfur concns. Biomass has a potential to be a very promising alternative source of raw material for syngas prodn.

Syngas can be produced from the gasification of a biomass. However, this process requires a significant amt. The energy consumption during the gasification process is a major constraint on the thermal efficiency and on the design of the gasifier. Therefore, a substantial improvement and the optimization of the available gasification process are very crucial in developing a sustainable utilization of these renewable natural resources.

This review article focuses on highlighting the characteristics and performances of the different types of gasifiers under variable process parameters that will affect the yields of the end products as well as the compn. The various types of models used in the simulations, the optimization of the gasification conditions and the economic evaluation of the gasification process will also be discussed. Hydrogen prodn. The gases derived from the pyrolysis of wood sawdust in the first stage were catalytically steam reformed in the second stage.

The NiZnAlOx catalysts were synthesized by a co-pptn. Zn:Al molar ratio of TPO and redn. Fine metal particles of size around nm were obtained and the catalysts had high stability characteristics, which improved the dispersion of active centers during the reaction and promoted the performance of the catalysts. The yield of gas was increased from Meanwhile, the CH4 fraction decreased from During the reaction, the crystal size of all catalysts was successfully maintained at around nm with lowered catalyst coke formation, particularly for the 35NiZn4Al catalyst where negligible coke was found and addnl.

These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days.

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Biodrying msw betting A compar- lected. Proceedings of the W. Results indicate that the interaction accelerated the reaction during co- pyrolysis. The experimental results revealed that km-w monotonically increased with the number of lifters and their height. In that 2 Total carbon and total organic carbon were statistically simi- sense, Eq.
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