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Another big issue is diversifying the peers by creating special committee and groups of validators the concept of P2P network is violated. In this paper we will describe a step by step process to implement a Hybrid PoW-PoS based consensus protocol. In our proposed system, the PoW mining process is only used to regulate the block generation time. The actual block generation is done by the same user with PoS consensus mechanism.

There is no voting or validating committee. The entire network will validate each block. This is the major difference with other discussed system. We will not only show how to make the system non-vulnerable to this attack but also describe in detail about how to validate the transactions and blocks in different stage of creating the block chain. Article :. DOI: It used a blockchain as a distributed public ledger. Other examples of cryptocurrencies include Ethereum, as well as the privacy-focused Monero and the speed-focused Litecoin.

The process of adding blocks of transactions to this chain is called mining and the nodes which participate are called miners. First, a mining node receives transactions and validates them to make sure there is no double spend, for example, spending the same funds twice in different transactions.

The nodes then bundle up a number of transactions into a block. At the end of the block, they add a transaction which gives them an amount of cryptocurrency as payment for their work. Finally, the node begins trying to mine the block into the blockchain. In the PoW process, this intentionally involves very difficult maths which is computationally expensive.

Miners compete against each other to solve the problem which adds their block and the first miner to solve the maths gets a reward of some coins. Over time one will become longer as the majority of nodes add blocks to it and the longest one is accepted as the correct version and the remaining one is abandoned.

This altcoin was introduced in and expanded the idea of a public transaction ledger from just distributed financial transactions to distributed computing. This is where nodes on the network participate in a decentralised virtual machine and use scripted functions to build fully distributed applications. Over the last four years, developers have built applications on the Ethereum network from cat-trading game, CryptoKitties, to an investment platform called the Decentralised Autonomous Organisation DAO.

But due to the scale of the hack, a majority of the nodes agreed to fork so the majority rule succeeded and Ethereum continued on its new branch. Yet from this, because a substantial number of nodes disagreed with the hard fork and continued on with the original chain, hack included, Ethereum Classic came about and the pair still exist as separate but related chains. Cryptocurrency values began to crash last year with many altcoins becoming unprofitable.

This in turn will lead to a drop in mining power, meaning less participants and less of a majority, which then led to the Jan 7th attack when an attacker exploited the drop in power. Basically, the attacker created a new reality in which they never actually sent their Ethereum Classic to the exchanges, allowing them to keep both their Ethereum Classic currency and the alternative cryptocurrency like Bitcoin, that they traded for before launching the attack. In this case, spending it once to purchase a different cryptocurrency and then regaining it to spend again.

The recipient of the original transaction has their funds stolen when the blockchain is reorganised and the transaction removed. One of the victims of this attack, Gate. Practically, the computing power needed to do this is astronomical. For this attack, mining power from a cloud provider like NiceHash could have been bought. Therefore, these attacks are a serious risk to smaller cryptocurrencies as it is economically feasible for an attacker to rent enough mining power to take many of them over.

One of the things holding them back, however, is that they are almost guaranteed to crash the value of a currency, if their value is already smaller than Ethereum Classic. An example is Ethereum, as well as others, that are moving towards a process called Proof-of-Stake, which mitigates attacks by destroying the funds the attacker is trying to steal.

Smaller currencies could still be in trouble though, because while people still put funds into new and cheaper ones in the hope of striking gold during a surge in value, there are still serious risks. Cryptocurrencies are still essentially in the realms of the Wild West and should, as a result, be treated with careful consideration. Log in with your FinTech Futures account. Your email address will not be published.

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Paytech firm ondotsys acquired by US banking tech giant Fiserv fintechfutures. Despite capital reserves drying up this year, has still enjoyed a handful of hefty fintech deals - here's a li… twitter. Connect bank operations from front to back "Improve efficiency and compliance while simultaneously lowering costs… twitter. Written by FinTech Futures 29th October Leave a comment Cancel reply -or- Log in with your FinTech Futures account Alternatively, post a comment by completing the form below:.

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Bitcoin was first launched about ten years ago and was the first example of cryptocurrency. It used a blockchain as a distributed public ledger. This book explores the fundamentals and applications of Blockchain technology; Applications, Transaction networks, Sidechains, 51% attack, Cryptocurrency. A crypto-coin with a low hashing power is always jeopardized by the 51% attack due to the easily attainable hashing. In this paper, we analyze the real impact of.